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Investigating Communication : An Introduction to Research Methods,9780205198269
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Investigating Communication : An Introduction to Research Methods

by ; ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205198269

ISBN10:
0205198260
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
10/26/1999
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $178.60

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Summary

This book provides a comprehensive, balanced introduction to communication research methods. Designed for readers who have little or no familiarity with research methods, this book helps one become a more knowledgeable and competent consumer (and limited producer) of scholarly research and of the everyday research to which they are exposed by the mass media. Praised for its accessible writing and extensive real-life examples, this book takes a step-by-step approach through the communication research process. Investigating Communication shows how communication research is conducted from start to finish, with the book's organization modeled after a traditional research study. By making the material accessible rather than impossible to learn, readers become excited about studying research methods. For anyone interested in the introductory methods of communication research.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
PART ONE CONCEPTUALIZING COMMUNICATION RESEARCH 1(78)
Introduction To The Research Culture
3(24)
The Importance of Knowing Research Methods
3(3)
Making Claims and Offering Evidence
6(2)
Everyday Ways of Knowing
8(4)
Personal Experience
8(1)
Intuition
9(1)
Authority
10(1)
Appeals to Tradition, Custom, and Faith
10(1)
Magic, Superstition, and Mysticism
11(1)
The Research Process
12(9)
Characteristics of Research
12(5)
Research as Culture
17(3)
Research as Conversation
20(1)
The Importance of Distinguishing Research from Pseudoresearch
21(5)
Conclusion
26(1)
Asking Questions About Communication
27(21)
Defining Communication
27(1)
What Constitutes Communication Research?
28(1)
Areas of Communication Research
28(2)
Basic Versus Applied Communication Research Topics
30(8)
Basic Communication Research
30(3)
Applied Communication Research
33(3)
An Integrated Model of Basic and Applied Communication Research
36(2)
Justifying Communication Research Topics
38(1)
Research Questions and Hypotheses
39(8)
Describing Communication Behavior
39(1)
Relating Communication Behavior to Other Variables
40(7)
Conclusion
47(1)
Finding, Reading, And Using Research
48(31)
Reasons for Reviewing Previous Research
48(2)
The Search for Research
50(16)
Types of Research Reports
50(6)
Finding Research Reports
56(6)
``Internet and World Wide Web Resources for Research''
62(4)
Diane F. Witmer
How Research Is Presented: Reading Scholarly Journal Articles
66(3)
A Typical Quantitative Scholarly Journal Article
66(3)
Writing a Literature Review
69(5)
Conclusion
74(5)
PART TWO PLANNING AND DESIGNING COMMUNICATION RESEARCH 79(88)
Observing And Measuring Communication Variables
81(28)
Conceptual versus Operational Definitions
81(2)
Evaluating Operational Definitions
82(1)
Measurement Theory
83(12)
Quantitative and Qualitative Measurements
83(2)
Levels of Measurement
85(9)
Measuring Unidimensional and Multidimensional Concepts
94(1)
Measurement Methods
95(4)
Self-Reports
96(1)
Others' Reports
97(1)
Behavioral Acts
98(1)
Measurement Techniques
99(8)
Questionnaires and Interviews
99(5)
Observations
104(3)
Conclusion
107(2)
Designing Valid Communication Research
109(31)
Internal and External Validity
109(2)
Measurement Validity and Reliability
111(8)
Measurement Reliability
111(4)
Measurement Validity
115(4)
Threats to Internal Validity
119(6)
Threats Due to How Research Is Conducted
119(2)
Threats Due to Research Participants
121(2)
Threats Due to Researchers
123(2)
External Validity
125(14)
Sampling
125(8)
Ecological Validity
133(2)
Replication
135(4)
Conclusion
139(1)
Research Ethics And Politics
140(27)
Ethical Issues in Communication Research
140(25)
The Politics of Academic Research
141(5)
Ethical Issues Involving Research Participants
146(15)
Ethical Decisions Involving Research Findings
161(4)
Conclusion
165(2)
PART THREE METHODOLOGIES FOR CONDUCTING COMMUNICATION RESEARCH 167(120)
Experimental Research
169(29)
Establishing Causation
169(2)
Exercising Control in Experimental Research
171(11)
Exposing Research Participants to an Independent Variable
171(4)
Ruling Out Initial Differences between the Conditions
175(3)
Controlling for the Effects of Extraneous Influences
178(4)
Experimental Research Designs
182(8)
Preexperimental Designs
183(3)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
186(3)
Full Experimental Designs
189(1)
Factorial Designs
190(5)
Factorial Design Statements and Diagrams
192(2)
Between-Group and Within-Group (Repeated-Measures) Designs
194(1)
Laboratory versus Field Experiments
195(2)
Conclusion
197(1)
Survey Research
198(27)
The Prevalence of Surveys
198(6)
Applied Uses of Survey Research
198(4)
Use of Surveys in Communication Research
202(2)
Survey Research Design
204(5)
Selecting Survey Respondents
204(4)
Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Surveys
208(1)
Survey Measurement Techniques
209(13)
Designing Questions for Survey Instruments
210(3)
Questionnaire Survey Research
213(3)
Interview Survey Research
216(6)
Using Multiple Methods in Survey Research
222(1)
Conclusion
223(2)
Textual Analysis
225(32)
Purposes of Textual Analysis
225(2)
Important Considerations in Textual Analysis
227(2)
Types of Texts
227(1)
Acquiring Texts
228(1)
Approaches to Textual Analysis
229(1)
Rhetorical Criticism
229(7)
Conducting Rhetorical Criticism
230(1)
Types of Rhetorical Criticism
231(5)
Content Analysis
236(7)
Value of Quantitative Content Analysis
238(1)
Quantitave Content-Analytic Procedures
239(4)
Interaction Analysis
243(9)
Describing Interaction and Relating It to Other Variables
243(5)
Conducting Interaction Analysis
248(4)
Performance Studies
252(4)
``Performance as a Method''
252(4)
Ronald J. Pelias
Conclusion
256(1)
Naturalistic Inquiry
257(30)
Common Assumptions Guiding Naturalistic Inquiry
258(1)
Types of Naturalistic Inquiry
259(3)
Ethnography
259(1)
Ethnomethodology
259(1)
Critical Ethnography
260(1)
Autoethnography
261(1)
The Flow of Naturalistic Inquiry
262(2)
Collecting Data in Naturalistic Inquiry
264(16)
Naturalistic Observational Research
264(9)
Interviewing in Naturalistic Inquiry
273(7)
Start Making Sense: Analyzing and Reporting Qualitative Data
280(5)
Analyzing Qualitative Data
280(4)
Reporting Findings from Naturalistic Inquiry
284(1)
Conclusion
285(2)
PART FOUR ANALYZING AND INTERPRETING QUANTITATIVE DATA 287(92)
Describing Quantitative Data
289(26)
Making Sense of Numbers: Statistical Data Analysis
289(3)
Describing Data through Summary Statistics
292(9)
Measures of Central Tendency
292(4)
Measures of Dispersion
296(5)
Describing Data in Standard Scores
301(4)
Describing Data through Visual Displays
305(9)
Frequency Tables
305(2)
Pie Charts
307(2)
Bar Charts
309(2)
Line Graphs
311(1)
Frequency Histograms and Frequency Polygons
312(2)
Conclusion
314(1)
Inferring From Data: Estimation And Significance Testing
315(21)
Estimation
316(7)
The Normal Distribution
316(2)
Use of Random Sampling
318(1)
Inferring from a Random Sample to a Population
319(4)
Significance Testing
323(11)
The Logic of Significance Testing
325(4)
The Practice of Significance Testing
329(3)
Type I Error and Type II Error
332(1)
Statistical Power
333(1)
Conclusion
334(2)
Analyzing Differences Between Groups
336(20)
Types of Difference Analysis
337(17)
Nominal Data
337(5)
Ordinal Data
342(2)
Interval/Ratio Data
344(10)
Advanced Difference Analysis
354(1)
Conclusion
354(2)
Analyzing Relationships Between Variables
356(23)
Types of Relationships
356(3)
Unrelated Variables
356(1)
Linear Relationships between Variables
357(1)
Nonlinear Relationships between Variables
358(1)
Correlations
359(10)
Correlation Coefficients
359(8)
Coefficient of Determination
367(1)
Multiple Correlation
368(1)
Partial Correlation
369(1)
Regression Analysis
369(4)
Linear Regression
370(1)
Multiple Linear Regression
371(2)
Advanced Relationship Analysis
373(3)
Conclusion
376(3)
PART FIVE RECONCEPTUALIZING COMMUNICATION RESEARCH 379(18)
Epilogue: Concluding Research
381(16)
Discussing Research Findings
381(14)
Interpreting the Meaning of Research Findings
381(8)
Identifying Limitations of the Research
389(5)
Suggesting Directions for Future Research
394(1)
Conclusion
395(2)
APPENDICES 397(11)
Random Number Table
397(1)
Chi-Square Table
398(1)
t Table
399(1)
F Table
400(6)
Pearson r Table
406(1)
Spearman rho Table
407(1)
Glossary 408(36)
References 444(55)
Name Index 499(8)
Subject Index 507


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