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The Invisible Woman Gender, Crime, and Justice,9780495090557

The Invisible Woman Gender, Crime, and Justice

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Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780495090557

ISBN10:
0495090557
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/27/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $129.00

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Summary

THE INVISIBLE WOMAN: GENDER, CRIME, AND JUSTICE is the definitive guide for the women and the criminal justice system course. The textbook covers topics ranging from female offenders to female victims. of crime to female employees of the criminal justice system.

Author Biography

Joanne Belknap is Professor of Sociology and Women's Studies at the University of Colorado.

Table of Contents

PART I Introduction
1 The Emergence of Gender in Criminology
1(30)
Invisibility of Women and Girls in Crime
2(6)
Women and Girls as Offenders
3(2)
Women and Girls as Victims
5(1)
Women as Professionals in the Crime-Processing System
6(1)
Blurring of Boundaries of Women's Experiences in Crime
7(1)
Sex Versus Gender
8(3)
What is Feminism?
11(5)
What is Feminist Method?
16(2)
Effect of Societal Images on Women in Crime
18(4)
Diversity among Women
22(1)
Summary
23(1)
References
24(7)
PART II Female Offending
2 Critiquing Criminological Theories
31(64)
The Traditional Positivist Studies
32(4)
The Atavistic Female Offender
33(1)
The Unadjusted Girl
34(1)
Anatomy as Destiny
35(1)
Behind the Mask
36(1)
Legacy of the Positivist Theorists
36(1)
Strain and Subcultural Theories
37(5)
Strain Theory
38(1)
Delinquency and Opportunity
38(1)
General Strain Theory (GST)
39(2)
Tests of (Traditional) Strain and General Strain 7heories
41(1)
Differential Association Theory (DAT)
42(2)
Labeling Theory
44(2)
Social Control Theory (SCT)
46(7)
Social Bond Theory
46(2)
Research on Social Control Theory
48(2)
Power Control Theory (PCT)
50(3)
Marxist, Radical, and Critical Theories
53(3)
Women's Liberation/Emancipation Hypothesis (WLEH)
56(1)
Biosocial and Evolutionary Psychological Theories
57(6)
Feminist and Pro-Feminist Theories
63(16)
Critical Race Feminism
63(1)
Messerschmidt's Masculinities and Crime 'Theories
64(2)
Cycle of Violence Theory
66(1)
Life Course "Theory (LCT)
67(3)
Feminist Pathways Research
70(9)
Summary
79(2)
References
81(14)
3 The Frequency and Nature of Female Offending
95(48)
Measuring Crime and Making Gender Comparisons
98(6)
The Importance of How Crime Rates are Measured and the Roles of Gender, Age, Race, Class, and Sexuality
104(6)
Age and Juvenile Delinquency
105(1)
Race/Ethnicity
106(1)
Class/Socioeconomic Status
107(1)
Sexuality
108(2)
The Frequency and Context of Women's and Girls' Offending for Specific Crimes
110(24)
Girl and Women Gangs
110(4)
Theft
114(1)
Robbery and Burglary
115(1)
White-Collar Crime
116(1)
Drug Use and Selling
117(9)
General Aggression
126(1)
Nonlethal and Lethal Child Abuse
127(5)
Homicide
132(2)
Summary
134(1)
References
135(8)
4 Processing Women and Girls in the System
143(34)
Criminal Laws and Sex Discrimination
144(3)
Sentencing Laws and Sex Discrimination
147(2)
Three Hypotheses of Sex Discrimination in Crime Processing
149(1)
Chivalry and Paternalism
150(1)
Empirical Findings on Gender Differences in Crime Processing
151(18)
Access to Chivalry: Discrimination among Women
152(2)
Reforms in the Processing of-Juveniles
154(4)
The Presence of Gender Bias in Different Stages of Processing
158(6)
Gender Differences in Crime Processing Based on the Type of Offense
164(2)
Gender Stereotypes and Crime Processing
166(3)
Summary
169(1)
References
170(7)
5 Incarcerating, Punishing, and "Treating" Offending Women and Girls
177(60)
The History of Institutionalizing Female Offenders
180(9)
Punishment
180(2)
Reform
182(4)
Sex-Segregated Custodial Prisons
186(1)
Racist Segregation and Treatment in Girls' and Women's Institutions
187(1)
Women's Prisons in the 1960's, 1970's, and 1980's
188(1)
The Women's Prison Regime
189(2)
Rates of Imprisonment and a Portrayal of Incarcerated Girls and Women
191(5)
Girls' "Correctional" Institutions
196(2)
Psychological Aspects of Women's Imprisonment
198(2)
Parenthood: A Gender Difference Among Prisoners
200(5)
Educational, Vocational, and Recreational Programs
205(3)
Health Care Services
208(3)
HIV/AIDS
209(1)
Prenatal, Pregnancy, and Postpartum Health Care
210(1)
Mental Health Problems and Care
211(2)
Incarcerated Women and Girls with Disabilities
213(1)
The Prison Subculture
214(6)
Sexual Abuse of Women Prisoners
220(1)
Co-Corrections
221(3)
Women and the Death Penalty
224(1)
Summary
225(1)
References
226(11)
PART III Female Victims of Male Violence
6 The Image of the Female Victim
237(29)
The Link Between Actual Victimizations and the Fear of Crime
240(3)
Effect of Culture on Gender Roles
243(2)
Gender Disparities in Power
245(2)
Threats of Violence
247(1)
Victim Blaming
248(3)
The Victimization of Women and Girls of Color
251(3)
The Victimization of Immigrant Women and Girls
254(2)
The Victimization of Women and Girls with Disabilities
256(2)
Summary
258(1)
References
259(7)
7 Sexual Victimization
266(53)
Defining Sexual Victimization
266(2)
Historical Issues in Defining Sexual Victimization
268(1)
Statistics on Sexual Victimization
269(4)
Who are the Victims?
273(1)
Who are the Offenders?
273(2)
The Victim—Offender Relationship
275(1)
What Causes Sexual Abuse?
276(5)
Rape Myths
276(3)
The Role of Rape Myths and Other Causes of Sexual Victimization
279(2)
Child Sexual Victimization (CSA)
281(4)
Date Rape
285(6)
Marital Rape
291(3)
Sexual Harassment
294(4)
Sexual Victimization and the Criminal Legal System
298(10)
The Police
299(4)
The Court Process, or Whose Trial Is It Anyway?
303(5)
Summary
308(2)
Notes
310(1)
References
310(9)
8 Intimate Partner Abuse and Stalking
319(56)
Defining Intimate Partner Abuse and Stalking
319(4)
Intimate Partner Abuse (IPA)
319(3)
Stalking
322(1)
The Historical Identification of IPA and Stalking as Social Problems
323(2)
The Frequency of IPA and Stalking
325(4)
Walker's Cycle Theory of Violence
329(1)
Why Do (Some) Men (and Women) Abuse and Stalk?
330(2)
Who are the Abusers and Stalkers?
332(3)
Inhibitors to Leaving an Abusive Relationship
335(7)
Economic Restrictions
337(1)
Sociological Restrictions
338(2)
Psychological Restrictions
340(2)
The Constant Threat of Danger
342(1)
IPA and Stalking and the Criminal Legal System
343(11)
The Police
344(6)
The Courts
350(4)
When Women Kill Abusive Partners in Self-Defense
354(4)
IPA and Health Professionals
358(1)
Summary
359(1)
Notes
360(1)
References
360(15)
PART IV Women Working in the Criminal Legal System
9 Women Working in Prisons and Jails
375(32)
A Brief History on Sex Discrimination in Women's Work Outside the Home
376(2)
Rates of Women Working in Prisons and Jails
378(1)
Comparing Racial and Gender Workplace Discrimination
378(3)
The Matron Role: Women's Breaking into Criminal Legal System Jobs through Sexist Stereotypical Positions
381(3)
The Powerful Role of Legislative and Court Rulings on Women's Work in the Criminal Legal System
384(4)
Post Title VII: Women as Tokens in the History of Women's Entry into Working as Prison and Jail Guards
388(2)
Prisoner Privacy and Prison Safety: Roadblocks for Women Guards in Male Prisons
390(3)
Gender Similarities and Differences in the Job Performances of Prison Workers
393(2)
Classifications of Women Prison Workers
395(1)
Resistance to Woman Workers
396(4)
Summary
400(1)
References
400(7)
10 Women Working in Policing and Law Enforcement
407(30)
The History of Women in Policing
407(6)
Rates of Women in Policing
413(4)
Why Do Women Want to be Police Officers?
417(1)
Gender Differences in Job Performance
418(2)
Classifications of Women Police Officers
420(3)
Resistance to Women Police Officers
423(2)
Struggles for the Fiat Women on Patrol
423(1)
Evaluations of Women Police by Their Supervisors, Their Supervisors, and Citizens
424(1)
Gender and Stress
425(2)
The Intersection of Racism and Sexual Identity with Sexism for Women Police
427(2)
Some Steps Forward For Women, Some Steps Back
429(1)
Summary
430(1)
References
431(6)
11 Women Working in the Courts
437(31)
The History of Women on Juries
438(3)
The History of Women's Access to Legal Education and Training
441(4)
Women Attorneys
445(11)
The Number of Women Attorneys
445(1)
Classifications of Women Attorneys
446(1)
The Experiences of Women Attorneys
447(1)
The Gendered Implications of Marital and Family Status for Lawyers
448(1)
Managing Sexist Images
449(1)
The Gendered Placement of Lawyers
450(1)
Treatment by Male Coworkers and Supervisors
451(2)
The Gendered Nature of Income, "Making Partner," and Other Rewards for Lawyers
453(3)
The Gendered Nature of Sanctions against Lawyers
456(1)
Women Judges
456(4)
Women's Entry into Judgeships
456(2)
Characteristics of Women Judges and Their Experiences as Judges
458(2)
Looking for Gender Differences in Judges' Decision Making
460(2)
Women Law Professors
462(1)
Summary
463(1)
References
464(4)
PART V Conclusions
12 Effecting Change
468(29)
New Theories
468(1)
Changing the Treatment of Female Offenders
469(6)
Changing Responses to Male Violence Against Women
475(9)
Sexual Victimization
475(4)
Intimate Partner Abuse
479(5)
Changes for Women Working in the Criminal Legal System
484(2)
Summary
486(1)
References
487(10)
NAME INDEX 497(4)
SUBJECT INDEX 501


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