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Krause's Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy

by
Edition:
11th
ISBN13:

9780721697840

ISBN10:
0721697844
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
10/28/2003
Publisher(s):
Saunders
List Price: $99.95
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Summary

Universally recognized as the premier clinical text in nutrition, the 11th edition of Krause's Food, Nutrition, & Diet Therapy provides the theoretical knowledge and clinical information you need to understand basic nutrition, assess clients of varying ages and illnesses, plan dietary support that meets their unique needs, and promote good health and fitness. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

PART I NUTRITION BASICS
1 Digestion, Absorption, Transport, and Excretion of Nutrients
2(19)
Peter L. Beyer MS, RD, LD
The Gastrointestinal Tract
Overview of Digestive and Absorptive Processes
4(7)
Enzymes in Digestion
5(1)
Regulators of GI Activity: Nerves, Neurotransmitters, and Neuropeptide Hormones
6(3)
Digestion in the Mouth
9(1)
Digestion in the Stomach
9(1)
Digestion in the Small Intestine
10(1)
The Small Intestine: Primary Site of Nutrient Absorption
11(2)
Structure and Function
11(1)
Absorptive Mechanisms
12(1)
The Large Intestine
13(6)
Bacterial Action
13(2)
Digestion and Absorption of Specific Types of Nutrients
15(4)
Factors Affecting Digestion
19(1)
Summary
19(2)
2 Energy
21(16)
Carol D. Frary, MS, RD
Rachel K. Johnson, PhD, MPH, RD
Components of Energy Expenditure
22(3)
Resting and Basal Energy
Expenditure
22(3)
Thermic Effect of Food
25(1)
Energy Expended in Physical Activity
25(1)
Measurement of Energy Expenditure
25(3)
Units of Measurement
25(1)
Measuring Human Energy Expenditure
26(1)
Thermic Effect of Food
27(1)
Energy Expended in Physical Activity
27(1)
Estimating Energy Requirements
28(5)
Measuring Energy Intake
28(1)
Measuring Basal and Resting Metabolic Rate
28(1)
Estimations of Energy Expenditure
28(4)
Estimated Energy Expended in Physical Activity
32(1)
Calculating Food Energy
33(4)
3 Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids
37(38)
Susan Ettinger, PhD, RD
Carbohydrates
39(11)
Monosaccharides
40(2)
Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides
42(2)
Polysaccharides: Starch
44(1)
Animal Carbohydrates: Glycogen
45(1)
Nondigestible Carbohydrate Homopolymers: Cellulose
45(1)
Nondigestible Carbohydrate Heteropolymers: Hemicellulose and Gums
45(3)
The Impact of Carbohydrates on Metabolism
48(2)
Fats and Lipids
50(12)
Lipid Structures and Functions
50(2)
Fatty Acids
52(2)
Sources of Fatty Acids
54(1)
The Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio
55(1)
Triglycerides
56(1)
Phospholipids
57(2)
Synthetic Lipids
59(2)
Food Sources of Fat and Reasonable Recommendations
61(1)
Amino Acids and Protein
62(8)
Protein: The Nitrogen Cycle and Dietary Protein Sources
62(1)
Amino Acid Structure
62(2)
Protein Synthesis
64(1)
Protein Folding: Three-Dimensional Structure
64(2)
Dietary Protein Quality
66(1)
Protein Processing and Digestibility
66(1)
Protein Complementarity
67(1)
Protein Use and Nitrogen Balance
67(2)
Nitrogen Excretion: The Urea Cycle
69(1)
Macronutrient Use and Storage in the Fed State
70(1)
Carbohydrates
70(1)
Lipid Transport and Storage
70(1)
Macronutrient Catabolism in the Fasted State
71(2)
Adapted Starvation: Marasmus
71(1)
Nonadapted Starvation
72(1)
Summary
73(2)
4 Vitamins
75(45)
Margie Lee Gallagher, PhD, RD, MS
The Fat-Soluble Vitamins
76(17)
Vitamin A
76(7)
Vitamin D (Calciferol)
83(5)
Vitamin E
88(3)
Vitamin K
91(2)
The Water-Soluble Vitamins
93(22)
Thiamin
93(2)
Riboflavin
95(3)
Niacin
98(2)
Pantothenic Acid
100(1)
Vitamin B6
101(2)
Folate
103(3)
Vitamin B12
106(3)
Biotin
109(1)
Ascorbic Acid
110(5)
Other Vitamin-Like Factors
115(6)
Choline
115(1)
Carnitine
116(1)
myo-Inositol
116(1)
Ubiquinones
117(1)
Bioflavonoids
117(3)
5 Minerals
120(44)
John J.B. Anderson, PhD
Characteristics of Minerals
121(1)
Bioavailability
121(1)
Mineral-Mineral Interactions
122(1)
Mineral Composition of the Body
122(1)
Functions
122(1)
Problem Minerals in the U.S. Diet
122(1)
Prebiotics and Minerals
122(1)
Macrominerals
122(12)
Calcium
123(5)
Phosphorus
128(2)
Magnesium
130(3)
Sulfur
133(1)
Micrornineras (Trace Elements)
134(16)
General Characteristics
134(1)
Iron
135(8)
Zinc
143(4)
Fluoride
147(1)
Copper
148(2)
Ukratrace Minerals
150(8)
Iodine
150(2)
Selenium
152(2)
Manganese
154(1)
Chromium
155(1)
Molybdenum
156(1)
Boron
157(1)
Cobalt
157(1)
Other Trace Elements
158(1)
Summary
158(6)
6 Water, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Balance
164(18)
Susan J. Whitmire, RD, LDN, CNSD
Body Water
165(4)
Functions
165(1)
Distribution
165(1)
Balance
165(3)
Requirements
168(1)
Electrolytes
169(3)
Sodium
170(1)
Chloride
171(1)
Potassium
172(1)
Acid Base Balance
172(2)
Acid Generation
172(1)
Regulation
172(2)
Acid Base Disorders
174(2)
Metabolic Acidosis
175(1)
Metabolic Alkalosis
175(1)
Respiratory Acidosis
175(1)
Respiratory Alkalosis
175(1)
Compensation
176(1)
Summary
176(6)
PART 2 NUTRITION IN THE LIFE CYCLE
7 Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation
182(32)
Judith K. Shabert, MD, RD, MPH
Pregnancy
183(18)
Effect of Nutritional Status on Pregnancy Outcome
183(4)
Nutritional Supplementation During Pregnancy
187(1)
Physiologic Changes During Pregnancy
188(1)
Nutritional Requirements
189(5)
Guide for Eating During Pregnancy
194(5)
Complications of Pregnancy and Their Dietary Implications
199(2)
Lactation
201(8)
Physiology
202(1)
Nutritional Requirements
202(2)
Breast-Feeding an Infant
204(5)
Nutrition, Fertility, and Conception
209(1)
Summary
209(5)
8 Nutrition During Infancy
214(20)
Cristine M. Trahms, MS, RD. CD, FADA
Physiologic Development
215(2)
Nutrient Requirements
217(3)
Energy
217(1)
Protein
218(1)
Lipids
218(1)
Carbohydrates
218(1)
Water
219(1)
Minerals
219(1)
Vitamins
220(1)
Milk
220(6)
Composition of Human and Cow's Milk
221(1)
Antiinfective Factors
222(1)
Formulas
222(3)
Whole Cow's Milk
225(1)
Formula Preparation
226(1)
Food
226(1)
Feeding
226(6)
Initial Feeding Patterns
226(1)
Development of Feeding Skills
227(1)
Addition of Semisolid Foods
227(1)
Weaning From Breast or Bottle to Cup
228(1)
Early Childhood Caries
229(1)
Feeding Older Infants
230(2)
Summary
232(2)
9 Nutrition for Low-Birth-Weight Infants
234(25)
Diane M. Anderson, PhD, RD, CSP, FADA
Physiologic Development
235(2)
Gestational Age and Size
235(1)
Infant Mortality and Statistics
236(1)
Characteristics of Immaturity
236(1)
Nutritional Requirements. Parenteral Feeding
237(5)
Fluid
237(2)
Energy
239(1)
Glucose
239(1)
Amino Acids
239(1)
Lipids
240(1)
Electrolytes
241(1)
Minerals
241(1)
Trace Elements
241(1)
Vitamins
241(1)
Transition From Parenteral to Enteral Feeding
242(1)
Nutritional Requirements. Enteral Feeding
243(3)
Energy
243(1)
Protein
243(1)
Lipids
244(1)
Carbohydrates
244(1)
Minerals and Vitamins
245(1)
Feeding Methods
246(2)
Gastric Gavage
246(1)
Transpyloric Feeding
247(1)
Nipple-Feeding
247(1)
Breast-Feeding
247(1)
Tolerance of Feedings
247(1)
Selection of Enteral Feeding
248(2)
Human Milk
248(1)
Premature Infant Formulas
249(1)
Transitional Infant Formulas
249(1)
Formula Adjustments
249(1)
Growth and Nutritional Assessments
250(1)
Growth Rates and Growth Charts
250(1)
Laboratory Indices
251(1)
Discharge Care
251(5)
Neurodevelopmental Outcome
256(1)
Summary
257(2)
10 Nutrition in Childhood
259(25)
Betty L. Lucas, MPH, RD, CD
Growth and Development
260(2)
Growth Patterns
260(1)
Catch-Up Growth
260(1)
Assessing Growth
260(2)
Nutrient Requirements
262(6)
Energy
262(1)
Protein
262(1)
Minerals and Vitamins
262(6)
Providing an Adequate Diet
268(7)
Intake Patterns
268(1)
Factors Influencing Food Intake
269(3)
Feeding Preschool Children
272(2)
Feeding School-Age Children
274(1)
Nutritional Concerns
275(4)
Obesity
275(2)
Underweight and Failure to Thrive
277(1)
Iron Deficiency
277(1)
Dental Caries
278(1)
Allergies
278(1)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
278(1)
Autism Spectrum Disorders
279(1)
Preventing Chronic Disease
279(1)
Dietary Fat and Cardiovascular Health
279(1)
Calcium and Bone Health and Obesity
280(1)
Fiber
280(1)
Physical Activity
280(1)
Summary
280(4)
11 Nutrition in Adolescence
284(18)
Bonnie A. Spear PhD, RD
Growth and Development
285(3)
Physiologic Changes
285(1)
Psychological Changes
286(2)
Nutrient Requirements
288(5)
Energy
289(1)
Protein
289(1)
Minerals and Vitamins
290(3)
Food Habits
293(2)
Irregular Meals and Snacking
293(1)
Fast Foods and the Media
293(1)
Potential Nutritional Inadequacies
294(1)
Adolescents as Food Purchasers
294(1)
Special Situations
295(4)
Vegetarians
295(1)
Eating Disorders
295(1)
Obesity
296(1)
Hyperlipidemie
297(1)
Sports Nutrition
297(1)
Substance Use
298(1)
Pregnancy
298(1)
Strategies for Improving Nutritional Well-Being
299(1)
Nutritional Status Assessments
299(1)
Prerequisites for Change
299(1)
Summary
299(3)
12 Nutrition in the Adult Years
302(16)
Kimberly Mathai, MS, RD, CN
Eating and the Food Environment
303(2)
What Americans Eat
303(1)
How Americans Eat
304(1)
Defensive Nutrition Paradigm
305(3)
Phytochemicals
305(3)
Organ Support
308(1)
Gastronitestinal Integrity
308(2)
Intestinal Mucosa
308(1)
Intestinal Microflora
308(2)
Detoxification Systems
310(2)
Gastrointestinal System: Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue
310(1)
Liver: Two-Phase Detoxification System
310(1)
Supporting Detoxification Pathways
311(1)
Guidelines for a Defensive Nutrition Paradigm Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake
312(3)
Increasing Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake
314(1)
Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation
314(1)
Women's Health
314(1)
Men's Health
315(1)
Summary
315(3)
13 Nutrition in Aging
318(22)
Nancy G. Harris, MS, RD, LDN, FADA
The Older Population
319(1)
Theories of Aging
319(2)
Physiologic Changes
321(3)
Body Composition Changes
321(1)
Sensory Losses
322(1)
Oral Health Status
322(1)
Gastrointestinal Function
322(1)
Cardiovascular Function
323(1)
Renal Function
323(1)
Neurologic Function
324(1)
Immunocompetence
324(1)
Medications
324(1)
Multidisciplinary Assessment
324(1)
Nutrition Screening
325(1)
Nutrition Needs
326(5)
Energy
326(1)
Protein
326(1)
Carbohydrates
327(1)
Lipids
327(1)
Minerals
327(3)
Vitamins
330(1)
Water
331(1)
Dietary Planning
331(1)
Nutrition Issues
331(3)
Dysphagia
332(1)
Pressure Ulcers
333(1)
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases
334(1)
Failure to Thrive
334(1)
Supportive Services
334(8)
Community Nutrition Programs
335(1)
Assisted Living and Skilled Care Facilities
335(5)
PART 3 NUTRITION CARE
14 Nutrition in the Community
340(23)
Judith L. Dodd, MS, RD, FADA, LD
Cynthia Taft Bayerl, MS, RD. LDN
Nutrition Practice in the Community
342(2)
Needs Assessment for Community Based Nutrition Services
344(1)
Needs Assessment: General Information
344(1)
Sources for Needs Assessment Information
345(1)
National Food and Nutrition Data Sources
345(2)
National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
345(1)
Nationwide Food Consumption Survey
346(1)
Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals: Diet and Health Knowledge Survey
346(1)
National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act
346(1)
Nutrition Screening Initiative
346(1)
National Nutrient Data Bank
347(1)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
347(1)
National Nutrition Guidelines and Goals
347(3)
Healthy People and The Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health
347(1)
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
347(1)
Other Dietary Guidance
348(1)
Recommended Dietary Allowances and Dietary Reference Intakes
349(1)
Food Guides
350(1)
Food Assistance and Nutrition Programs
350(4)
National School Lunch Program and After-School Snack Program
350(2)
School Breakfast Program
352(1)
Special Milk Program
352(1)
Child and Adult Care Food Program
352(1)
Summer Food Service Program
352(1)
WIC Program
352(1)
Head Start Program
353(1)
Food Stamp Program
353(1)
Senior Adult Meals
353(1)
Cooperative Extension and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program
354(1)
Food Safety: Laws, Regulations, and Issues
354(3)
Surveillance Systems
354(1)
Regulatory Agencies
354(2)
Approaches to Foodborne Illness Prevention
356(1)
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
356(1)
Health Claims
357(1)
Food Technology
357(1)
Additives
357(1)
Food Fortification and Enrichment
357(1)
Irradiation
358(1)
Agricultural Products and Concerns
358(1)
Pesticides
358(1)
Total Diet Study (Market Basket Sample)
358(1)
Genetically Modified Foods and Biotechnology
358(1)
Antibiotics and Hormones
359(1)
Other Concerns About Food and Water Safety
359(2)
Summary
361(2)
15 Guidelines for Dietary Planning
363(27)
Robert Earl, MPH, RD
Determining Nutrient Needs
364(3)
Worldwide Guidelines
364(1)
Dietary Reference Intakes (Formerly "Recommended Dietary Allowances")
364(3)
Nutritional Status of Americans
367(4)
Food and Nutrient Intake Data
367(1)
Status Report From the NNMRRP
367(3)
Nutrition Monitoring Report
370(1)
Current Public Health Issues
370(1)
Healthy Eating Index
371(1)
National Guidelines for Diet Planning
371(8)
Current Health Issues
371(1)
Current Dietary Guidance in the United States and Canada
372(3)
Implementing the Guidelines
375(4)
Food Labeling
379(3)
Mandatory Nutrition Labeling
379(1)
Standardized Serving Sizes
379(1)
Nutrition Facts Label
379(1)
Nutrient Content Claims
380(1)
Health Claims
380(2)
Cultural Aspects of Dietary Planning
382(4)
Dietary Patterns of Southeast Asians
382(1)
Dietary Patterns of Chinese Americans
383(1)
Dietary Patterns of Hispanics
384(1)
Dietary Patterns of Native Americans
384(1)
Dietary Restrictions and Patterns of Religious Groups
385(1)
Vegetarianism
386(1)
Summary
386(4)
16 Introduction to Nutritional Genomics
390(17)
Ruth M. DeBusk, PhD, RD
The Human Genome Project
392(2)
Genetic Fundamentals
394(7)
Genetics and Genomics
394(1)
Genetic Basics
395(1)
Modes of Inheritance and Penetrance
396(1)
Disease at the Chromosomal Level
397(1)
Disease at the Molecular Level
398(3)
Disease at the Mitochondrial Level
401(1)
Genetics and Nutrition Therapy
401(3)
Influences of Gene-Nutrient Interactions on Metabolic Processes
401(1)
Influences of Gene-Nutrient Interactions on Gene Expression
402(1)
Complex Genetic-Nutrition Connections
403(1)
Summary
404(3)
17 Dietary and Clinical Assessment
407(29)
Kathleen A. Hammond, MS, RD. LD, CNSD, RN, BSN, CNSN
Nutritional Imbalance
408(2)
Nutritional Screening
410(2)
Nutritional Assessment
412(17)
Histories
413(5)
Nutrient Intake Analysis
418(3)
Anthropometry
421(1)
Interpretation of Height and Weight
421(3)
Body Composition
424(5)
Nutrition-Focused Physical Examination
429(1)
Physical Signs
429(1)
Immune Function
430(1)
Handgrip Dynamometry
430(1)
Biochemical Analysis
430(1)
Classifying Malnutrition
430(1)
Summary
430(6)
18 Laboratory Data in Nutrition Assessment
436(19)
Timothy H. Carlson, PhD, RD, NRCC
Definition and Usefulness of Nutrition Laboratory Data
437(2)
Specimen Types
438(1)
Types of Assays
438(1)
Assessment of Protein-Energy Status
439(3)
Hormonal and Cell-Mediated Response to Stress
439(1)
Nitrogen Balance
439(1)
Visceral (Plasma) Protein Indicators
440(2)
Somatic Indicators of Protein-Energy Malnutrition
442(1)
Laboratory Data for Nutritional Anemias
442(4)
Classification of Anemia
443(1)
Laboratory Tests for Iron Deficiency Anemias
443(1)
Effect of Inflammation on Anemia
444(1)
Laboratory Assessment of Macrocytic Anemias Associated With B Vitamin Deficiencies
445(1)
Markers of Malabsorption
446(1)
Wellness Assessment
446(4)
Lipid Indices of Cardiovascular Risk
446(1)
Indices of Oxidative Stress
447(3)
Nutritional Interpretation of Routine Medical Laboratory Data
450(1)
Clinical Chemistry Panels
450(3)
The Complete Blood Count
450(1)
Urinalysis
451(2)
Summary
453(2)
19 Food-Drug Interactions
455(20)
Zaneta M. Pronsky, MS, RD, LDN, FADA
Sr. Jeanne P. Crowe, PharmD, RPH
Pharmacologic Aspects of Food-Drug Interactions
456(1)
Pharmacodynamics
456(1)
Pharmocokinetics
457(1)
Risk Factors for Food-Drug Interactions
457(2)
Pharmacogenomics
458(1)
Effects of Food on Drug Therapy
459(3)
Drug Absorption
459(1)
Medication and Enteral Nutrition Interactions
460(1)
Drug Distribution
460(1)
Drug Metabolism
461(1)
Drug Excretion
461(1)
Effects of Drugs on Food and Nutrition
462(1)
Nutrient Absorption
462(1)
Nutrient Metabolism
462(1)
Nutrient Excretion
463(1)
Modification of Drug Action by Food and Nutrients
463(1)
Alcohol
464(1)
Effects of Drugs on Nutritional Status
464(6)
Oral, Taste, and Smell
464(1)
Gastrointestinal Effects
465(2)
Appetite Changes
467(2)
Organ System Toxicity
469(1)
Glucose Levels
469(1)
Excipients and Food-Drug Interactions
470(2)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
472(1)
Summary
473(2)
20 Integrative Medicine and Phytotherapy
475(21)
Ruth M. DeBusk, PhD, RD
Integrative Therapies
476(6)
Naturopathy (Natural Medicine)
477(1)
Chiropractic
478(1)
Homeopathy
478(1)
Traditional Oriental Medicine
479(1)
Phytotherapy
479(1)
Clinical Assessment
480(1)
Regulation
481(1)
Commonly Used Botanicals
482(9)
Echinacea
482(1)
Garlic
483(1)
Ginger
484(1)
Ginkgo
485(1)
Ginseng
486(1)
Hawthorn
487(1)
Milk Thistle
488(1)
Saw Palmetto
489(1)
St. John's wort
490(1)
Valerian
490(1)
Guidelines for Working With Clients Who Use Botanicals
491(1)
Summary
492(4)
21 The Nutrition Care Process
496(23)
Cynthia M. Brylinsky, MS, RD, LDN
Nutrition Care Process and Medical Nutrition Therapy
497(1)
Nutritional Assessment
497(4)
Nutrition Diagnosis
498(1)
Nutrition Intervention
498(3)
Monitoring and Evaluation of Nutritional Care
501(1)
Nutritional Care Record
501(2)
Charting and Documentation
503(4)
Format for Medical Record Charting
506(1)
Influences on Nutritional Care
507(3)
Managed Care Organizations
507(2)
Strategies of Managed Care Systems
509(1)
Payment Systems
509(1)
Patient-Focused Care
509(1)
Nutritional Intervention and Diet Modification
510(1)
The Diet Prescription
510(1)
Modifications of the Normal Diet
511(1)
Foods as Nutrient Sources
511(1)
Nutritional Care for the Hospitalized Patient
511(4)
Standard Hospital or Health Care Diets
511(1)
Regular Diet
511(1)
Soft Diet
512(1)
Liquid Diets
512(2)
Consistency Modifications
514(1)
Food Intake
514(1)
Psychological Factors
514(1)
Nutritional Counseling
515(1)
Nutritional Care of the Terminally Ill or Hospice Patient
515(1)
Discharge Planning and Home Care
515(2)
Summary
517(2)
22 Counseling for Change
519(14)
Linda G. Snetselaar BS, MS, PhD, RD
Counseling Techniques
520(1)
Stages of Change
520(1)
Activities That Facilitate Behavior Change
521(2)
Expressing Empathy
521(1)
Understanding Cultural Factors
522(1)
Developing Discrepancy
522(1)
Avoiding Arguments or Defensiveness
522(1)
Rolling With Resistance
522(1)
Supporting Self-Efficacy
522(1)
Intervention Model
523(2)
Interviewing
523(1)
First Session
523(1)
Assessment
524(1)
Establishing Rapport
525(1)
Assessment of Current Eating Behavior
525(1)
Assessment of Readiness to Change
525(1)
Not-Ready-to-Change Counseling Sessions
525(3)
Asking Open-Ended Questions
525(1)
Reflective Listening
526(1)
Affirming
526(1)
Summarizing
526(1)
Eliciting Self-Motivational Statements
527(1)
Ending the Session
527(1)
Unsure-About-Change Counseling Sessions
528(1)
Arranging for the Next Contact
528(1)
Ready-to-Change Counseling Sessions
528(1)
Action Plan
529(1)
Arranging for the Next Contact
529(1)
Resistance Behaviors and Potential Strategies to Modify Them
529(1)
Reflecting
530(1)
Double-Sided Reflection
530(1)
Shifting Focus
530(1)
Agreeing With a Twist
530(1)
Emphasizing Personal Choice
530(1)
Reframing
530(1)
Summary
530(3)
23 Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Support
533(25)
Abby S. Bloch, PhD, RD, FADA
Charles Mueller, PhD, MS, RD, CNSD, CDN
Rationale and Criteria for
Appropriate Nutrition Support
534(3)
Enteral Nutrition
537(7)
Enteral Access
537(1)
Enteral Formula Composition
538(2)
Administration
540(1)
Complications and Monitoring
541(3)
Parenteral Nutrition
544(5)
Parenteral Access
544(1)
Parenteral Nutrition Solutions
545(1)
Administration
546(1)
Complications and Monitoring
547(2)
Refeeding Syndrome
549(1)
Transitional Feeding
549(1)
Parenteral to Enteral Feeding
549(1)
Parenteral to Oral Feeding
550(1)
Enteral to Oral Feeding
550(1)
Oral Supplements
550(1)
Pharmacologic Use of Nutrients
550(1)
Nutrition Support in Long-Term and Home Care
551(1)
Long-Term Care
551(1)
Home Care
551(1)
Ethical Issues
552(1)
Interdisciplinary Nutrition Support Services
552(1)
Summary
553(5)
PART 4 NUTRITION FOR HEALTH AND FITNESS
24 Nutrition for Weight Management
558(36)
Idamarie Laquatra, PhD, RD
Body Weight Components
559(3)
Body Fat
559(1)
Adipose Tissue Structure
560(1)
Adipocytes, Hypertrophy, and Hyperplasia
560(1)
Fat Cell Development
560(1)
Fat Storage
561(1)
Regulation of Body Weight
562(2)
Short-Term and Long-Term Regulation
562(1)
Set-Point Theory
562(1)
Factors Regulating Energy Intake and Body Weight
563(1)
Weight Management Throughout Life
564(1)
Weight and Longevity
565(1)
Weight Imbalance: Overweight and Obesity
565(5)
Assessment
565(1)
Prevalence
565(1)
Etiology
566(1)
Health Risks
567(3)
Management of Obesity in Adults
570(15)
Goals of Treatment
571(1)
Rate and Extent of Weight Loss
572(1)
Lifestyle Modification
572(1)
Dietary Modification
573(1)
Recommendations
574(1)
Restricted-Energy Diets
574(1)
Exchange System Diets
574(1)
Formula Diets and Meal Replacement Programs
574(1)
Commercial Programs
575(1)
Extreme Energy Restriction
575(3)
Popular Diets and Practices
578(2)
Exercise
580(1)
Pharmaceutical Management
581(1)
Surgical Procedures
582(3)
Maintenance of Reduced Body Weight
585(1)
Common Problems Encountered in Obesity Management
585(1)
Plateau Effect
585(1)
Weight Cycling
586(1)
Weight Management in Children
586(1)
Weight Imbalance: Excessive Leanness
587(8)
Etiology
587(1)
Assessment
588(1)
Management
588(1)
High-Energy Diets for Weight Gain
588(6)
25 Nutrition in Eating Disorders
594(22)
Janet E. Schebendach, MA, RD
Pamela Reichert-Anderson, MA, RD
Diagnostic Criteria
595(4)
Anorexia Nervosa
596(1)
Bulimia Nervosa
596(1)
Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
597(1)
Binge Eating Disorder
597(1)
Childhood Eating Disorders
597(1)
Eating Disorders in Athletes
597(1)
Eating Disorders in People With Diabetes
598(1)
Etiology
599(1)
Pathophysiology
599(2)
Clinical Characteristics and Medical Complications: Anorexia Nervosa
599(2)
Clinical Characteristics and Medical Complications: Bulimia Nervosa
601(1)
Nutritional Assessment
601(6)
Diet History
601(2)
Eating Behavior
603(1)
Laboratory Data
603(2)
Vitamin and Mineral Abnormalities
605(1)
Fluid and Electrolyte Abnormalities
605(1)
Metabolic Changes
605(1)
Anthropometric Assessment
605(2)
Psychological Management
607(2)
Nutritional Care
609(2)
Anorexia Nervosa
609(1)
Bulimia Nervosa
610(1)
Monitoring
611(1)
Nutrition Education
611(1)
Prognosis
611(1)
Summary
612(4)
26 Nutrition for Exercise and Sports Performance
616(26)
Jacqueline R. Benning, PhD, RD
Energy Production
617(2)
Adenosine Triphosphate
617(1)
Aerobic Pathway
618(1)
Energy Continuum
618(1)
Fuels for Contracting Muscles
619(1)
Sources of Fuel
619(1)
Substrate Choice
619(1)
Nutritional Requirements of Exercise
620(14)
Fluid
620(3)
Glucose and Sodium
623(1)
Osmolality
623(1)
Fluid Requirements
623(2)
Endurance Events
625(9)
Weight Management
634(1)
Other Considerations
634(1)
Alcohol
634(1)
Caffeine
634(1)
Ergogenic Aids
635(3)
β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate
635(1)
Creatine
635(2)
DHEA
637(1)
Androstenedione
637(1)
Summary
638(4)
27 Nutrition and Bone Health
642(25)
John J.B. Anderson, PhD
Bone Structure and Bone Physiology
643(4)
Composition of Bone
643(1)
Types of Bone Tissue
643(1)
Bone Cells
644(1)
Calcium Homeostasis
644(1)
Bone Modeling
645(1)
Bone Remodeling
645(2)
Bone Markers
647(1)
Bone Mass and Bone Density
647(3)
Measurement of Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mineral Density
647(1)
Ultrasound Measurements
647(1)
Accumulation of Bone Mass
647(1)
Peak Bone Mass
648(1)
Loss of Bone Mass
648(2)
Nutrition and Bone
650(4)
Calcium
650(2)
Phosphate
652(1)
Vitamin D
652(1)
Magnesium
652(1)
Vitamin K
652(1)
Vitamin A (Retinol)
653(1)
Trace Minerals
653(1)
Other Nutrients
653(1)
Osteopenia and osteoporosis
654(9)
Definitions of Osteopenia and Osteoporosis
655(1)
Prevalence of Osteoporotic Fractures
655(1)
Types of Osteoporosis
655(1)
Etiology
656(1)
Risk Factors
657(3)
Secondary Prevention and Treatment
660(1)
Estrogen Replacement Therapy
660(1)
Bisphosphonates
661(1)
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
661(1)
Intermittent Parathyroid Hormone Therapy
661(1)
Other Drug Treatments
661(1)
Dietary Treatment
662(1)
Other Treatment Modalities
662(1)
Summary
663(4)
28 Nutrition for Oral and Dental Health
667(19)
Riva Touger-Decker PhD, RD, FADA
Nutritional Factors in Tooth Development
668(1)
Dental Caries
668(5)
Pathophysiology
669(2)
Cariogenicity of Individual Foods
671(1)
Factors Affecting Cariogenicity of Food
671(1)
The Decay Process
672(1)
Fluoride
673(2)
Mechanism of Action
673(1)
Sources of Fluoride
674(1)
Preventive Care
675(1)
Periodontal Disease
676(1)
Pathophysiology
676(1)
Nutritional Care
676(1)
Early Childhood Caries
677(1)
Pathophysiology and Incidence
677(1)
Nutritional Care
677(1)
Tooth Loss and Dentures
678(1)
Nutritional Care
678(1)
Oral Manifestations of Systemic Disease
678(2)
Manifestations of HIV/AIDS
678(1)
Fungal Infections
678(1)
Other Painful Mouth Problems
679(1)
Diabetes Mellitus
679(1)
Head and Neck Cancers
679(1)
Polypharmacy
680(1)
Summary
680(6)
PART 5 MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY
29 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders
686(19)
Peter L. Beyer MS, RD, LD
Disorders of the Esophagus
687(5)
Gastroesophageal Reflux and Esophagitis
688(2)
Hiatal Hernia
690(1)
Oral Cavity Cancer and Surgery
691(1)
Disorders of the Stomach
692(10)
Indigestion and Dyspepsia
692(1)
Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease
692(1)
Peptic Ulcers
693(2)
Characteristics of and Comparisons Between Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers
695(2)
Carcinoma of the Stomach
697(1)
Gastric Surgery
698(1)
Dumping Syndrome
699(3)
Summary
702(3)
30 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders
705(33)
Peter L. Beyer MS, RD, LD
Common Intestinal Problems
706(6)
Intestinal Gas and Flatulence
706(1)
Constipation
707(2)
Diarrhea
709(2)
Steatorrhea
711(1)
Gastrointestinal Strictures and Obstruction
711(1)
Diseases of the Small Intestine
712(6)
Celiac Disease (Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy)
712(4)
Tropical Sprue
716(2)
Intestinal Brush-Border Enzyme Deficiencies
718(3)
Lactose Maldigestion and Lactose Intolerance
718(3)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
721(6)
Crohn's Disease
721(2)
Ulcerative Colitis
723(4)
Disorders of the Large Intestine
727(3)
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
727(1)
Diverticular Disease
728(2)
Colon Cancer and Polyps
730(1)
Intestinal Surgery
730(5)
Small-Bowel Resections and Short-Bowel Syndrome
730(1)
Jejunal Resections
731(1)
Ileal Resections
731(2)
Blind-Loop Syndrome (Bacterial Overgrowth)
733(1)
Fistula Repair
733(1)
Ileostomy or Colostomy
733(1)
Ileal Pouch After Colectomy
734(1)
Rectal Surgery
735(1)
Summary
735(3)
31 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Liver, Biliary System, and Exocrine Pancreas Disorders
738(30)
Jeanette M. Hasse, PhD, RD, LD, CNSD, FADA
Laura E. Matarene, MS, RD, LD, CNSD, FADA
Physiology and Functions of the Liver
739(1)
Structure
739(1)
Functions
739(1)
Laboratory Assessment of Liver Function
740(1)
Diseases of the Liver
740(15)
Acute Viral Hepatitis
740(2)
Fulminant Hepatitis
742(1)
Chronic Hepatitis
742
Alcoholic Liver Disease, Alcoholic Hepatitis, and Cirrhosis
142(601)
Cholestatic Liver Diseases
743(3)
Inherited Disorders
746(1)
Other Liver Diseases
747(1)
Cirrhosis
748(7)
Liver Resection and Transplantation
755(1)
Physiology and Functions of the Gallbladder
756(1)
Diseases of the Gallbladder
757(3)
Cholelithiasis
751(7)
Cholecystitis
758(2)
Acute Cholangitis
760(1)
Sclerosing Cholangitis
760(1)
Cholestasis
760(1)
Physiology and Functions of the Exocrine Pancreas
760(1)
Diseases of the Exocrine Pancreas
761(3)
Pancreatitis
761(3)
Pancreatic Surgery
764(1)
Summary
764(4)
32 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Food Allergy and Food Intolerance
768(24)
Sherry K Hubbard, RD, LD
Immunologic Basis
769(1)
Definitions
769(1)
Immune System
769(1)
Allergic Reactions
770(1)
Symptoms
770(2)
Unclear or Unproven Relationships
771(1)
Risk Factors for the Development of Food Allergy
772(1)
Food Intolerances
773(3)
Food Additives
773(2)
Sulfites
775(1)
Carbohydrate Intolerance
776(1)
Diagnosis
776(5)
Food Challenge
779(2)
Treatment
781(3)
Natural History of Food Allergy
784(3)
Food Allergy in Infancy
787(1)
Recommendations for Infant Feeding
787(1)
Colic
788(1)
Diet and Prevention of Allergic Disease
788(1)
Oral Allergy Syndrome
788(1)
Latex Allergy
788(1)
Genetic Engineering
789(1)
Summary
789(3)
33 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus and Hypoglycemia of Nondiabetic Origin
792(46)
Marion J. Franz, MS, RD, LD, CDE
Pathophysiology
794(5)
Type 1 Diabetes
794(3)
Type 2 Diabetes
797(1)
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
797(2)
Other Types of Diabetes
799(1)
Impaired Glucose Homeostasis
799(1)
Diagnostic and Screening Criteria
799(1)
Management of Diabetes Mellitus
799(16)
Control and Outcomes
800(1)
Nutrition Therapy
801(6)
Exercise
807(2)
Medications
809(5)
Blood Glucose Monitoring
814(1)
Self-Management Education
814(1)
Diabetes and Age-Related Issues
815(4)
Children and Adolescents
815(1)
Pregnancy
816(2)
Older Adults
818(1)
Implementing Nutrition Self-Management
819(6)
Assessment
819(4)
Intervention and Self-Management Education
823(1)
Goal Setting
823(1)
Evaluation and Documentation
823(1)
Follow-Up and Continuing Medical Nutrition Therapy
823(2)
Acute Complications
825(2)
Hypoglycemia
825(1)
Hyperglycemia and Diabetic Ketoacidosis
826(1)
Fasting Hyperglycemia
826(1)
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State
827(1)
Long-Term Complications
827(2)
Macrovascular Diseases
827(1)
Microvascular Diseases
828(1)
Gastroparesis
829(1)
Preventing Diabetes
829(1)
Hypoglycemia of Nondiabetic Origin
830(3)
Pathophysiology
830(1)
Types of Hypoglycemia
831(1)
Diagnostic Criteria
831(1)
Management of Hypoglycemia
832(1)
Summary
833(5)
34 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Anemia
838(22)
Tracy Stopler MS, RD
Iron Related Blood Disorders
839(8)
Iron Deficiency Anemia
839(6)
Hemochromatosis
845(1)
Iron Toxicity
846(1)
Megaloblastic Anemias
847(7)
Pernicious and Other Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemias
847(4)
Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia
851(3)
Other Nutritional Anemias
854(2)
Copper Deficiency Anemia
854(1)
Anemia of Protein-Energy Malnutrition
854(1)
Sideroblastic (Pyridoxine Responsive) Anemia
855(1)
Vitamin E-Responsive Anemia
856(1)
Nonnutritional Anemias
856(2)
Sports Anemia (Hypochromic Microcytic Transient Anemia)
856(1)
Anemia of Pregnancy
856(1)
Anemia of Inflammation, Infection, or Malignancy (Anemia of Chronic Disease)
856(1)
Sickle Cell Anemia
857(1)
Thalassemias
857(1)
Summary
858(2)
35 Medical Nutrition Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease
860(40)
Debra A. Krummel, PhD, RD, LD
Prevalence and Incidence
861(1)
Mortality
861(3)
Pathophysiology and Etiology
864(2)
Atherosclerosis
864(1)
Endothelial Dysfunction
865(1)
Thrombosis
866(1)
Clinical Determination
866(1)
End Points
866(1)
Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease
866(3)
Blood Lipids and Lipoproteins
866(2)
Lipoproteins and Metabolism
868(1)
Lipoprotein Assessment
869(8)
Lipoprotein Profile
869(3)
Assessing Risk
872(1)
Category I Risk Factors
872(2)
Category II Risk Factors
874(1)
Category III Risk Factors
875(2)
Category IV Risk Factors
877(1)
Emerging Risk Factors
877(1)
Genetic Hyperlipidemias: Classification and Diagnosis
877(1)
Familial Hypercholesterolemie
877(1)
Familial Combined Hyperlipidemie
878(1)
Familial Dyslipidemie
878(1)
Familial Dysbetalipoproteinemia
878(1)
Dietary Factors
878(4)
Saturated Fatty Acids
878(1)
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
879(1)
Monounsaturated Fatty Acids
880(1)
Amount of Dietary Fat
880(1)
Dietary Cholesterol
880(1)
Other Dietary Factors
881(1)
Treatment
882(14)
Background
882(1)
Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes
883(4)
Secondary Prevention
887(1)
Therapeutic Lifestyle Change Diet
888(1)
Aggressive Diets
888(3)
Medical Intervention
891(2)
Pharmacologic Management
893(3)
Summary
896(4)
36 Medical Nutrition Therapy in Hypertension
900(19)
Debra A. Krummel, PhD, RD, LD
Definition and Classification
901(1)
Prevalence and Incidence
901(1)
Morbidity and Mortality
902(1)
Pathophysiology
903(1)
Primary Prevention
904(8)
Dietary Factors
905(1)
Excess Body Weight
906(1)
Excessive Consumption of Sodium Chloride
907(3)
Alcohol Consumption
910(1)
Physical Activity
910(1)
Other Dietary Factors
910(1)
Combination of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
911(1)
Medications
912(1)
Medical Management
912(4)
Lifestyle Modifications
912(1)
Weight Management
912(2)
Salt Restriction
914(1)
Other Dietary Modifications
914(1)
Exercise
914(1)
Pharmacologic Treatment
914(2)
Treatment of Blood Pressure in Older Adults
916(1)
Summary
916(3)
37 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Heart Failure and Transplant
919(18)
Debra A. Krummel, PhD, RD, LD
Heart Failure
920(12)
Prevalence and Incidence
921(1)
Risk Factors
921(1)
Prevention
921(2)
Pathophysiology
923(1)
Cardiac Cachexia
924(1)
Medical Management
925(2)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
927(1)
Energy
927(1)
Sodium
927(4)
Potassium
931(1)
Fluids
931(1)
Calcium and Vitamin D
931(1)
Magnesium
932(1)
Thiamin
932(1)
Feeding Strategies
932(1)
Supplements
932(1)
Cardiac Transplantation
932(2)
Pretransplant Medical Nutrition Therapy
933(1)
Posttransplant Medical Nutrition Therapy
933(1)
Summary
934(3)
38 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Pulmonary Disease
937(24)
Donna H. Mueller, PhD, RD, FADA
Relationships Between Nutrition and the Pulmonary System
938(3)
Optimal Nutrition and the Pulmonary System
938(1)
Impact of Malnutrition on the Pulmonary System
938(2)
Impact of Pulmonary System Disease on Nutritional Status
940(1)
Overview of Medical Nutrition Therapy in Pulmonary Disease
941(1)
Aspiration
942(1)
Asthma
942(1)
Pathophysiology
942(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
943(1)
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
943(2)
Pathophysiology
943(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
944(1)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
945(3)
Pathophysiology
945(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
945(3)
Cystic Fibrosis
948(7)
Pathophysiology and Diagnostic Criteria
948(2)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
950(5)
Lung Cancer
955(1)
Pneumonia
955(1)
Respiratory Failure
955(1)
Pathophysiology
955(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
955(1)
Tuberculosis
956(1)
Pathophysiology
956(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
957(1)
Summary
957(4)
39 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Renal Disorders
961(36)
Katy G. Wilkens, MS, RD
Physiology and Function of the Kidneys
962(1)
Renal Disease
963(1)
Glomerular Diseases
964(1)
Nephritic Syndrome
964(1)
Nephrotic Syndrome
964(1)
Diseases of the Tubules and Interstitium
965(4)
Acute Renal Failure
965(3)
Other Tubular or Interstitial Diseases
968(1)
Pyelonephritis
969(1)
Progressive Nature of Renal Disease
969(1)
End-Stage Renal Disease
970(18)
Pathophysiology
970(1)
Medical Treatment
970(2)
Dialysis
972(3)
Psychological Support
975(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
975(11)
ESRD in Patients With Diabetes
986(1)
ESRD in Children
986(2)
Nephrolithiasis (Kidney Stones)
988(6)
Pathophysiology
988(1)
Medical Management
988(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
988(1)
Fluid and Urine Volume
988(1)
Calcium Stones
989(3)
Uric Acid Stones
992(1)
Struvite Stones
992(1)
Cystine Stones
992(2)
Summary
994(3)
40 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Cancer Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery
997(30)
Barbara Eldridge, MS, RD, LD
Diagnosis and Medical Treatment
998(2)
Nutrition in the Etiology of Cancer
1000(4)
Energy Balance and Exercise
1000(1)
Fat
1000(1)
Protein
1001(1)
Fiber
1001(1)
Fruits and Vegetables
1001(1)
Chemoprevention
1002(1)
Alcohol
1003(1)
Coffee and Tea
1003(1)
Artificial Sweeteners
1003(1)
Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines
1003(1)
Method of Food Preparation
1004(1)
Dietary Recommendations for Cancer Prevention
1004(1)
Nutritional Implications of Cancer
1004(4)
Cancer Cachexia
1006(1)
Energy Metabolism
1007(1)
Substrate Metabolism
1007(1)
Other Metabolic Abnormalities
1007(1)
Sensory Changes
1008(1)
Nutritional Implications of Cancer Therapy
1008(6)
Goals of Nutritional Care
1008(2)
Common Nutrition Impact Symptoms of Cancer Therapies
1010(4)
Nutritional Care of Adults Diagnosed With Cancer
1014(5)
Body Weight, Energy, and Protein Needs
1015(1)
Nutrient Supplementation
1015(1)
Nutrition Screening and Assessment
1015(1)
Determining Routes of Nutritional Care
1015(1)
Oral Nutritional Management Strategies
1015(2)
Guidelines for Oral Feeding During Anticancer Therapy
1017(1)
Enteral Nutrition
1018(1)
Parenteral Nutrition
1018(1)
Home Enteral and Total Parenteral Nutrition
1018(1)
Rehabilitation and Physical Activity
1018(1)
Individuals With Advanced Cancer Receiving Palliative Care
1019(1)
Nutritional Care of Children Diagnosed With Cancer
1019(1)
Complementary and Alternative Therapies
1020(3)
Dietary Recommendations for Cancer Survivors
1021(2)
Summary
1023(4)
41 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Disease
1027(31)
Marcy Fenton, MS, RD
Elfyn Silverman, MPH, RD
Pathophysiology, Etiology, and Classification
1028(2)
Epidemiology and Trends
1030(3)
The United States
1030(3)
Worldwide
1033(1)
Manifestations and Stages of HIV Infection
1033(1)
Opportunistic Infections and Other Complications
1034(3)
Malignant Disease
1036(1)
Neuromuscular Diseases
1036(1)
HIV-Liver Disease
1037(1)
Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases
1037(1)
HIV-Associated Nephropathy
1037(1)
Other Affected Organ Systems
1037(1)
Medical Management
1037(5)
Women and HIV
1042(1)
Prenatal Considerations
1042(1)
Breast-Feeding
1043(1)
Other General Considerations for Women
1043(1)
Pediatric Considerations
1043(1)
Relationship Between Malnutrition and AIDS
1044(2)
Wasting and Metabolic Disorders
1044(2)
Lipodystrophy Syndrome
1046(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1046(5)
Screening
1047(1)
Assessment
1047(1)
Interventions
1047(4)
Complications With a Nutrition Impact
1051(3)
Diarrhea and Malabsorption
1051(1)
Disorders of the Oral Cavity and Esophagus
1052(1)
Neurologic Disorders
1053(1)
Alterations in Metabolism and Body Shape
1053(1)
Complementary and Alternative Therapies
1054(1)
Summary
1054(4)
42 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Metabolic Stress: Sepsis,Trauma, Burns, and Surgery
1058(23)
Marion F. Winkler, MS, RD, LDN, CNSD
Ainsley M. Malone, MS, RD, CNSD
Metabolic Response to Stress
1059(3)
Hormonal and Cell-Mediated Response
1059(3)
Starvation Versus Stress
1062(1)
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
1062(8)
Pathophysiology
1062(2)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1064(5)
Anabolic Hormones
1069(1)
Head Injury
1070(1)
Pathophysiology
1070(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1071(1)
Major Burns
1071(5)
Pathophysiology
1071(1)
Medical Management
1072(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1072(4)
Surgery
1076(2)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1076(2)
Summary
1078(3)
43 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Neurologic Disorders
1081(40)
Valentina M. Remig, PhD, RD, LD, FADA
Cecilia Romero, MD
Neurologic Disease Massification
1082(1)
Nervous System Wiring and Lesions
1083(3)
Localizing Signs of Mass Lesions
1083(3)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1086(1)
Problems With Procurement of Food
1086(6)
Meal Preparation
1086
Feeding Issues: Presentation of Food to the Mouth
1081(6)
Eating: The Oral Process
1087(1)
Swallowing
1088(1)
Liquids
1089(1)
Textures
1090(1)
Nutrition Support
1090(2)
Neurologic Diseases Arising From Nutritional Deficiencies or Excesses
1092(4)
Primary Prevention Strategies: Beriberi and Pellagra
1092(1)
Pernicious Anemia
1092(1)
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
1093(1)
Stroke
1094(2)
Neurologic Diseases With Nonnutrition Etiologies
1096(21)
Adrenoleukodystrophy
1096(1)
Alzheimer's Disease
1097(3)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
1100(5)
Epilepsy
1105(2)
Guillain-Barré Syndrome
1107(1)
Migraine Headache
1108(1)
Myasthenia Gravis
1109(1)
Multiple Sclerosis
1109(2)
Parkinson's Disease
1111(2)
Neurotrauma
1113(2)
Spine Trauma
1115(2)
Summary
1117(4)
44 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Rheumatic Disorders
1121(22)
Lisa Dorfman, MS, RD, LMHC
Etiology
1122(1)
Pathophysiology of Inflammation in Rheumatic Diseases
1123(1)
Drugs Commonly Used to Reduce Inflammation
1123(1)
Osteoarthritis
1124(2)
Pathophysiology
1124(1)
Medical Management
1124(1)
Surgery
1124(1)
Exercise
1124(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1124(2)
Herbs and Complementary Therapy
1126(1)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
1126(7)
Pathophysiology
1127(1)
Medical Management
1127(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1128(5)
Sjogren's Syndrome
1133(1)
Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome
1134(1)
Gout
1134(1)
Pathophysiology
1134(1)
Medical Management
1134(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1135(1)
Scleroderma
1135(1)
Pathophysiology
1135(1)
Medical Management
1136(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1136(1)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
1136(1)
Pathophysiology
1136(1)
Medical Management
1137(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1137(1)
Chronic Fatigue Disorder Syndrome and Fibromyalgia
1137(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1137(1)
Complementary Therapy
1137(1)
Controversies and Unproven
Remedies for Rheumatic Disorders
1138(1)
Summary
1138(5)
45 Medical Nutriton Therapy for Metabolic Disorders
1143(28)
Cristine M. Trahms, MS, RD, CD, FADA
Newborn Screening
1144(1)
Goals of Medical Nutrition Therapy
1144(1)
Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism
1144(13)
Phenylketonuria
1145(12)
Maple Syrup Urine Disease
1157(1)
Disorders of Organic Acid Metabolism
1157(2)
Pathophysiology
1157(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1158(1)
Disorders of Urea Cycle Metabolism
1159(2)
Pathophysiology
1159(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1160(1)
Disorders Carbohydrate Metabolism
1161(1)
Galactosemia
1161(1)
Glycogen Storage Diseases
1161(2)
Disorders of Fatty Acid Oxidation
1163(1)
Pathophysiology
1163(1)
Medical Nutrition Therapy
1164(1)
Other Disorders
1164(1)
Role of Nutritionist in Medical Nutrition Therapy for Metabolic Disorders
1164(2)
Summary
1166
APPENDIXES
1 General Abbreviations
1171(1)
2 Unit Abbreviations
1172(1)
3 Potential ICD-9-CM Codes for Nutrition Services
1173(3)
4 Milliequivalents and Milligrams of Electrolytes
1176(1)
5 Approximate Conversions to and From Metric Measures
1176(1)
Nutritional Physical Assessment
6 Birth to 36 Months: Boys Length-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles
1177(1)
7 Birth to 36 Months: Boys Head Circumference-for-Age and Weight-for Length Percentiles
1178(1)
8 2 to 20 Years: Boys Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles
1179(1)
9 Birth to 36 Months: Girls Length-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles
1180(1)
10 Birth to 36 Months: Girls Head Circumference-for-Age and Weight-for Length Percentiles
1181(1)
11 2 to 20 Years: Girls Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles
1182(1)
12 Tanner Stages of Adolescent Development for Females
1183(1)
13 Tanner Stages of Adolescent Development for Males
1183(1)
14 Direct Methods for Measuring Height and Weight
1184(1)
15 Indirect Methods for Measuring Height
1184(1)
16 Determination of Frame Size
1185(1)
17 Body Mass Index (BMI) Table
1186(1)
18 Body Mass Index-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years
1187(1)
19 Body Mass Index-for-Age Percentiles: Girls, 2 to 20 Years
1188(1)
20A Body Mass Index, Mid-Upper Arm Circumference,Triceps Skinfold Thickness, and Arm Muscle Circumference for Men 50Years of Age and Older Examined in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994)
1189(1)
20B Body Mass Index, Mid-Upper Arm Circumference,Triceps Skinfold Thickness, and Arm Muscle Circumference for Women 50Years of Age and Older Examined in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994)
1190(1)
21 Arm Anthropometry for Children
1191(1)
22 Arm Anthropometry for Adults
1192(1)
23 Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Weight (kg) by Height (cm) for Males of 2 to 74 Years
1193(1)
24 Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Weight (kg) by Height (cm) for Females of 2 to 74 Years
1194(1)
25 Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Weight (kg) by Age for Adult Males of Small, Medium, and Large Frames
1195(1)
26 Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Weight (kg) by Age for Adult Females of Small, Medium, and Large Frames
1196(1)
27 Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Triceps Skinfold Thickness (mm) by Age for Males and Females of 1 to 50 Years
1197(1)
28 Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Upper Arm Muscle Area (cm2) by Height (cm) for Boys and Girls of 2 to 17Years
1198(1)
29 Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Upper Arm Muscle Area (cm2) by Age for Adult Males of Small, Medium, and Large Frames
1199(1)
30 Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Upper Arm Muscle Area (cm2) by Age for Adult Females of Small, Medium, and Large Frames
1200(1)
31 Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Upper Arm Fat Area (cm2) by Age for Males and Females of 1 to 74 Years
1201(1)
32 Nutrition-Focused Physical Assessment
1202(4)
LABORATORYTESTS, DRUGS,AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
33 A Guide to the Use of Laboratory Data in Nutritional Assessment and Monitoring
1206(14)
34 Nutritional Implications of Selected Drugs
1220(6)
35 Counseling Patients on Dietary Supplements
1226(2)
ENTERAL FORMULAS
36 Milk-Based Formulas or Products Designed to Be Mixed With Milk
1228(1)
37A Whole-Protein, Lactose-Free Formulas With 0.5 kcal/ml
1228(1)
37B Whole-Protein, Lactose-Free Formulas With 1 to 1.2 kcal/ml
1229(2)
37C Whole-Protein, Lactose-Free Formulas With 1.5 and 2.0 kcal/ml
1231(1)
38 Specially Designed Formulas: Clear Liquid, Fat Malabsorption, Glucose Intolerance, Hepatic, Immune-Support, Metabolic Stress, Pulmonary, Renal
1232(3)
39 Defined Formulas
1235(1)
40 Pediatric Specialized Formulas
1236(1)
41 Modular Components for Enteral Feedings
1237(1)
NUTRIENT TABLES
42 Fiber Content of Selected Foods
1238(2)
43 Caffeine Content of Foods
1240(1)
44 Nutritive Values for Alcoholic Beverages and Mixes
1241(1)
45A Oxalate Content of Foods
1242(1)
45B Bioavailability of Oxalate
1243(1)
46 Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Selected Foods
1244(2)
47 Carotenoid Content of Fruits and Vegetables
1246(3)
48 Vitamin D Content of Foods
1249(2)
49 Vitamin E Content of Foods as a-Tocopherol (mg)
1251(2)
50 Vitamin K Content of Foods
1253(1)
51 Selenium Content of Foods
1254(5)
MENU PLANNING LISTS
52 Caloric Expenditure Worksheet for Various Exercise Activities Based on Body Weight
1259(3)
53 Exchange Lists for Meal Planning
1262(9)
54 Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load of Selected Foods
1271(1)
55 National Dysphagia Diets
1272(6)
MISCELLANEOUS
56 The Nutrition Care Process
1278(4)
57 Percentage of Body Fat Based on Four Skinfold Measurements
1282


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