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Laboratory Investigations in Anatomy and Physiology : Pig Version

by
ISBN13:

9780805353235

ISBN10:
0805353232
Format:
Spiral Bound
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings

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Summary

This concise lab manual moves beyond "cookbook"-style lab instruction to help you develop the investigative skills required for a successful career in health care. Consistently emphasizing the relationship between structure and function, author Stephen Sarikas guides you in predicting outcomes and interpreting what you experience in the lab. Through the use of an engaging "connected learning" technique, each exercise step builds on the last to help you understand complex ideas and make connections between concepts. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
Body Organization and Terminologyp. 1
Using Anatomical Terms to Describe Body Organizationp. 2
Defining Anatomical Planes and Sectionsp. 5
Identifying Organs and Organ Systemsp. 6
Identifying Anatomical Regionsp. 9
Exploring the Body Cavitiesp. 12
Examining the General Organization of Serous Membranesp. 12
Review Sheet: Body Organization and Terminologyp. 15
Care and Use of the Compound Light Microscopep. 17
Learning the Parts of a Light Microscopep. 18
Viewing a Specimen with the Compound Microscopep. 19
Viewing the Letter ep. 20
Perceiving Depth of Fieldp. 21
Using the Oil Immersion Lensp. 21
Determining the Diameter of the Field of Viewp. 22
Review Sheet: Care and Use of the Compound Light Microscopep. 25
The Cell
Cell Structure and Cell Divisionp. 27
Preparing a Wet Mount of Cheek Epithelial Cellsp. 31
Light Microscopic Observations of Various Cell Typesp. 33
Examining a Model of a Typical Eukaryotic Cellp. 33
Electron Microscopic Observations of Cellsp. 34
Examining the Stages of Mitosisp. 36
Review Sheet: Cell Structure and Cell Divisionp. 37
Membrane Transportp. 39
Demonstrating Simple Diffusionp. 42
Demonstrating Membrane Permeabilityp. 44
Observing Osmosisp. 45
Review Sheet: Membrane Transportp. 47
Tissues
Epithelial and Connective Tissuesp. 49
Microscopic Observations of Epithelial Tissuep. 50
Microscopic Observations of Connective Tissuep. 56
Review Sheet: Epithelial and Connective Tissuesp. 63
The Integumentary System
The Integumentary Systemp. 67
Examining Fingerprint Patternsp. 69
Examining the Microscopic Structure of Skinp. 69
Examining the Accessory Structures of Skinp. 70
Examining the Anatomical Model of Skinp. 73
Examining the Structure of Nailsp. 73
Review Sheet: The Integumentary Systemp. 75
The Skeletal System
Introduction to the Skeletal System and the Axial Skeletonp. 77
Classifying Bones According to Shapep. 77
Classifying Bones According to Locationp. 78
Examining the Microscopic Structure of Bonep. 81
Examining the Gross Anatomy and Arrangement of Compact and Spongy Bonep. 81
Identifying the Bones of the Skullp. 83
Identifying the Bony Landmarks and Openings of the Skullp. 87
Examining the Fetal Skullp. 87
Examining the General Features of the Vertebral Columnp. 90
Examining the Unique Features of Specific Vertebraep. 92
Examining the Structure of the Thoracic Cagep. 95
Review Sheet: Introduction to the Skeletal System and the Axial Skeletonp. 99
The Appendicular Skeletonp. 105
Examination of the Upper Extremityp. 106
Examination of the Lower Extremityp. 110
Review Sheet: The Appendicular Skeletonp. 119
Articulationsp. 125
Examining the Structure of Fibrous Jointsp. 126
Examining the Structure of Cartilaginous Jointsp. 129
Understanding the Types of Movements at Synovial Jointsp. 131
Examining the Structure and Range of Motion at Synovial Jointsp. 131
Examining the Structure of Specific Synovial Jointsp. 136
Review Sheet: Articulationsp. 145
The Muscular System
Histology of Muscle Tissuep. 147
Light Microscopic Structure of Skeletal Musclep. 147
Light Microscopic Structure of Cardiac Musclep. 148
Light Microscopic Structure of Smooth Musclep. 149
Examining Skeletal Muscle Cells in Three Dimensionsp. 150
Examining the Neuromuscular Junction at a Skeletal Muscle Cellp. 151
Observing the Contraction of Skeletal Muscle Fibersp. 153
Review Sheet: Histology of Muscle Tissuep. 155
Gross Anatomy of the Muscular Systemp. 157
Identifying Muscles of the Headp. 158
Identifying Muscles of the Neckp. 165
Identifying Respiratory Muscles of the Thoraxp. 169
Identifying Abdominal Wall Musclesp. 172
Identifying Deep Back Musclesp. 174
Identifying Pelvic Floor Musclesp. 177
Identifying Anterior Shoulder Musclesp. 178
Identifying Posterior Shoulder Musclesp. 180
Identifying Anterior Arm Musclesp. 184
Identifying Triceps Brachiip. 187
Identifying Anterior Forearm Musclesp. 187
Identifying Posterior Forearm Musclesp. 192
Identifying Intrinsic Hand Musclesp. 195
Identifying Gluteal Musclesp. 198
Identifying Anterior Thigh Musclesp. 200
Identifying Medial Thigh Musclesp. 203
Identifying Posterior Thigh Musclesp. 204
Identifying Anterior Leg Musclesp. 205
Identifying Lateral Leg Musclesp. 206
Identifying Posterior Leg Musclesp. 208
Identifying Intrinsic Foot Musclesp. 210
Review Sheet: Gross Anatomy of the Muscular Systemp. 213
Physiology of the Muscular Systemp. 217
Demonstrating Isotonic and Isometric Contractionsp. 219
Examining Resistance Versus Contraction Speedp. 220
Demonstrating Multiple Motor Unit Summationp. 220
Demonstrating Muscle Fatiguep. 221
Testing Muscle Flexibilityp. 222
Recording EMG Using the BIOPAC Systemp. 224
Review Sheet: Physiology of the Muscular Systemp. 229
The Nervous System
Histology of Nervous Tissuep. 231
Identifying Major Components of Multipolar Neuronsp. 236
Examining the Synapsep. 237
Examining Microscopic Structure of the Cerebrump. 238
Examining Microscopic Structure of the Cerebellump. 239
Examining Microscopic Structure of the Spinal Cordp. 240
Examining Microscopic Structure of Spinal Nerve Rootsp. 242
Examining Microscopic Structure of Peripheral Nervesp. 242
Demonstrating the Significance of the Myelin Sheathp. 244
Review Sheet: Histology of Nervous Tissuep. 245
The Brain and Cranial Nervesp. 247
Dissecting the Sheep Meningesp. 251
Dissecting Surface Structures on the Sheep Brainp. 256
Examining a Midsagittal Section of the Sheep Brainp. 257
Examining a Coronal Section of the Sheep Brainp. 258
Examining Brain Ventricles and CSF Flowp. 259
Electroencephalography Using the Biopac Student Lab Systemp. 260
Identifying the Origins of the Cranial Nervesp. 263
Identifying the Openings for the Cranial Nervesp. 265
Testing the Functions of Cranial Nervesp. 266
Review Sheet: The Brain and Cranial Nervesp. 273
The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nervesp. 277
Identifying Spinal Meninges and Associated Structuresp. 277
Examining the Gross Anatomyp. 280
Using a Two-Point Discrimination Testp. 282
Testing General Sensory Function in Dermatomesp. 284
Review Sheet: The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nervesp. 285
Human Reflex Physiologyp. 287
Assessing Coordinationp. 288
Assessing Balancep. 288
Assessing Coordinated Movement and Balancep. 289
Reflex Tests for the Upper Extremityp. 292
Reflex Tests for the Lower Extremityp. 292
Review Sheet: Human Reflex Physiologyp. 295
Special Sensesp. 297
Examining the Anatomy of Olfactory Structuresp. 299
Testing Olfactory Adaptationp. 300
Examining the Anatomy of Gustatory Structuresp. 302
Testing Gustatory Sensationsp. 302
Examining the Anatomy of Vision Structuresp. 306
Performing Visual Testsp. 311
Examining Ear Anatomyp. 318
Performing Hearing Testsp. 321
Review Sheet: Special Sensesp. 323
The Endocrine System
The Endocrine Systemp. 327
Examining Gross Anatomy of the Endocrine Systemp. 327
Examining Microscopic Anatomy of Endocrine Organsp. 336
Review Sheet: The Endocrine Systemp. 341
The Cardiovascular System
Blood Cellsp. 343
Identifying Blood Cellsp. 344
Identifying White Blood Cell Typesp. 345
Performing a Differential White Blood Cell Countp. 346
Determining Your Blood Typep. 349
Review Sheet: Blood Cellsp. 353
Gross Anatomy of the Heartp. 355
Examining the Organization of the Pericardiump. 355
Examining the Gross Anatomy of the Human Heartp. 357
Identifying the Blood Vessels of the Coronary Circulationp. 360
Tracing the Flow of Blood Through the Heart Chambersp. 362
Dissection of the Sheep Heartp. 363
Review Sheet: Gross Anatomy of the Heartp. 367
Anatomy of Blood Vesselsp. 371
Examining the Microscopic Structure of Blood Vesselsp. 373
Identifying the Major Blood Vessels in the Pulmonary Circuitp. 376
Identifying the Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulationp. 377
Identifying the Major Veins of the Systemic Circulationp. 383
Identifying Collateral Pathways in the Systemic Circulationp. 389
Review Sheet: Anatomy of Blood Vesselsp. 391
Cardiovascular Physiologyp. 393
Listening for Heart Soundsp. 394
Measuring Blood Pressurep. 396
Examining the Effect of Exercise on Blood Pressurep. 397
Measuring the Pulse Ratep. 398
Examining the Effect of Exercise on Pulse Ratep. 398
Using the Biopac Student Lab System to Measure and Evaluate the Electrical Activity of the Heartp. 400
Review Sheet: Cardiovascular Physiologyp. 405
The Lymphatic System
The Lymphatic Systemp. 407
Examining the Gross Anatomical Structure of the Lymphatic Systemp. 407
Examining the Microscopic Structure of Lymphatic Structuresp. 413
Observing the Antigen-Antibody Reaction Using Immunodiffusionp. 416
Review Sheet: The Lymphatic Systemp. 419
The Respiratory System
Anatomy of the Respiratory Systemp. 421
Examining the Gross Anatomy of the Nose and Nasal Cavityp. 421
Examining the Gross Anatomy of the Pharynxp. 423
Examining the Gross Anatomy of the Larynxp. 423
Examining the Gross Anatomy of the Tracheap. 425
Examining the Gross Anatomy of the Lungsp. 426
Examining the Gross Anatomy of the Bronchial Treep. 428
Examining the Microscopic Anatomy of the Respiratory Mucosap. 429
Examining the Microscopic Anatomy of the Tracheap. 430
Examining the Microscopic Anatomy of the Lungsp. 431
Review Sheet: Anatomy of the Respiratory Systemp. 435
Respiratory Physiologyp. 439
Examining Pulmonary Ventilationp. 441
Measuring Respiratory Volumesp. 444
Calculating Respiratory Volumes and Capacitiesp. 445
Predicting and Measuring Vital Capacityp. 447
Using the Biopac Student Lab System to Measure Depth of Ventilation and Breathing Ratep. 448
Review Sheet: Respiratory Physiologyp. 451
The Digestive System
Anatomy of the Digestive Systemp. 453
Examining the General Organization of the Peritoneump. 456
Examining the Gross Anatomical Structure of the Alimentary Canalp. 456
Examining the Gross Anatomy of the Teeth, Salivary Glands, and Tonguep. 463
Examining the Gross Anatomy of the Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreasp. 466
Examining the Microscopic Structure of the Alimentary Canalp. 469
Examining the Microscopic Structure of Accessory Digestive Organsp. 475
Review Sheet: Anatomy of the Digestive Systemp. 479
Actions of a Digestive Enzymep. 483
Conducting the Control Testsp. 484
Testing for the Presence of Starch and Disaccharides in Various Beveragesp. 485
Testing the Effect of pH on Amylase Activityp. 486
Review Sheet: Actions of a Digestive Enzymep. 489
The Urinary System
Anatomy of the Urinary Systemp. 491
Examining the Gross Anatomy of the Urinary Systemp. 492
Examining the Nephronp. 494
Examining the Blood Supply of the Kidneyp. 496
Examining the Microscopic Anatomy of the Urinary Systemp. 496
Dissecting a Kidneyp. 501
Review Sheet: Anatomy of the Urinary Systemp. 503
Urinary Physiologyp. 505
Examining the Physical Characteristics of Urinep. 507
Measuring the Specific Gravity of Urinep. 508
Examining the Chemical Characteristics of Urinep. 509
Examining a Urine Sample Microscopicallyp. 510
Review Sheet: Urinary Physiologyp. 511
The Reproductive Systems
The Male Reproductive Systemp. 513
Examining the Gross Anatomy of the Male Reproductive Systemp. 515
Examining the Microscopic Anatomy of Male Reproductive Organsp. 518
Review Sheet: The Male Reproductive Systemp. 521
The Female Reproductive Systemp. 523
Examining the Gross Anatomy of the Female Reproductive Systemp. 525
Identifying Homologous Reproductive Structuresp. 529
Examining the Microscopic Structure of Female Reproductive Organsp. 529
Review Sheet: The Female Reproductive Systemp. 535
Pig Dissection Exercises
Introduction to the Fetal Pig and Removal of the Skinp. 543
Identifying the Bones of the Pig Skeletonp. 544
Identifying External Structures on the Fetal Pigp. 545
Removing the Skin from the Fetal Pigp. 547
Review Sheet: Introduction to the Fetal Pig and Removal of the Skinp. 549
Dissection of the Fetal Pig Muscular Systemp. 551
Identifying Muscles of the Ventral Thorax and Abdomenp. 551
Identifying Muscles of the Dorsal Thorax and Abdomenp. 555
Identifying Muscles of the Head and Neckp. 557
Identifying Muscles of the Forelimbp. 558
Identifying Muscles of the Hindlimbp. 559
Review Sheet: Dissection of the Fetal Pig Muscular Systemp. 563
Dissection of the Fetal Pig Nervous Systemp. 565
Dissecting the Spinal Cord and Spinal Nervesp. 567
Identifying Major Nerves of the Brachial Plexusp. 567
Identifying Major Nerves of the Lumbosacral Plexusp. 568
Review Sheet: Dissection of the Fetal Pig Nervous Systemp. 569
Dissection of the Fetal Pig Ventral Body Cavities and Endocrine Systemp. 571
Opening the Thoracic and Abdominal Cavitiesp. 571
Exploring the Thoracic and Abdominal Cavitiesp. 572
Identifying Organs of the Fetal Pig Endocrine Systemp. 573
Review Sheet: Dissection of the Fetal Pig Ventral Body Cavities and Endocrine Systemp. 577
Dissection of the Fetal Pig Cardiovascular Systemp. 579
Identifying External Heart Structures and the Great Vesselsp. 579
Identifying Internal Heart Structuresp. 581
Identifying Arteries of the Head, Neck, and Forelimbp. 582
Identifying Arteries of the Thorax, Abdomen, and Hindlimbp. 583
Identifying Veins of the Head, Neck, Thorax, and Forelimbp. 585
Identifying Veins of the Abdomen, Pelvis, and Hindlimbp. 585
Review Sheet: Dissection of the Fetal Pig Cardiovascular Systemp. 591
Dissection of the Fetal Pig Lymphatic Systemp. 593
Identifying Lymphatic Organs in the Fetal Pigp. 593
Identifying the Thoracic Duct in the Fetal Pigp. 595
Review Sheet: Dissection of the Fetal Pig Lymphatic Systemp. 597
Dissection of the Fetal Pig Respiratory Systemp. 599
Identifying Fetal Pig Respiratory Organsp. 599
Identifying Respiratory Organs in the Thoracic Cavityp. 601
Review Sheet: Dissection of the Fetal Pig Respiratory Systemp. 603
Dissection of the Fetal Pig Digestive Systemp. 605
Identifying Digestive and Respiratory Structures in the Headp. 605
Tracing the Path of the Esophagusp. 608
Identifying Digestive Organs in the Abdominal Cavityp. 608
Review Sheet: Dissection of the Fetal Pig Digestive Systemp. 611
Dissection of the Fetal Pig Urinary Systemp. 613
Identifying Fetal Pig Urinary System Structuresp. 613
Review Sheet: Dissection of the Fetal Pig Urinary Systemp. 617
Dissection of the Fetal Pig Reproductive Systemp. 619
Identifying Male Fetal Pig Reproductive Structuresp. 619
Identifying Female Fetal Pig Reproductive Structuresp. 621
Review Sheet: Dissection of the Fetal Pig Reproductive Systemp. 623
Writing a Laboratory Reportp. 625
Weights and Measuresp. 627
Photo Creditsp. 629
Indexp. 631
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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