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LabVIEW for Everyone,9780130650962
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LabVIEW for Everyone

by
ISBN13:

9780130650962

ISBN10:
013065096X
Format:
Paperback w/CD
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall PTR
List Price: $73.00
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Summary

The #1 step-by-step guide to LabVIEW--now completely updated for LabVIEW 6i.No experience necessary! Learn LabVIEW through examples and easy-to-adapt sample code New! Web connectivity, DataSocket, VI Server, 3D graphs, waveform datatypes, VISA, Measurement and Automation Explorer, and moreCD-ROM: All sample code, plus complete evaluation version of LabVIEW 6i!LabVIEW is the #1 graphical programming language for engineers and scientists worldwide. Now the best-selling, most authoritative introduction to LabVIEW has been fully revised to make LabVIEW programming easier than ever--and to reflect the latest enhancements in National Instruments' LabVIEW 6i. Designed for non-experts, "LabVIEW for Everyone, Second Edition" teaches LabVIEW through intuitive, friendly, step-by-step examples--giving you code that's easy to reuse in your own projects!Not just what to do: why to do it!The LabVIEW programming environment: building your own virtual workbenchKey fundamentals: virtual instruments, graphs, charts, datatypes, file I/O, and moreExpert techniques and tips for data acquisition and instrument controlExtensive new coverage: Web connectivity, DataSocket, VI Server, 3-D graphs, waveform datatypes, VISA, Measurement and Automation Explorer, and more The "art" of successful LabVIEW programming: style, user interfaces, online help, and moreManaging your LabVIEW programming projectsWhatever your application, whatever your role, whether you've used LabVIEW or not, "LabVIEW for Everyone, Second Edition" is the fastest, easiest way to get the results you're after!About the CD-ROMTheaccompanying CD-ROM contains an extensive library of sample code, plus a complete time-limited evaluation version of LabVIEW 6i.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
Fundamentals
Introduction --- What in the World Is LabVIEW?
3(16)
What Exactly Is LabVIEW, and What Can It Do for Me?
3(5)
Dataflow and the Graphical Programming Language
5(1)
How Does LabVIEW Work?
6(2)
Demonstration Examples
8(8)
Activity 1-1: Temperature System Demo
9(5)
Activity 1-2: Frequency Response Example
14(2)
Wrap it Up!
16(1)
Additional Activities
16(3)
Virtual Instrumentation: Hooking Your Computer Up to the Real World
19(18)
The Evolution of LabVIEW
19(2)
What Is Data Acquisition?
21(3)
What Is a GPIB?
24(2)
Communication Using the Serial Port
26(1)
Real-World Applications: Why We Analyze
27(2)
A Little Bit about PXI and VXI
29(2)
Connectivity
31(3)
Internet Connectivity
31(1)
Networking
32(1)
ActiveX
33(1)
DLLs and CINs
33(1)
LabVIEW Add-on Toolkits
34(1)
Wrap It Up!
35(2)
The LabVIEW Environment: Building Your Own Workbench
37(38)
Front Panels
37(1)
Controls and Indicators
37(1)
Block Diagrams
38(3)
Terminals
39(1)
Nodes
40(1)
Wires
40(1)
Dataflow Programming --- Going with the Flow
41(1)
The Icon and the Connector
41(8)
Activity 3-1: Getting Started
42(7)
Pull-Down Menus
49(3)
Floating Palettes
52(5)
Controls and Functions Palettes
52(3)
The Thumbtack
55(1)
Customizable Palettes
55(1)
Tools Palette
55(2)
The Toolbar
57(3)
Pop-Up Menus
60(5)
Pop-Up Menu Features to Keep in Mind
61(1)
Pop-Up Features Described
62(3)
Help!
65(2)
The Context Help Window
65(2)
A Word about SubVIs
67(1)
Activity 3-2: Front Panel and Block Diagram Basics
68(4)
Wrap It Up!
72(3)
LabVIEW Foundations
75(40)
Creating VIs---It's Your Turn Now!
75(13)
Placing Items on the Front Panel
75(1)
Labeling Items
76(3)
Changing Font, Style, Size, and Color of Text
79(1)
Placing Items on the Block Diagram
79(1)
Editing Techniques
80(8)
Basic Controls and Indicators and the Fun Stuff They Do
88(10)
Numeric Controls and Indicators
90(4)
Booleans
94(2)
Strings
96(1)
Paths
97(1)
Decorations
97(1)
Custom Controls and Indicators
97(1)
Summary of Basic Controls and Indicators
98(1)
Wiring Up
98(5)
Automatic Wiring
99(1)
Wiring Complicated Objects
100(1)
Bad Wires
100(1)
Wiring Tips
101(1)
Wire Stretching
102(1)
Selecting and Deleting Wires
102(1)
Moving Wires
102(1)
Wiring to Off-Screen Areas
103(1)
Adding Constants, Controls, and Indicators Automatically
103(1)
Running Your VI
103(5)
Activity 4-2: Building a Thermometer
104(4)
Useful Tips
108(4)
Wrap It Up!
112(1)
Additional Activities
112(3)
Yet More Foundations
115(32)
Loading and Saving VIs
115(3)
Save Options
116(1)
Revert
117(1)
Save and Load Dialogs
117(1)
Filter Rings
118(1)
VI Libraries
118(3)
Reasons for Using VI Libraries
119(1)
Reasons to Save VIs as Individual Files
119(1)
How to Use VI Libraries
119(1)
The Edit VI Library Dialog
120(1)
The VI Library Manager
121(1)
Debugging Techniques
121(9)
Fixing a Broken VI
122(1)
Warnings
122(1)
Most Common Mistakes
123(1)
Single-Stepping through a VI
123(1)
Execution Highlighting
124(1)
Using the Probe
125(2)
Setting Breakpoints
127(1)
Suspending Execution
127(1)
Activity 5-1: Debugging Challenge
128(2)
Creating SubVIs
130(7)
Creating a SubVI from a VI
131(4)
Creating a SubVI from a Block Diagram Selection
135(1)
SubVI Help: Recommended, Required, and Optional Inputs
136(1)
Documenting Your Work
137(2)
Creating Descriptions and Tips for Individual Objects
137(1)
Documenting VIs in the VI Properties
138(1)
A Little about Printing
139(1)
Activity 5-2: Creating SubVIs---Practice Makes Perfect
139(3)
Wrap It Up!
142(1)
Additional Activities
143(4)
Controlling Program Execution with Structures
147(34)
Two Loops
147(8)
The For Loop
147(1)
The While Loop
148(1)
Placing Objects Inside Structures
149(2)
Activity 6-1: Counting with Loops
151(4)
Shift Registers
155(5)
Activity 6-2: Shift Register Example
156(2)
Why You Need Shift Registers
158(1)
Initializing Shift Registers
159(1)
Case Structures
160(6)
Wiring Inputs and Outputs
161(1)
Adding Cases
162(1)
Dialog Boxes
162(1)
Activity 6-3: Square Roots
163(2)
The Select Function
165(1)
Sequence Structures
166(5)
Sequence Locals
167(1)
Timing
168(1)
Activity 6-4: Matching Numbers
169(2)
The Formula Node
171(4)
Activity 6-5: Formula Fun
173(2)
Wrap It Up!
175(1)
Additional Activities
176(5)
LabVIEW's Composite Data: Arrays and Clusters
181(34)
What Are Arrays?
181(1)
Creating Array Controls and Indicators
182(2)
Using Auto-Indexing
184(2)
Two-Dimensional Arrays
186(1)
Activity 7-1: Building Arrays with Auto-Indexing
187(2)
Functions for Manipulating Arrays
189(3)
Activity 7-2: Array Acrobatics
192(2)
Polymorphism
194(2)
Activity 7-3: Polymorphism
196(1)
Compound Arithmetic
197(2)
All about Clusters
199(1)
Creating Cluster Controls and Indicators
200(1)
Cluster Order
201(1)
Using Clusters to Pass Data to and from SubVIs
202(1)
Bundling Your Data
202(1)
Replacing a Cluster Element
203(1)
Unbundling Your Clusters
203(1)
Activity 7-4: Cluster Practice
204(2)
Bundling and Unbundling by Name
206(2)
Activity 7-5: More Fun with Clusters
208(1)
Interchangeable Arrays and Clusters
209(1)
Wrap It Up!
210(2)
Additional Activities
212(3)
LabVIEW's Exciting Visual Displays: Charts and Graphs
215(48)
Waveform Charts
215(5)
Chart Update Modes
216(1)
Single-Plot Charts
217(1)
Wiring a Multiple-Plot Chart
217(1)
Show the Digital Display?
218(1)
The Scrollbar
218(1)
Clearing the Chart
218(1)
Stacked and Overlaid Plots
218(1)
Multiple X and Y Scales
219(1)
Chart History Length
219(1)
Activity 8-1: Temperature Monitor
220(4)
Graphs
224(3)
Single-Plot Waveform Graphs
225(1)
Multiple-Plot Waveform Graphs
226(1)
Activity 8-2: Graphing a Sine on a Waveform Graph
227(4)
XY Graphs
231(1)
Chart and Graph Components
232(10)
Playing with the Scales
233(3)
The Plot Legend
236(2)
Activity 8-3: Using on XY Graph to Plot a Circle
238(1)
Using the Graph Palette
239(1)
Graph Cursors
240(2)
Activity 8-4: Temperature Analysis
242(3)
Intensity Charts and Graphs---Color as a Third Dimension
245(7)
Activity 8-5: The Intensity Graph
246(2)
3D Graphs
248(3)
Digital Waveform Graphs
251(1)
Waveforms
252(7)
Waveforms versus Arrays
253(1)
Waveform Functions
254(3)
Activity 8-6: Generate and Plot a Waveform
257(2)
Wrap It Up!
259(1)
Additional Activities
260(3)
Exploring Strings and File I/O
263(22)
More about Strings
263(4)
Choose Your Own Display Type
263(2)
Single-Line Strings
265(1)
Updating While You Type
265(1)
The Scrollbar
266(1)
Tables
266(1)
Listboxes
267(1)
Using String Functions
267(3)
Activity 9-1: String Construction
270(1)
Parsing Functions
271(2)
Activity 9-2: More String Parsing
273(2)
File Input/Output
275(2)
How They Work
275(2)
Activity 9-3: Writing to a Spreadsheet File
277(1)
Activity 9-4: Reading from the Spreadsheet File
278(1)
Wrap It Up!
279(1)
Additional Activities
280(3)
Advanced Topics
Introduction to the Advanced Section
283(2)
Getting Data into and out of Your Computer: Data Acquisition and Instrument Control
285(50)
Acronyms Unlimited
285(2)
How to Connect Your Computer to the Real World
287(2)
Signals 101
289(24)
Timing Is Everything
290(1)
Signal Classification
290(8)
Signal Conditioning
298(4)
Finding a Common Ground
302(2)
Measuring Differences
304(5)
Sampling, Aliasing, and Mr. Nyquist
309(3)
In Conclusion
312(1)
Selecting and Configuring DAQ Measurement Hardware
313(3)
Choosing Your Hardware
313(3)
Activity 10-2: Measurement System Analysis
316(1)
Installing the Boards
317(9)
Analog I/O Settings
318(1)
Measurement and Automation Explorer (MAX)
319(7)
DAQ Boards under MacOS and Linux
326(1)
Using a GPIB Board
326(2)
Getting Ready for Serial Communications
328(2)
Wrap It Up!
330(1)
Solutions to Activities
331(4)
DAQ and Instrument Control in LabVIEW
335(40)
Definitions, Drivers, and Devices
335(3)
Buffers
336(1)
Triggering
337(1)
Analog I/O
338(23)
Quick and Dirty Analog I/O: The Top Tier
341(3)
Activity 11-1: Analog Input
344(1)
Activity 11-2: More Analog Input
345(2)
Better Analog I/O: The Middle Tier
347(5)
Activity 11-3: Buffered DAQ
352(1)
Activity 11-4: More Fun with DAQ
353(1)
Nerd-Level Analog I/O
354(1)
Activity 11-5: Continuous Acquisition
354(4)
Activity 11-6: Triggering
358(2)
Activity 11-7: Streaming to Disk
360(1)
Digital I/O
361(4)
Quick and Dirty Digital I/O: The Top Tier
363(2)
Activity 11-8: Digital Output
365(1)
Instrument Control in LabVIEW: VISA, GPIB, and Serial
365(7)
VISA
366(2)
GPIB
368(1)
Serial Communications
369(1)
Instrument Drivers
370(2)
Wrap It Up!
372(3)
Advanced LabVIEW Functions and Structures
375(40)
Local and Global Variables
375(15)
Local Variables
376(8)
Global Variables
384(6)
Property Nodes
390(10)
Other LabVIEW Goodies
400(4)
Dialogs
401(1)
Saying ``NO'' Harshly
402(1)
Sound
403(1)
Calling Code from Other Languages
404(3)
Using CINs
405(2)
Fitting Square Pegs into Round Holes: Advanced Conversions and Typecasting
407(5)
Wrap It Up!
412(3)
Advanced LabVIEW Features
415(32)
Options, Options
415(2)
Configuring Your VI
417(8)
SubVI Node Setup Options
418(1)
Activity 13-1: Using SubVIs
418(2)
VI Properties Options
420(1)
Window Appearance
421(2)
Execution
423(2)
The VI Server
425(11)
Mechanisms for Accessing the VI Server
427(6)
Keyboard Navigation
433(3)
Radices and Units
436(4)
Radices
436(1)
Units
437(3)
Automatically Creating a SubVI from a Section of the Block Diagram
440(2)
A Few More Utilities in LabVIEW
442(3)
The Hierarchy Window
442(1)
Searching for Objects in the Virtual Haystack
443(2)
Wrap It Up!
445(2)
Connectivity in LabVIEW
447(40)
LabVIEW, Networking, and the Internet
447(3)
The Internet and the Client--Server Model
448(1)
Choosing a Technical Solution with LabVIEW
449(1)
An Overview of How the Web Works
450(4)
Anatomy of a URL
450(2)
URL Encoding
452(1)
Web Browers, Web Servers, and HTTP
453(1)
Publishing and Controlling VIs on the Web
454(5)
Configuring LabVIEW's Built-in Web Server
455(1)
Publishing to HTML with LabVIEW's Web Server
456(3)
Sharing Data over the Network: DataSocket
459(10)
DataSocket VIs
464(5)
Connectivity to Other Programs and Devices
469(13)
TCP/IP
469(3)
UDP
472(1)
ActiveX
473(7)
Apple Events and PPC
480(2)
Enterprise Connectivity---The Big Picture
482(2)
Wrap It Up!
484(3)
Advanced File I/O, Printing, and Reports
487(28)
Advanced File I/O
487(22)
Giving Directions to Find Your File
488(1)
The Three-Step Process
489(3)
Writing and Reading Text Files
492(5)
Writing and Reading Datalog Files
497(4)
Writing and Reading Binary Files
501(7)
Working with Waveform Data in Files
508(1)
Putting It in Writing: Printing with LabVIEW
509(2)
Reports from LabVIEW
511(1)
Wrap It Up!
512(3)
The Art of LabVIEW Programming
515(32)
Why Worry about the Graphical Interface Appearance
515(1)
Arranging, Decorating, Grouping, and Locking
516(2)
Vive I'Art: Importing Pictures
518(2)
Custom Controls and Indicators
520(4)
Adding Online Help
524(3)
Pointers and Recommendations for a ``Wow!'' Graphical Interface
527(4)
How Do You Do That in LabVIEW?
531(7)
Memory, Performance, and All That
538(3)
Curing Amnesia and Slothfulness
538(2)
The Declaration of Independence
540(1)
Programming with Style
541(3)
Modularize and Test Your VIs
542(1)
Document as You Go Along
542(1)
One More Time: Dataflow!
543(1)
Wrap It Up!
544(1)
Concluding Remarks
545(2)
Appendix Resources for LabVIEW 547(6)
Glossary 553(18)
Index 571

Excerpts

Preface LabVIEW, or Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench, is a graphical programming language that has been widely adopted throughout industry, academia, and research labs as the standard for data acquisition and instrument control software. LabVIEW is a powerful and flexible instrumentation and analysis software system that is multiplatform (predating Java, which makes the same claim)--you can run LabVIEW on Windows, MacOS, Linux, Solaris, and HP-UX. Personal computers are much more flexible than standard instruments, and creating your own LabVIEW program, or virtual instrument (VI), is simple. LabVIEW's intuitive user interface makes writing and using programs exciting and fun! LabVIEW departs from the sequential nature of traditional programming languages and features an easy-to-use graphical programming environment, including all of the tools necessary for data acquisition (DAQ), data analysis, and presentation of results. With its graphical programming language, called "G," you program using a graphical block diagram that compiles into machine code. Ideal for a countless number of science and engineering applications, LabVIEW helps you solve many types of problems in only a fraction of the time and hassle it would take to write "conventional" code. Beyond the Lab LabVIEW has found its way into such a broad spectrum of virtual instrumentation applications that it is hard to know where to begin. As its name implies, it began in the laboratory and still remains very popular in many kinds of laboratories--from major research and development laboratories around the world (such as Lawrence Livermore, Argonne, Batelle, Sandia, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, White Sands, and Oak Ridge in the United States and CERN in Europe), to R&D laboratories in many industries, and to teaching laboratories in universities all over the world, especially in the disciplines of electrical and mechanical engineering and physics. The spread of LabVIEW beyond the laboratory has gone in many directions--up (aboard the space shuttle), down (aboard U.S. Navy submarines), and around the world (from oil wells in the North Sea to factories in New Zealand). And with the latest Internet capabilities, LabVIEW applications are being deployed not only physically in many places but virtually across cyberspace. More and more people are creating web-based control or monitoring of their LabVIEW applications to allow remote access and instant information about what's happening in their lab. Virtual instrumentation systems are known for their low cost, both in hardware and development time, and their great flexibility. Is it any wonder that they are so popular? The Expanding World of Virtual Instrumentation Perhaps the best way to describe the expansion (or perhaps explosion) of LabVIEW applications is to generalize it. There are niches in many industries where measurements of some kind are required--most often of temperature, whether it be in an oven, a refrigerator, a greenhouse, a clean room, or a vat of soup. Beyond temperature, users measure pressure, force, displacement, strain, pH, and so on, ad infinitum. Personal computers are used virtually everywhere. LabVIEW is the catalyst that links the PC with measuring things, not only because it makes it easy, but also because it brings along the ability to analyze what you have measured and display it and communicate it halfway around the world if you so choose. After measuring and analyzing something, the next logical step often is to change (control) something based upon the results. For example, measure temperature and then turn on either a furnace or a chiller. Again, LabVIEW makes this easy to do; monitoring and control have become LabVIEW strengths. Sometimes it is direct monitoring and control, or it may be through communicating with a programmable logic controller (PLC) in what is commonly called supervisory contro


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