9780849397691

Leaf Development and Canopy Growth

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780849397691

  • ISBN10:

    0849397693

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-03-14
  • Publisher: Blackwell

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Summary

This volume reflects current interest in the plant canopy as something more than the addition of its constituent parts. It focuses on the light-intercepting surfaces of the plant - in particular, the leaf laminae and utilisation of the absorbed energy to fix carbon from the atmosphere. However, as the leaf laminae form an integral component of the whole plant, they are considered in the context of the whole plant, the couplings with other plant tissues and the constraints that this imposes. Authors cover a diverse range of species, both as monocultures and as mixed-plant communities.

Table of Contents

The evolution of leaf form and function
1(36)
Karl J. Niklas
Introduction
1(1)
The definition of a `leaf'
2(2)
Convergence or divergence?
4(1)
Megaphylls and microphylls
5(2)
The leaf--stem dichotomy
7(2)
Computer simulations of the leaf--stem functional dichotomy
9(7)
Phyllotactic patterns
16(7)
Mechanical interactions between leaves and stems
23(4)
Drag-reduction of the canopy
27(5)
Concluding remarks
32(5)
References
32(5)
Plants as self-organising systems
37(22)
Federico Magnani
John Grace
Introduction
37(1)
Coordination of stomatal function at the leaf level
38(1)
Nitrogen acclimation to light at the canopy level
39(2)
Resource allocation: response to nutrient availability
41(3)
Resource allocation: response to water relations
44(3)
Sensory apparatus
47(3)
Light
47(1)
Gravity and mechanical sensing
48(1)
Drought
49(1)
Sensors and models
49(1)
Emergent properties and top-down system analysis
50(2)
Conclusions
52(7)
References
54(5)
Genetic analysis of leaf development and differentiation
59(37)
Toshi Foster
Bruce Veit
Introduction
59(1)
Essential aspects of leaf organisation and development
60(1)
The initiation of leaves
61(12)
The role of the shoot apical meristem
62(4)
Phyllotaxy
66(1)
Determination of leaf initiation sites
67(3)
Selection of leaf founder cell populations
70(3)
Establishment of pattern within the leaf
73(4)
Surgical approaches to pattern formation
73(1)
Analysis of proximal/distal patterning in maize
74(1)
Adaxial/abaxial and lateral patterning of the leaf
75(2)
Leaf morphogenesis
77(2)
Compound leaves
79(3)
Vascular patterning
82(1)
Cellular differentiation
83(3)
Vascular differentiation
84(1)
Epidermal differentiation
84(1)
Differentiation of ground tissues
85(1)
Environmental regulation of leaf development and differentiation
86(1)
Heterophylly in aquatic species
87(1)
Heteroblastic development
87(1)
Phase change
88(2)
Prospects
90(6)
Acknowledgements
91(1)
References
91(5)
Spatio-temporal variation of leaf growth, development and function
96(22)
A. Walter
U. Schurr
Introduction
96(3)
Conceptual framework for leaf growth analysis
96(1)
Technical framework for leaf growth analysis
97(2)
Growth of the total leaf area
99(2)
Growth of the single leaf
101(4)
Spatio-temporal analysis using digital image processing
105(6)
Image sequence analysis
105(1)
Determination of growth rate from digital image sequences
106(4)
Diurnal variation of the spatial pattern of growth rate
110(1)
Cytological development
111(2)
Parallel development of morphology and function
113(1)
Spatio-temporal analysis: prospects and future tasks
113(5)
Acknowledgements
115(1)
References
115(3)
Plant architecture and light signals
118(27)
Harry Smith
Introduction
118(1)
Shade avoidance
118(2)
Information in the radiation environment
120(2)
Solar radiation
120(1)
Daylight spectra
121(1)
Interaction with vegetation
121(1)
Reflection signals
122(1)
Phytochromes and light signal perception
122(1)
Absorption spectra, photoconversions and photoequilibria
122(1)
Phytochrome response modes
123(2)
Responses to the light pulses
123(1)
Responses to continuous irradiation
124(1)
Phytochromes in the natural environment
125(4)
Pfr/P vs R:FR
125(1)
Phytochromes as proximity sensors
126(3)
Nature of shade avoidance
129(2)
Shade avoidance happens quickly
131(1)
Roles of individual phytochromes in shade avoidance
131(2)
Evidence from mutants
132(1)
Ecology of shade avoidance
133(1)
Shade avoidance and canopy architecture in the field
134(2)
Application of the shade avoidance syndrome
136(4)
Genetic engineering of shade avoidance
136(3)
Transgenic suppression of shade avoidance in the field
139(1)
The future
140(5)
References
141(4)
Development of the photosynthetic apparatus
145(26)
Andrew N. Webber
Introduction
145(1)
Overview of the photosynthetic apparatus
146(2)
Chloroplast gene expression
148(5)
Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) synthesis and stability
148(3)
Translation
151(1)
Coordinated translation
152(1)
Chloroplast protein import
153(3)
Import into the stroma
153(2)
Targeting to thylakoids
155(1)
Assembly of photosynthetic protein complexes
156(3)
Non-structural protein factors required for assembly
157(1)
Proteolytic turnover of protein complexes
158(1)
Control of chloroplast division
159(1)
Environmental light effects
159(12)
Photoreceptive molecules and mechanisms
161(2)
Repair of photodamage
163(1)
References
163(8)
Nitrogen utilisation and the photosynthetic system
171(33)
Niels P. R. Anten
Kouki Hikosaka
Tadaki Hirose
Introduction
171(1)
Photosynthesis--nitrogen relationships at leaf level
172(9)
Photosynthesis--nitrogen relationships physiological basis
172(3)
Nitrogen partitioning among photosynthetic components: acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus
175(4)
Optimisation of absolute nitrogen content per unit leaf area
179(2)
Optimal nitrogen distribution
181(3)
Actual patterns of nitrogen: a critical test of the optimisation theory
184(5)
Mono-species stands
184(3)
Individual plants in mono-species stands
187(1)
Multi-species stands
187(2)
Mechanisms of nitrogen distribution
189(3)
Control factors: is nitrogen distribution controlled by light distribution or leaf age?
189(1)
Physiological mechanisms: which mechanisms mediate nitrogen reallocation in response to partial shading?
190(2)
Explaining the differences between optimal and actual nitrogen partitioning
192(3)
Optimal leaf area index
195(1)
Conclusions
196(8)
Acknowledgements
197(1)
References
197(7)
Modelling interactions in mixed-plant communities: light, water and carbon dioxide
204(47)
J. Wallace
A. Verhoef
Introduction
204(1)
Light interactions
205(9)
Spatially homogeneous canopies
206(4)
Spatially heterogeneous canopies
210(4)
Component and total fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide
214(17)
From single-source to multi-component models
215(5)
Surface resistances
220(1)
Aerodynamic resistances
221(4)
Roughness sublayer effects
225(1)
Estimation of aerodynamic properties
226(3)
Photosynthesis and respiration
229(2)
Microclimatic interactions
231(5)
Upperstorey effects on an understorey canopy
231(3)
Substrate effects on an upperstorey canopy
234(2)
Consequences of microclimatic interactions for plant water use, growth and development
236(6)
Concluding remarks
242(9)
Appendix: Extension of light interception model to many species
244(2)
References
246(5)
Gap dynamics
251(29)
Ronald J. Ryel
Wolfram Beyschlag
Introduction
251(1)
Role of gaps in plant community dynamics
251(3)
Characteristics of canopy gaps
254(4)
Spatial attributes of canopy gaps
254(3)
Temporal aspects of canopy gaps
257(1)
Response of individual plants to gaps
258(6)
Physiological response to gaps
259(1)
Structural responses to gaps
260(3)
Seed germination in gaps
263(1)
Canopy dynamics
264(4)
Community regeneration
264(1)
Community succession
265(2)
Species diversity
267(1)
Gap models
268(12)
Individual-based patch models
268(2)
Cellular automation models
270(1)
Applications
270(2)
Acknowledgement
272(1)
References
272(8)
Plant and canopy diversity
280(30)
G. R. Squire
Introduction
280(1)
Functions and properties
281(8)
Investment and return
281(4)
Season and space
285(3)
The complexity of more species and traits
288(1)
Individuals in canopies
289(9)
Time-evolution of trait space
290(5)
Trade-offs between vegetative and reproductive states
295(1)
Trait space and genetic diversity
296(2)
Coexistence of forms and canopy properties
298(8)
Coexistence in canopies
298(3)
Diversity and canopy properties
301(5)
Concluding remarks
306(4)
Acknowledgements
307(1)
References
307(3)
Index 310

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