CART

(0) items

Learning and Behavior,9780130337153
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!

FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

Learning and Behavior

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780130337153

ISBN10:
0130337153
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $106.60
More New and Used
from Private Sellers
Starting at $0.01
See Prices

Rent Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Used Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

eTextbook

We're Sorry
Not Available

New Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Related Products


  • Learning & Behavior Plus MySearchLab with eText -- Access Card Package
    Learning & Behavior Plus MySearchLab with eText -- Access Card Package
  • Learning And Behavior
    Learning And Behavior
  • Learning and Behavior
    Learning and Behavior




Summary

This contemporary survey of the field of learning offers comprehensive coverage of both classic studies and the most recent developments and trends—with an emphasis on the importance of learning principles in everyday life. Many real-world examples and analogies make the often abstract concepts and theories of the field more concrete and relevant, and most chapters include sections that describe how the theories and principles have been used in the applied field of behavior modification. Simple Ideas, Simple Associations, and Simple Cells. Innate Behavior Patterns and Habituation. Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning. Theories and Research on Classical Conditioning. Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning. Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and Applications. Avoidance and Punishment. Theories and Research on Operant Conditioning. Stimulus Control and Concept Formation. Comparative Cognition. Learning by Observation. Learning Motor Skills. Choice. For educators, social workers, and anyone interested in human learning behavior.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
The Psychology of Learning and Behavior
1(18)
The Search for General Principles of Learning
2(2)
The Nature of Scientific Theories
4(7)
An Example of a Theory about Behavior: Biorhythm Theory
4(1)
The Major Components of Scientific Theories
5(1)
Judging Scientific Theories
6(1)
Issues and Techniques in Comparing Theory with Data
7(4)
Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning
11(5)
The Use of Animal Subjects
11(2)
The Emphasis on External Events
13(3)
On Free Will, Determinism, and Chaos Theory
16(3)
Simple Ideas, Simple Associations, and Simple Cells
19(18)
Early Theories about the Association of Ideas
19(5)
Aristotle
19(1)
The British Associationists: Simple and Complex Ideas
20(2)
Thomas Brown's Secondary Principles of Association
22(1)
Ebbinghaus's Experiments on Memory
23(1)
Ebbinghaus's Major Findings
24(3)
Ebbinghaus and the Associationists Compared to Later Learning Theorists
26(1)
Physiological Facts and Theories Related to Associationism
27(10)
The Basic Characteristics of Neurons
27(1)
Physiological Research on ``Simple Sensations''
28(2)
Physiological Research on ``Complex Ideas,''
30(2)
Physiological Research on Associative Learning
32(5)
Innate Behavior Patterns and Habituation
37(21)
Characteristics of Goal-Directed Systems
38(1)
Reflexes
39(1)
Tropisms and Orientation
40(2)
Kineses
40(1)
Taxes
41(1)
Sequences of Behavior
42(3)
Fixed Action Patterns
42(2)
Reaction Chains
44(1)
Habituation
45(13)
General Principles of Habituation
47(2)
Physiological Mechanisms of Habituation
49(3)
Habituation in Emotional Responses: The Opponent-Process Theory
52(6)
Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning
58(29)
Pavlov's Discovery and Its Impact
58(9)
The Standard Paradigm of Classical Conditioning
59(1)
The Variety of Conditioned Responses
60(3)
Pavlov's Stimulus Substitution Theory
63(2)
S-S or S-R Connections?
65(1)
Pavlov's Influence on Psychology
66(1)
Basic Conditioning Phenomena
67(6)
Acquisition
67(1)
Extinction
68(1)
Spontaneous Recovery
69(1)
Disinhibition
70(1)
Rapid Reacquisition
70(1)
Conditioned Inhibition
71(1)
Generalization and Discrimination
72(1)
Temporal Relationships between CS and US
73(3)
CS-US Correlations
75(1)
Other Conditioning Arrangements
76(2)
Higher-Order Conditioning
76(2)
Sensory Preconditioning
78(1)
Classical Conditioning Outside the Laboratory
78(9)
Classical Conditioning and Emotional Responses
78(1)
Classical Conditioning and the Immune System
79(1)
Applications in Behavior Therapy
80(7)
Theories and Research on Classical Conditioning
87(34)
Theories of Associative Learning
88(11)
The Blocking Effect
88(1)
The Rescorla-Wagner Model: Basic Concepts
89(3)
The Rescorla-Wagner Model: Equations and Mathematical, Examples
92(4)
Theories of CS Effectiveness
96(2)
Comparator Theories of Conditioning
98(1)
Summary
99(1)
Types of Associations
99(4)
Associations in First-Orders Conditioning
99(1)
Associations in Second-Order Conditioning
100(1)
Associations Involving Contextual Stimuli
100(1)
CS-CS Associations
101(1)
Occasion Setting
102(1)
Summary
103(1)
Biological Constraints on Classical Conditioning
103(7)
The Contiguity Principle and Taste-Aversion Learning
104(1)
Biological Preparedness in Taste-Aversion Learning
105(2)
Biological Preparedness in Human Learning
107(1)
Biological Constraints and the General-Principle Approach
108(2)
The Form of the Conditioned Response
110(4)
Drug Tolerance as a Conditioned Response
110(2)
Conditioned Opponent Theories
112(2)
Physiological Research on Classical Conditioning
114(7)
Research With Primitive Creatures
114(2)
Research With Mammals and Other Vertebrates
116(1)
Research With Human Subjects
117(4)
Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning
121(27)
The Law of Effect
121(8)
Thorndike's Experiments
121(2)
Guthrie and Horton: Evidence for a Mechanical Strengthening Process
123(1)
Superstitious Behaviors
124(4)
Problems With the ``Stop-Action Principle,''
128(1)
The Procedure of Shaping, or Successive Approximations
129(5)
Shaping Lever Pressing in a Rat
129(2)
Shaping Behaviors in the Classroom
131(1)
Shaping as a Tool in Behavior Modification
131(1)
Making Shaping More Precise: Percentile Schedules
132(1)
Versatility of the Shaping Process
133(1)
The Research of B. F. Skinner
134(5)
The Free Operant
134(1)
The Three-Term Contingency
135(1)
Other Basic Principles: Acquisition, Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, Generalization, and Conditioned Reinforcement
136(1)
Response Chains
137(2)
Biological Constraints on Operant Conditioning
139(9)
Instinctive Drift
139(2)
Autoshaping
141(4)
Reconciling Reinforcement Theory and Biological Constraints
145(3)
Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and Applications
148(25)
Plotting Moment-to-Moment Behavior: The Cumulative Recorder
148(1)
The Four Simple Reinforcement Schedules
149(7)
Fixed Ratio
149(1)
Variable Ratio
150(2)
Fixed Interval
152(1)
Variable Interval
153(1)
Extinction and the Four Simple Schedules
154(1)
Other Reinforcement Schedules
155(1)
Factors Affecting Performance on Reinforcement Schedules
156(4)
Behavioral Momentum
157(1)
Contingency-Shaped versus Rule-Governed Behaviors
157(2)
Reinforcement History
159(1)
Summary
159(1)
The Experimental Analysis of Reinforcement Schedules
160(5)
The Cause of the FR Postreinforcement Pause
160(1)
Comparisons of VR and VI Response Rates
161(4)
Applications of Operant Conditioning
165(8)
Teaching Language to Autistic Children
165(2)
The Token Economy
167(1)
Reinforcing Employee Performance
168(2)
Behavioral Marital Therapy
170(1)
Summary
171(2)
Avoidance and Punishment
173(29)
Avoidance
174(10)
A Representative Experiment
174(1)
Two-Factor Theory
175(1)
Evidence Supporting Two-Factor Theory
176(1)
Problems With Two-Factor Theory
176(1)
One-Factor Theory
177(2)
Cognitive Theory
179(2)
Biological Constraints in Avoidance Learning
181(1)
Conclusions about the Theories of Avoidance
182(1)
Flooding as Behavior Therapy
183(1)
Learned Helplessness
184(2)
Punishment
186(6)
Is Punishment the Opposite of Reinforcement?
187(1)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment
188(2)
Disadvantages of Using Punishment
190(2)
Negative Punishment
192(1)
Behavior Decelerators in Behavior Therapy
192(10)
Positive Punishment
192(2)
Negative Punishment: Response Cost and Time-Out
194(2)
Other Techniques for Behavior Deceleration
196(3)
The Aversives Controversy
199(3)
Theories and Research on Operant Conditioning
202(25)
The Role of the Response
202(1)
The Role of the Reinforcer
203(9)
Is Reinforcement Necessary for Operant Conditioning?
203(2)
Expectations About the Reinforcers
205(1)
Is Reinforcement at Work in Classical Conditioning?
206(2)
Can Reinforcement Control Visceral Responses?
208(1)
Biofeedback
209(3)
How Can We Predict What Will Be a Reinforcer?
212(9)
Need Reduction
212(1)
Drive Reduction
213(1)
Trans-Situationality
214(1)
Premack's Principle
214(4)
Response Deprivation Theory
218(1)
The Functional Analysis of Behaviors and Reinforcers
219(2)
Behavioral Economics
221(6)
Optimization: Theory and Research
221(2)
Elasticity and Inelasticity of Demand
223(1)
Behavioral Economics and Drug Abuse
224(3)
Stimulus Control and Concept Formation
227(26)
Generalization Gradients
227(5)
Measuring Generalization Gradients
227(2)
What Causes Generalization Gradients?
229(3)
Is Stimulus Control Absolute or Relational?
232(6)
Transposition and Peak Shift
233(1)
Spence's Theory of Excitatory and Inhibitory Gradients
234(1)
The Intermediate-Size Problem
235(1)
Evaluating the Two Theories
236(2)
Behavioral Contrast
238(2)
``Errorless'' Discrimination Learning
240(2)
Transfer of Learning After Discrimination Training
242(2)
Concept Formation
244(5)
The Structure of Natural Categories
245(1)
Animal Studies on Natural Concept Formation
246(2)
Developing Stimulus Equivalence
248(1)
Stimulus Control in Behavior Modification
249(4)
Stimulus Equivalence Training
250(1)
Study Behavior
250(1)
Insomnia
251(2)
Comparative Cognition
253(29)
Memory
253(12)
Short-Term Memory, or Working Memory
254(5)
Rehearsal
259(4)
Long-Term Memory, or Reference Memory
263(2)
Time, Number, and Serial Patterns
265(8)
Experiments on an ``Internal Clock,''
265(3)
Counting
268(2)
Serial Pattern Learning
270(1)
Chunking
270(3)
Language and Reasoning
273(9)
Teaching Language to Animals
273(4)
Reasoning by Animals
277(5)
Learning by Observation
282(22)
Theories of Imitation
283(7)
Imitation as an Instinct
283(2)
Imitation as an Operant Response
285(1)
Imitation as a Generalized Operant Response
285(1)
Bandura's Theory of Imitation
286(2)
Which Theory of Imitation is Best?
288(2)
Factors That Affect the Likelihood of Imitation
290(1)
Interactions Between Observational Learning and Operant Conditioning
291(2)
Achievement Motivation
291(1)
Aggression
292(1)
The Influence of Television
293(2)
What Can Be Learned through Observation?
295(3)
Phobias
295(1)
Drug Use and Addictions
295(1)
Cognitive Development
296(1)
Moral Standards and Behavior
297(1)
Modeling in Behavior Therapy
297(1)
Facilitation of Low-Probability Behaviors
298(9)
Acquisition of New Behaviors
298(1)
Elimination of Fears and Unwanted Behaviors
299(2)
Videotape Self-Modeling
301(6)
Conclusions: The Sophisticated Skill of Learning by Observation
307
Learning Motor Skills
304(23)
The Variety of Motor Skills
304(2)
Variables Affecting Motor Learning and Performance
306(8)
Reinforcement and Knowledge of Results
306(3)
Knowledge of Performance
309(2)
Distribution of Practice
311(1)
Observational Learning of Motor Skills
312(1)
Transfer from Previous Training
312(2)
Ironic Errors in Movement
314(1)
Theories of Motor-Skill Learning
314(6)
Adam's Two-Stage Theory
314(3)
Schmidt's Schema Theory
317(3)
Learning Movement Sequences
320(7)
The Response Chain Approach
320(1)
Motor Programs
321(6)
Choice
327(31)
The Matching Law
328(7)
Herrnstein's (1961) Experiment
328(1)
Other Experiments on Matching
329(1)
Deviations from Matching
330(1)
Varying the Quality and Amount of Reinforcement
331(1)
An Application to Single Schedules
332(3)
Theories of Choice Behavior
335(9)
Matching as an Explanatory Theory
336(1)
Melioration Theory
336(1)
Optimization Theory as an Explanation of Matching
337(4)
Momentary Maximization Theory
341(2)
Other Theories of Choice
343(1)
Self-Control Choices
344(7)
The Ainslie-Rachlin Theory
345(1)
Animal Studies on Self-Control
346(3)
Factors Affecting Self-Control in Children
349(1)
Techniques for Improving Self-Control
350(1)
Other Choice Situations
351(7)
Preference for Variability
352(1)
Risk Taking
353(1)
The Tragedy of the Commons
354(4)
Glossary 358(15)
References 373(46)
Acknowledgments 419(4)
Author Index 423(12)
Subject Index 435


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...