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Learning and Memory : Basic Principles, Processes, and Procedures,9780321273772
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Learning and Memory : Basic Principles, Processes, and Procedures

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780321273772

ISBN10:
032127377X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $116.20
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Summary

This text explores the core principles of learning and memory in a clear, reader-friendly style, covering animal learning and human memory in a balanced fashion. A strong emphasis on practical applications to the college studentrs"s everyday life is evident in examples throughout, such as the correlation between caffeine consumption and grade point average (Chapter 1), approach/avoidance coping for upcoming and completed exams (Chapter 5), and retrograde amnesia in football players (Chapter 7). The relationship between the fields of neuropsychology and learning and memory is also stressed throughout. There are new sections on neuroscience and education, perceptual learning, and the amnesic patient H.M., as well as new material on anxiety and learning, working memory, and childhood amnesia. The third edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect the latest research and has been freshened throughout with more relevant examples and better graphics.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Introduction
1(25)
The Origins of the Study of Learning
2(3)
Philosophy of Epistemology
3(1)
Evolution
4(1)
Contemporary Influences
4(1)
The Definition of Learning
5(5)
Some Caveats
9(1)
The Learning/Performance Distinction
10(1)
Learning: A Recapitulation
11(1)
The Relationship between the Terms Learning and Memory
11(4)
Basic and Applied Research
15(4)
Common Sense and Common Knowledge
16(2)
Why Animals?
18(1)
Conceptual Approaches to the Study of Learning
19(4)
The Behavioral Approach
20(1)
The Cognitive Approach
20(1)
The Neuropsychological Approach
21(1)
Applying Neuroscience to Educational Practice
22(1)
Summary
23(3)
Habituation and Other Forms of Simple Stimulus Learning
26(25)
The Orienting Response
27(1)
Habituation
27(7)
Methods of Studying Habituation
28(3)
Parametric Features of Habituation
31(3)
Explanations of Habituation
34(5)
Nonlearning Explanations
34(1)
Physiological Theories
34(3)
Cognitive Theories
37(2)
Perceptual Learning
39(3)
Factors Affecting Perceptual Learning
41(1)
Other Effects of Stimulus Exposure
42(5)
Preference for Familiar Stimuli
42(3)
Priming Facilitation
45(1)
Recapitulation: The Effects of Repeated Stimulus Presentation
46(1)
Applications
47(2)
Habituation to Warning Signals
47(1)
Exposure Therapy for Fears
47(2)
Summary
49(2)
Classical Conditioning
51(38)
The Definition of Classical Conditioning
52(2)
Methods of Studying Classical Conditioning
54(4)
Representative Procedures
54(3)
What Stimuli Can Serve as CSs?
57(1)
What Stimuli Can Serve as USs?
58(1)
Basic Phenomena of Conditioning
58(5)
Acquisition
58(3)
Extinction
61(1)
Generalization
62(1)
Discrimination
63(1)
The Role of Contiguity
63(2)
Other Factors Affecting Conditioning
65(7)
Prior Exposure
65(1)
Compound CSs
65(2)
Surprise
67(2)
CS--US Relevance
69(1)
Conditioned Inhibition
70(2)
What Is Learned in Classical Conditioning?
72(5)
So, What Is Learned in Pavlovian Conditioning?
75(1)
The Role of Awareness in Conditioning
76(1)
Extensions of Conditioning
77(4)
Conditioning with Drug USs and the Development of Tolerance
77(2)
Modification of Immune System Response
79(2)
Applications of Conditioning
81(4)
The Conditioning Theory of Phobias
81(3)
Systematic Desensitization
84(1)
Summary
85(4)
Instrumental Conditioning: Reward
89(40)
Definition and History
90(3)
Thorndike and Trial-and-Error Learning
90(2)
Skinner and Operant Learning
92(1)
Methods of Study
93(1)
Positive Reinforcement
94(2)
Reinforcement Variables Affecting Acquisition
96(7)
Amount of Reinforcement
96(2)
Drive
98(1)
Schedules of Reinforcement
99(1)
Delay of Reinforcement
100(2)
Secondary Reinforcement
102(1)
Social Reinforcement
102(1)
Theories of Reinforcement
103(6)
Reinforcers as Stimuli
104(1)
Reinforcers as Behaviors
105(1)
Reinforcers as Strengtheners
106(1)
Reinforcers as Information
107(1)
So, What Is Reinforcement?
108(1)
Is Reinforcement Necessary for Learning?
109(1)
Awareness in Human Instrumental Learning
109(3)
Criticisms of the Use of Reinforcement
112(1)
Response Learning
113(2)
Shaping
113(1)
Limitations of Response Learning
114(1)
Discriminative Stimulus Control
115(4)
Generalization and Discrimination
116(2)
Summary of Response Learning and Stimulus Learning
118(1)
What Is Learned in Instrumental Conditioning?
119(2)
Response--Reinforcer Learning
119(1)
Stimulus--Response Learning
119(1)
Stimulus--Reinforcer Learning
120(1)
What Is Learned? Stimulus--Response--Reinforcer
121(1)
Applications
121(4)
Habit Slips
121(2)
Behavior Modification
123(1)
Cognition in Animals
124(1)
Summary
125(4)
Instrumental Conditioning: Nonreward, Punishment, and Avoidance
129(30)
Defining the Contingencies: Nonreward, Punishment, and Avoidance
130(1)
Nonreward
131(3)
Extinction
131(1)
The Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect
132(2)
Punishment
134(7)
When Does Punishment Work?
135(4)
Unwanted Side Effects of Punishment
139(1)
Punishment or Nonreward?
140(1)
Persistence
141(2)
Avoidance Learning
143(6)
Theories of Avoidance Learning
145(2)
Approach--Avoidance Conflict
147(1)
Approach or Avoidance as a Coping Response
148(1)
Learned Helplessness
149(5)
Extensions of the Learned-Helplessness Concept
151(2)
Challenges to Learned-Helplessness Theory
153(1)
The Significance of Learned Helplessness
154(1)
Applications of Aversive-Learning Contingencies
154(2)
Aversion Therapy
154(1)
Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
155(1)
Summary
156(3)
Verbal Learning
159(34)
The Ebbinghaus Legacy
160(2)
Serial Learning
162(5)
Serial-Position Effect
162(3)
Remote Associations
165(1)
Serial Learning: An Overview
166(1)
Paired-Associate Learning
167(4)
Analysis of Paired-Associate Learning
167(4)
Factors Affecting Paired-Associate Learning: A Summary
171(1)
Free Recall
171(7)
Serial-Position Effects
173(1)
Rehearsal
173(2)
Organization
175(2)
False Recall
177(1)
Organization in Animal Memory
177(1)
Free Recall: A Summary
178(1)
Available versus Accessible Memories
178(5)
Cued Recall
178(1)
Recall versus Recognition versus Relearning
179(2)
Recognition: Remembering verus Knowing
181(1)
Implicit Learning
182(1)
Relationships among the Verbal-Learning Tasks
183(1)
Application: Mnemonics
184(5)
The Keyword Mnemonic
185(1)
Imagery Mnemonics
185(4)
Summary
189(4)
Human Memory: Conceptual Approaches
193(37)
Partitioning Memory
194(2)
Components of Memory Approach
196(11)
Dual-Store Theory: Short-Term and Long-Term Memories
196(3)
Divisions of Long-Term Memory: Episodic and Semantic
199(3)
Divisions of Long-Term Memory: Procedural Learning and Priming
202(4)
The Organization of Long-Term Memory
206(1)
Stages of Memory
207(3)
Dissociating Stages
208(2)
Processing Approaches
210(4)
Depth of Processing
210(2)
Transfer-Appropriate Processing
212(2)
Connectionist Models
214(4)
Modeling Person Identification
215(1)
The Delta Rule
216(2)
Connectionism and the Other Approaches
218(1)
Applications
218(7)
Repetition Priming
218(1)
The Study of Abnormal Memory: Amnesia
219(4)
Everyday Forgetting and the Models of Memory
223(2)
Summary
225(5)
Short-Term Retention
230(30)
Definitions
231(2)
Some History
231(2)
Short-Term Memory Tasks
233(4)
The Brown-Peterson Distractor Task
233(2)
Memory Span
235(2)
Characteristics of Verbal Short-Term Retention
237(5)
Acoustic Encoding
237(1)
Limited Capacity
238(1)
Limited Duration
239(1)
Forgetting: Short-Term Memory Is Sensitive to Disruption
239(1)
Transfer to Long-Term Memory
240(2)
Summary of the Features of Short-Term Memory
242(1)
Other Modalities of Short-Term Memory
242(5)
Working Memory
247(3)
Theoretical Overview of Working Memory
247(2)
Aging and Working Memory
249(1)
Dementia and Working Memory
250(1)
Is There Really a Separate STM?
250(4)
Neuropsychological Dissociations of Two-Memory Systems
250(1)
Counterpoint: A Single-Store Approach?
251(1)
One Memory but Multiple Traces
251(1)
One Store or Several?
252(2)
Applications
254(3)
What Is Short-Term Memory For?
254(1)
Comprehending and Using Language
254(1)
Problem Solving
255(2)
The Role of STM in Theories of Long-Term Memory
257(1)
Summary
257(3)
Encoding
260(39)
Separating Encoding from Retrieval
261(1)
Some Basic Variables in Encoding
261(8)
Elaborative Rehearsal
262(1)
What Exactly Is Elaborative Processing?
263(3)
Imagery and Memory for Pictures
266(2)
Meaningfulness
268(1)
Presentation Variables
269(9)
Serial-Position Effect
269(1)
Isolation Effects and Vividness
270(2)
Seductive Details
272(1)
Spacing Effects
273(3)
Generation Effect
276(1)
Limitations of Elaborative Processing
277(1)
Learner Variables
278(10)
Incidental versus Intentional Learning
278(1)
Incentives
279(1)
Interest
280(1)
Arousal
281(3)
Emotions and Encoding
284(4)
Schemas
288(2)
Metamemory
290(3)
Applications
293(3)
Academic Learning and Encoding
293(3)
Summary
296(3)
Storage and Retrieval
299(37)
Storage
300(10)
Long-Term Memory for Naturalistically Learned Material
301(2)
The Permanent-Memory Hypothesis
303(1)
The Nature of Storage
304(6)
Retrieval
310(9)
Retrieval from Episodic Memory
311(2)
What Makes a Good Retrieval Cue?
313(4)
Emotional Arousal and Retrieval
317(2)
Remembering to Remember
319(1)
Metamemory and Partial Retrieval
320(2)
Feeling of Knowing
320(2)
False Retrieval
322(5)
Source Memory
323(1)
Imagination Inflation
324(1)
The Effect of Postevent Information
325(2)
Recovered Memory
327(1)
Retrieval versus Reconstruction
328(1)
Applications
329(4)
Strategies for Searching Memory
329(2)
Context-Specific Learning
331(1)
Improving Accuracy of Recall in Surveys
332(1)
Summary
333(3)
Spatial, Motor-Skill, and Implicit Learning
336(34)
Spatial Learning
337(10)
Rats, Mazes, and Psychology
338(1)
Route versus Survey Maps
338(7)
Schemas in Spatial Memory
345(2)
The Development of Spatial Memory in Children
347(1)
Motor-Skills Learning
347(7)
Practice
349(3)
Knowledge of Results
352(2)
Implicit Learning
354(5)
Some Implicit-Learning Tasks
354(4)
Dissociating Categories of Implicit Learning
358(1)
Expertise
359(2)
From Declarative to Procedural
360(1)
Applications
361(7)
Implicit Learning
361(1)
Spatial Memory
362(3)
Long-Term Retention of Skills
365(2)
Developing Memory Skill
367(1)
Summary
368(2)
Individual Differences in Learning and Memory
370(32)
The Nature of Nurture: The Genetics of Learning Ability
371(3)
Animal Studies
371(2)
Human Studies
373(1)
Age Differences in Learning and Memory
374(6)
Classical Conditioning
374(2)
Memory Development in Children
376(3)
Aging and Memory
379(1)
Intellectual Deficits
380(5)
Conditioning
381(1)
Memory
382(2)
Learning Disabilities
384(1)
Exceptional Memory: The Mnemonists
385(2)
Gender and Cognitive Abilities
387(3)
Personality and Learning
390(2)
Introversion and Extraversion
390(1)
Anxiety
391(1)
Learning Styles
392(4)
Social and Cultural Differences
396(3)
Epic Memories
396(1)
Experimental Studies
397(2)
Summary
399(3)
References 402(37)
Name Index 439(11)
Subject Index 450


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