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By including works from Aristotle to Kenneth Burke, Persuasion: Theory and Applications provides a comprehensive introduction to persuasion. Author Lillian Beeson offers a balance of classic rhetorical theories and contemporary social-science approaches, demonstrating how these multiple perspectives apply to various fields including politics, religion, art, entertainment, advertising, public relations, and law. The text contains relevant, controversial, and compelling examples that will engage students in the discussion of how persuasion works and show them how to effectively apply this knowledge to their everyday lives.
Lillian Beeson is Professor Emeritus of Communication at University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg. She is a recipient of the University of Pittsburgh Chancellor's Distinguished Teaching Award.
Table of Contents
Preface Introduction Part l. Theoretical Foundations Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION TO PERSUASION IN EVERYDAY PRACTICES Key words and Preview Joseph DeVito Communication Model Rationale: Why Study Persuasion Rhetoric in Politics Rhetoric in Law Rhetoric in Religion Rhetoric in Art and Film Rhetoric in Advertising and Public Relations Receiver Focused Communication Distinctions between Informative Speech, Persuasion, and Propaganda Definition of Persuasion Rhetorical Efforts in International Disputes The Functions of Persuasion Summary Chapter 2. RHETORICAL SCHOLARS; PERSPECTIVES ON RHETORIC Key Words and Preview The Sophists--The First Rhetoricians Isocrates: Plato's Competitor Plato's Dialogues Aristotle The Rhetoric of Cicero The Rhetoric of Quintilian The Middle Ages--Emergence of Christian Rhetoric Rhetoric and Belles Lettres George Campbell and His Philosophy of Rhetoric Richard Whatley's Advice to Preachers Kenneth Burke a Literary Critic's View of Rhetoric Walter Fisher's Narrative Theory Jacque Ellul's La Technique--A Sociological Perspective on Propaganda Hugh Rank's Intensify/Downplay Model of Persuasion Michael Calvin McGee: The Ideograph Summary Chapter 3. AUDIENCES: SOCIAL SCIENTISTS ADDRESS NEEDS, ATTITUDES, AND BELIEFS Key Words and Preview Audience Demographics and Psychographics Persuasion in Interpersonal Exchanges, Small Groups, and Mass Audiences Source Credibility A.H. Maslow: The Pyramid of Needs Vance Packard: Eight Hidden Needs Audience Attitudes and Beliefs: Consistency Theories Cognitive Dissonance Theory (CDT) Gerald Miller's Counter Attitudinal Advocacy and Role Playing Mere Exposure Theory (MET) Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) Social Judgment Theory (SJT) Expectancy Violation Theory (EVT) Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Summary Chapter 4. LANGUAGE: THE CODE OF PERSUASION Key Words and Preview General Semantics Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Functions of Words George Herbert Mead's Symbolic Interaction Theory Language in Politics George Lakoff's Analysis of Metaphors The Mind is a Body Emotional Language Rush Limbaugh's Use of Emotional Language English--An Ongoing Project Denotative, Connotative, and Functional Axis of Words Language and Race Language and Gender The Rhetoric of Hillary Clinton Summary Chapter 5. MESSAGES: VERBAL AND NONVERBAL SUPPORT Key Words and Preview Plato's Vision of Reason and Passion --The Phaedrus, a Dialogue about the Duality of Man Aristotle's View of Emotions Brockriede's Analysis of Speaker-Audience Relationships Evidence in Persuasive Messages --Narratives or Stories --Examples --Testimony --Analogies --Statistics Fallacies in Reasoning --Ad Hominem --Ad Populum --Argumentum ad Miseracordiam --Argumentum ad Absurdum --Non Sequitur --Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc --False Dilemma --Slippery Slope Effects of Evidence in Persuasive Communication Organizing Arguments for Maximum Effect Nonverbal Communication --Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication --The Functions and Codes of Nonverbal Communication Summary Part II. Application of Persuasion in the Context of Politics, Law, Religion, Art & Cinema, Advertising, and Public Relations Chapter 6. POLITICAL COMMUNICATION: MEDIATED CONSTRUCTIONS Key Words and Preview The Roots of Political Communication Visual Rhetoric--Images, Arguments, and Illusions --Political Cartoons and Photographs as Propositions The Daisy Girl Ad 1964 Television Debates The Internet and Political Campaigns --Jib Jab Media The Use of Visual Rhetoric in Political Conventions --Ronald Reagan: The Great communicator --Bill Clinton: The Man from Hope --G.W. Bush: The Sky's the Limit --The Obama Biography Video 2008 --Mitt Romney's Promotional Film 2012 President Obama Wins Again 2012 --The Interplay of Influence--Jamieson & Campbell's Perspective Presidential Rhetoric as a Window to the World Approaches to Presidential Rhetoric Jurgen Habermas on Democracy and Deliberation The Deliberative Paradigm Actors who Contribute to Political Communication Mass Media's Role to Frame Debate Mass Media as Watch Dog or the Fourth Estate Politics and the Functions Model of Mass Media Media Bias and National Views Political Persuasion Outside the Mainstream Summary Chapter 7. LEGAL COMMUNICATION--PERSUASION IN COURT Key Words and Preview Aristotle's View of Forensic Speech Legal Communication in the Twenty-First Century Conflicting Interests Persuasion and the Jury Story-telling in Trials Opening Statements Closing Statements Trial as Theater Nonverbal Communication as Effect The Ethos of the Lawyer Persuasion and the Judge Summary Chapter 8. RELIGION AND PERSUASION Key Words and Preview The Rhetoric of the Fifth Monarchy: Apocalyptic Rhetoric The Rhetoric of Conversion, Discernment, Communion, Exile, and Praise --The Rhetoric of Conversion --The Rhetoric of Discernment --The Rhetoric of Communion --The Rhetoric of Exile --The Rhetoric of Praise Orthodoxy vs. Modernity Freedom of Religion from the Established Order The Judea-Christian Creation Narrative Religion in a Postmodern World Evolution of a God of Wrath to a Plastic Jesus Jonathan Edwards' God of Wrath John Woolman's God of Equality Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. --The Philosophy of Nonviolent Resistance Religious Diversity Cults and Utopian Visions--Jonestown and The Branch Davidians --Jim Jones --The Branch Davidians Summary Chapter 9. ART AS PERSUASION: VISUAL RHETORIC Key Words and Preview Sonja Foss' Theory of Visual Rhetoric Kostelnick and Hassett's Conventions The Vietnam Memorial Mapplethorpe's Exhibit: The Perfect Moment Visual Rhetoric in Cinematic Messages of Change--Brokeback Mountain Portrayals of Mental Illness in Film Music as Persuasion Gangsta Rap Creativity, Music, and Persuasion Shannon & Weaver vs. Tony Schwartz Music Television Summary Chapter 10. ADVERTISING: INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION (IMC) Key Words and Preview Advertising Strategies and Tactics History of Commercial Speech--Advertising Expanded Channels for Advertising Recurring Complaints against Advertisements Regulators of Advertisements --Federal Trade Commission (FTC) --The Food and Drug Administration (FFA) --The Federal Communications Commission (FTC) --The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) --The U.S. Postal Service The Stone Age Brain Theory Subliminal Advertising Market Research Niche Marketing Age/Gender Sensitive Advertising --Children as Consumers --Gender Stereotypes --Senior Citizen Ads Adaptive Advertising Strategies Following Disasters Summary Chapter 11. PUBLIC RELATIONS: ENGINEERING PUBLIC CONSENT Key Words and Preview Functions of Public Relations Public Relations Gives Government Support Aboard An Inconvenient Truth: PR as Education Image Restoration William L. Benoit's Theory of Image Restoration Summary Glossary Index