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Learning to Persuade : An Introduction

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780199732357

ISBN10:
0199732353
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/24/2014
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
List Price: $66.95

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Summary

By including works from Aristotle to Kenneth Burke, Persuasion: Theory and Applications provides a comprehensive introduction to persuasion. Author Lillian Beeson offers a balance of classic rhetorical theories and contemporary social-science approaches, demonstrating how these multiple perspectives apply to various fields including politics, religion, art, entertainment, advertising, public relations, and law. The text contains relevant, controversial, and compelling examples that will engage students in the discussion of how persuasion works and show them how to effectively apply this knowledge to their everyday lives.

Author Biography


Lillian Beeson is Professor Emeritus of Communication at University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg. She is a recipient of the University of Pittsburgh Chancellor's Distinguished Teaching Award.

Table of Contents


Preface
Introduction
Part l. Theoretical Foundations
Chapter 1.
INTRODUCTION TO PERSUASION IN EVERYDAY PRACTICES
Key words and Preview
Joseph DeVito Communication Model
Rationale: Why Study Persuasion
Rhetoric in Politics
Rhetoric in Law
Rhetoric in Religion
Rhetoric in Art and Film
Rhetoric in Advertising and Public Relations
Receiver Focused Communication
Distinctions between Informative Speech, Persuasion, and Propaganda
Definition of Persuasion
Rhetorical Efforts in International Disputes
The Functions of Persuasion
Summary
Chapter 2.
RHETORICAL SCHOLARS; PERSPECTIVES ON RHETORIC
Key Words and Preview
The Sophists--The First Rhetoricians
Isocrates: Plato's Competitor
Plato's Dialogues
Aristotle
The Rhetoric of Cicero
The Rhetoric of Quintilian
The Middle Ages--Emergence of Christian Rhetoric
Rhetoric and Belles Lettres
George Campbell and His Philosophy of Rhetoric
Richard Whatley's Advice to Preachers
Kenneth Burke a Literary Critic's View of Rhetoric
Walter Fisher's Narrative Theory
Jacque Ellul's La Technique--A Sociological Perspective on Propaganda
Hugh Rank's Intensify/Downplay Model of Persuasion
Michael Calvin McGee: The Ideograph
Summary
Chapter 3.
AUDIENCES: SOCIAL SCIENTISTS ADDRESS NEEDS, ATTITUDES, AND BELIEFS
Key Words and Preview
Audience Demographics and Psychographics
Persuasion in Interpersonal Exchanges, Small Groups, and Mass Audiences
Source Credibility
A.H. Maslow: The Pyramid of Needs
Vance Packard: Eight Hidden Needs
Audience Attitudes and Beliefs: Consistency Theories
Cognitive Dissonance Theory (CDT)
Gerald Miller's Counter Attitudinal Advocacy and Role Playing
Mere Exposure Theory (MET)
Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
Social Judgment Theory (SJT)
Expectancy Violation Theory (EVT)
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
Summary
Chapter 4.
LANGUAGE: THE CODE OF PERSUASION
Key Words and Preview
General Semantics
Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Functions of Words
George Herbert Mead's Symbolic Interaction Theory
Language in Politics
George Lakoff's Analysis of Metaphors
The Mind is a Body
Emotional Language
Rush Limbaugh's Use of Emotional Language
English--An Ongoing Project
Denotative, Connotative, and Functional Axis of Words
Language and Race
Language and Gender
The Rhetoric of Hillary Clinton
Summary
Chapter 5.
MESSAGES: VERBAL AND NONVERBAL SUPPORT
Key Words and Preview
Plato's Vision of Reason and Passion
--The Phaedrus, a Dialogue about the Duality of Man
Aristotle's View of Emotions
Brockriede's Analysis of Speaker-Audience Relationships
Evidence in Persuasive Messages
--Narratives or Stories
--Examples
--Testimony
--Analogies
--Statistics
Fallacies in Reasoning
--Ad Hominem
--Ad Populum
--Argumentum ad Miseracordiam
--Argumentum ad Absurdum
--Non Sequitur
--Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
--False Dilemma
--Slippery Slope
Effects of Evidence in Persuasive Communication
Organizing Arguments for Maximum Effect
Nonverbal Communication
--Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication
--The Functions and Codes of Nonverbal Communication
Summary
Part II. Application of Persuasion in the Context of Politics, Law, Religion, Art & Cinema, Advertising, and Public Relations
Chapter 6.
POLITICAL COMMUNICATION: MEDIATED CONSTRUCTIONS
Key Words and Preview
The Roots of Political Communication
Visual Rhetoric--Images, Arguments, and Illusions
--Political Cartoons and Photographs as Propositions
The Daisy Girl Ad 1964
Television Debates
The Internet and Political Campaigns
--Jib Jab Media
The Use of Visual Rhetoric in Political Conventions
--Ronald Reagan: The Great communicator
--Bill Clinton: The Man from Hope
--G.W. Bush: The Sky's the Limit
--The Obama Biography Video 2008
--Mitt Romney's Promotional Film 2012
President Obama Wins Again 2012
--The Interplay of Influence--Jamieson & Campbell's Perspective
Presidential Rhetoric as a Window to the World
Approaches to Presidential Rhetoric
Jurgen Habermas on Democracy and Deliberation
The Deliberative Paradigm
Actors who Contribute to Political Communication
Mass Media's Role to Frame Debate
Mass Media as Watch Dog or the Fourth Estate
Politics and the Functions Model of Mass Media
Media Bias and National Views
Political Persuasion Outside the Mainstream
Summary
Chapter 7.
LEGAL COMMUNICATION--PERSUASION IN COURT
Key Words and Preview
Aristotle's View of Forensic Speech
Legal Communication in the Twenty-First Century
Conflicting Interests
Persuasion and the Jury
Story-telling in Trials
Opening Statements
Closing Statements
Trial as Theater
Nonverbal Communication as Effect
The Ethos of the Lawyer
Persuasion and the Judge
Summary
Chapter 8.
RELIGION AND PERSUASION
Key Words and Preview
The Rhetoric of the Fifth Monarchy: Apocalyptic Rhetoric
The Rhetoric of Conversion, Discernment, Communion, Exile, and Praise
--The Rhetoric of Conversion
--The Rhetoric of Discernment
--The Rhetoric of Communion
--The Rhetoric of Exile
--The Rhetoric of Praise
Orthodoxy vs. Modernity
Freedom of Religion from the Established Order
The Judea-Christian Creation Narrative
Religion in a Postmodern World
Evolution of a God of Wrath to a Plastic Jesus
Jonathan Edwards' God of Wrath
John Woolman's God of Equality
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. --The Philosophy of Nonviolent Resistance
Religious Diversity
Cults and Utopian Visions--Jonestown and The Branch Davidians
--Jim Jones
--The Branch Davidians
Summary
Chapter 9.
ART AS PERSUASION: VISUAL RHETORIC
Key Words and Preview
Sonja Foss' Theory of Visual Rhetoric
Kostelnick and Hassett's Conventions
The Vietnam Memorial
Mapplethorpe's Exhibit: The Perfect Moment
Visual Rhetoric in Cinematic Messages of Change--Brokeback Mountain
Portrayals of Mental Illness in Film
Music as Persuasion
Gangsta Rap
Creativity, Music, and Persuasion
Shannon & Weaver vs. Tony Schwartz
Music Television
Summary
Chapter 10.
ADVERTISING: INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION (IMC)
Key Words and Preview
Advertising Strategies and Tactics
History of Commercial Speech--Advertising
Expanded Channels for Advertising
Recurring Complaints against Advertisements
Regulators of Advertisements
--Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
--The Food and Drug Administration (FFA)
--The Federal Communications Commission (FTC)
--The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
--The U.S. Postal Service
The Stone Age Brain Theory
Subliminal Advertising
Market Research
Niche Marketing
Age/Gender Sensitive Advertising
--Children as Consumers
--Gender Stereotypes
--Senior Citizen Ads
Adaptive Advertising Strategies Following Disasters
Summary
Chapter 11.
PUBLIC RELATIONS: ENGINEERING PUBLIC CONSENT
Key Words and Preview
Functions of Public Relations
Public Relations Gives Government Support Aboard
An Inconvenient Truth: PR as Education
Image Restoration
William L. Benoit's Theory of Image Restoration
Summary
Glossary
Index


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