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Embark on the literary journey of a lifetime with LEGACIES: FICTION, POETRY, DRAMA, NONFICTION, 5th Edition! This four-genre literature anthology challenges you to think, read, and write critically. From Lao-tzu and Sophocles, to Sandra Cisneros, Charles Simic, and Suzan Lori-Parks, you'll discover the best of the traditional, multicultural, and world literature canons, as well as exciting new contemporary works that encourage you to question, observe, probe, and critique what you are reading. In addition, you'll find an array of assignments designed to develop your writing abilities, from journal entries and critical analysis essays, to literary arguments and research papers.
Table of Contents
PART ONE: ACTS OF INTERPRETATION. 1. Critical Thinking and Critical Analysis of Literature. Denise Levertov, "The Secret" (Poetry). The Critical Thinking Process. The Critical Thinking/Critical Reading Connection. Lorna Dee Cervantes, "Refugee Ship" (Poetry). Critical Analysis of Literature: A Classroom Experience. Theodore Roethke, "My Papa's Waltz" (Poetry). Text-to-Self Connections. Text-to-Text Connections. Text-to-World Connections. 2. The Reading Process. Reader Response. The Reading/Writing Connection. Glossing and Annotating. Gloria Anzaldua, "horse" (Poetry). Brainstorming and Questioning. Freewriting. Journal Writing. Blogging. Notetaking and the Double-Entry Notebook. "Think" Writings. Arguments about Literary Texts. Course Blogs and Discussion Forums. Creative Responses to Literature. Some Final Considerations about the Reading Process. 3. The Writing Process: Writing the Essay about Literature. Interrelated Stages of Writing. Prewriting. Shaping. Drafting. Revising and Editing. Proofreading. Composing and Revising Electronically. Electronic Portfolio. Summary. The Writing Process: An Example. Peer Evaluation. Special Requirements for Writing about Literature. Summary and Paraphrase. Forms of the Essay about Literature. Response Essay. Explication Essay. Comparison/Contrast Essay. Critical Analysis Essay. Historical, Social, or Cultural Analysis Essay. Evaluation and Review Essay. The Creative Essay about Literature. Multi-Genre Works. Multimodal Compositions. Research Essay. Collaborative Research Writing. Summary. 4. Arguments about Literature. Generative Frames for Argument: Classical, Toulminian, and Rogerian Argument. Proofs. Patterns of Development in Argumentative Thinking and Writing. Definition. Cause and Effect. Evaluative Claims. Logical Fallacies in Literary Arguments. Sweeping Generalization. Hasty Generalization. False Causal Relationships. False Context. Summary Rather than Critical Comment. Checklist for Argumentative Writing. Student Essay: Argument. . PART TWO: THEMATIC ANTHOLOGY. 5. Identity and Rites of Passage. Thematic Cluster: Crossing the Genres/Identity and Body Image. Nathaniel Hawthorne, "The Birthmark" (Fiction). Stacey Richter, "The Beauty Treatment" (Fiction). Heinz Insu Fenkl, "My Father's Hand…." from Memories of My Ghost Brother (Fiction/Memoir). Eavan Boland, "Anorexic" (Poetry). Lucille Clifton, "homage to my hips" (Poetry). Judith Ortiz Cofer, "The Story of My Body" (Nonfiction). FICTION. Joyce Carol Oates, "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?". Wendi Kaufman, "Helen on Eighty-Sixth Street". John Updike, "A&P". Liliana Heker, "The Stolen Party". Washington Irving, "Rip Van Winkle". Hari Kunzru, "Raj, Bohemian". Daniel Alarcon, "Flood". Raymond Carver, "Cathedral". Thematic Cluster/Fiction: Fairy Tales. Nadine Gordimer, "Once upon a Time". Angela Carter, "The Company of Wolves". Explore Online: Introduction to Fairy Tales. "The Little Red Riding Hood Project". "The Cinderella Project". Aaron Goranson, "When the Aliens Came". POETRY. Diane Wakoski, "Wind Secrets". Countee Cullen, "Incident". Walt Whitman, "Song of Myself". Frank O'Hara, "Meditations in an Emergency". Mary Oliver, "The Journey". Kay Ryan, "Carrying a Ladder". Yehuda Amichai, "The School Where I Studied". Tony Hoagland, "Voyage". Neal Bowers, "Driving Lessons". Stephen Dunn, "The Sacred". Barbara Hamby, "Ode to My 1977 Toyota". Patricia Smith, "Doin' the Louvre". Nikki Giovanni, "Quilts". Anne Sexton, "Cinderella". Shirley Geok-Lin Lim "Ah Mah". Rolando Perez, "Canto 10". Thematic Cluster/Poetry: Metamorphoses. Cathy Song, "Lost Sister". Naomi Shihab Nye, "Biography of an Armenian Schoolgirl". Louise Erdrich, "Indian Boarding School: The Runaways". Ha Jin, "The Past". DRAMA. David Henry Hwang, "Trying to Find Chinatown". Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House. NONFICTION. Henry David Thoreau, "Why I Went to the Woods". Elizabeth S. Widdicombe, "Zen, and Other Journeys". Gretel Ehrlich, "Looking for a Lost Dog". Bruno Bettelheim, "Introduction: The Struggle for Meaning" from The Uses of. Enchantment. Explore Online: Most Viewed Essays. "This I Believe". GRAPHIC LITERATURE. Marjane Satrapi, "The Veil" from Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood. Writing Assignments. Student Essays. Ariel Shatz, "Beginning a Journey: The Deep Impact Poetry Had on One Adolescent". (Personal Response Essay). Patrick Lindo, "Where Wolf" (Creative Response to Literature Essay). 6. The Self and Beyond. Thematic Cluster: Crossing the Genres/Family Secrets. A.M. Homes, "Raft in Water, Floating" (Fiction). Robyn Joy Leff, "Burn Your Maps" (Fiction). Robert Hayden, "Those Winter Sundays" (Poetry). bell hooks, Chapters 49, 50, and 51 from bone black (Nonfiction). FICTION. Tillie Olsen, "I Stand Here Ironing". Dean Bakopoulos, "Some Memories of My Father". Sherman Alexie, "This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona". James Baldwin, "Sonny's Blues". Ana Castillo, "Regina" from The Guardians. Toni Morrison, "Recitatif". Amy Tan, "Scar" from The Joy Luck Club. Andre Dubus, "The Intruder". João Guimarães Rosa, "The Third Bank of the River". Thematic Cluster/Fiction: The Family Gothic. Louise Erdrich, "The Fat Man's Race". William Faulkner, "A Rose for Emily". Explore Online: Visions of Hauntings. Short Stories by Edgar Allan Poe: "The Fall of the House of Usher" and "The. Tell-Tale Heart". Robert Harris, "Introduction to the Gothic". POETRY. Amiri Baraka, "Preface to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note". Grace Paley, "Fathers". Sylvia Plath, "Daddy". Simon Ortiz, "My Father's Song". Li-Young Lee, "Persimmons". Seamus Heaney, "Digging". Jamaica Kincaid, "Girl". Mary Karr, "A Blessing from My Sixteen Years' Son". Gerald Locklin, "No Longer A Teenager". Philip Levine, "You Can Have It". Etheridge Knight, "The Idea of Ancestry". Agha Shahid Ali, "Snowmen". Marilyn Chin, "Turtle Soup". Gregory Djanikian, "I Ask My Grandmother If We Can Make Lahmajoun". Thematic Cluster/Poetry: Loss and Family. D. H. Lawrence, "Piano". Harold A. Zlotnik, "Odyssey". Dwight Okita, "The Nice Thing about Counting Stars". Julia Alvarez, "Homecoming". Sharon Olds, "I Go Back to May 1937". DRAMA. August Wilson, The Piano Lesson. NONFICTION. Toi Derricotte, "Beginning Dialogues". David Sedaris, "The Girl Next Door". Daisy Hernández, "My Father's Hands". Richard Rodriguez, "Proofs". Orhan Pamuk, "Forbidden Fare". Peggy Rivage-Seul, "Take Back the Kitchen". Liliana Hernández, "Dinner Talk". Geeta Kothari, "If You Are What You Eat, Then What Am I?". Katherine Waugh, "Bucket of Blood". Explore Online: Food and Family. Ira Sukrungruang, "Chop Suey". GRAPHIC LITERATURE. Lynda Barry, "Common Scents" from One! Hundred! Demons!. Writing Assignments. Student Essays. Katherine Beatty, "Compare/Contrast and Character Analysis" (Comparison/. Contrast Essay). Brianna Walter, "A Tell-Tale Story: The Beat Found within His Own Mind" (Literary Analysis/Argument Essay). 7. Gender and Sexuality. Thematic Cluster: Crossing the Genres/Discovering Love and Sexuality. Karen Russell, "The Seagull Army Descends on Strong Beach" (Fiction). Andrew Lam, "Grandma's Tales" (Fiction). Alma Luz Villanueva, "Crazy Courage" (Poetry). Mark Doty, "Tiara" (Poetry). Pauline Powers Uchmanowicz, "Mechanical Drawing" (Poetry). Oscar Wilde, "The Importance of Being Earnest" (Drama). Bernard Cooper, "Burl's" (Nonfiction). FICTION. Anton Chekhov, "Lady with Lapdog". Ernest Hemingway, "Hills Like White Elephants". James Joyce, "Eveline". Junot Diaz, "How to Date a Browngirl, Blackgirl, Whitegirl, or Halfie". Doreen Baingana, "Tropical Fish". Charlotte Perkins Gilman, "The Yellow Wallpaper". Eileen Curtis, "The Yellow Wallpaper". Leslie Marmon Silko, "Yellow Woman". Margaret Atwood, "Happy Endings". Sandra Cisneros, "Barbie-Q". Thematic Cluster/Fiction: Modern Love. T.C. Boyle, "The Love of My Life". Danielle Evans, "Virgins". POETRY. William Shakespeare, "Let Me Not to the Marriage of True Minds". William Shakespeare, "Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?". John Donne, "A Valediction Forbidding Mourning". Heather McHugh, "Earthmoving Malediction". Andrew Marvell, "To His Coy Mistress". C.P. Cavafy, "Days of 1908". Pablo Neruda, "Sweetness, always". Pablo Neruda, "Tonight I Can Write…". Liz Rosenberg, "In the End, We Are All Light". Virginia Hamilton Adair, "Peeling an Orange". Marge Piercy, "Barbie doll". May Swenson, "Women". T. S. Eliot, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock". Marie Howe, "The Boy". William Carlos Williams, "Danse Russe". Thom Gunn, "The Missing". David Hernandez, "Bully". Wislawa Szymborska, "True Love". Thematic Cluster/Poetry: Love and Betrayal. John Donne, "The Flea". John Keats, "La Belle Dame Sans Merci". Robert Browning, "Porphyria's Lover". Christina Rossetti, "Goblin Market". Carley Rees Bogarad, "Kudzu". Bart Edelman, "Bed and Brimstone". Explore Online: Cultural Contexts/Gender. The Victorian Web: Literature, History, and Culture in the Age of Victoria. Gender Matters. Robert Browning: Gender Matters. Keunjung Cho, "Female Silence and Male Self-Consciousness in Browning's. Poetry". DRAMA. Susan Glaspell, Trifles. David Ives, Sure Thing. NONFICTION. Plato, "The Sexes" from The Symposium. Laura Kipnis, "Against Love". Maxine Hong Kingston, "No Name Woman". Virginia Woolf, "Professions for Women". Simone de Beauvoir, "Woman as Other". Michael Kimmel, "'Bros before Hos': The Guy Code" from Guyland. Stephen Hinshaw, "Impossible Expectations" from The Triple Bind. Explore Online: Selections from "Modern Love," the New York Times. Sophia Raday, "Diary of a Soldier's Wife: Tie-Dye and Camo Don't Mix". Alison Luterman, "Married, but Certainly Not to Tradition". Victoria Loustalot, "Fatherly Memories Scattered to the Wind". Cheryl St. Germain, "What We're Good At". Andrew Limbong, "Eat the Forbidden Ham Sandwich". David Mark Simpson, "What Is Carved in Stone". Diane Farr, "Bring Home the Wrong Race". GRAPHIC LITERATURE. Alison Bechdel, "Only Disconnect" from Dykes to Watch Out For. Writing Assignments. Student Essay. Kimberly Thomas, "The Concept of Love in The English Patient" (Thematic Analysis. Essay and Movie Review). 8. Sites of Conflict. Thematic Cluster: Crossing the Genres/Children of Violence. Luisa Valenzuela, "The Verb to Kill" (Fiction). Uwem Akpan, "My Parents' Bedroom" (Fiction). Jessica Hagedorn, "The Song of Bullets" (Poetry). Robert Waugh, "The Bodies of This Century" (Poetry). Naomi Shihab Nye, "All Things Not Considered" (Poetry). Sara Corbett, "The Lost Boys" (Nonfiction). Roger Rosenblatt, "Children of Cambodia" from Children of War (Nonfiction). Explore Online: Essays of Nicholas Kristof. "She's 10 and Now May Be Sold to a Brothel". "Raiding a Brothel in India". Video: "Sisters, Victims, Heroes". "Jackie's Story, Africa's Trauma". FICTION. Dinaw Mengestu, "An Honest Exit". Cynthia Ozick, "The Shawl". Sara Nomberg-Przytyk, "Natasha's Triumph". Shusaku End?, "The War Generation". Tim O'Brien, "The Man I Killed". Tim O'Brien, "Good Form". Thematic Cluster/Fiction: Forgiveness. Daniyal Mueenuddin, "Nawabdin Electrician". Flannery O'Connor, "A Good Man Is Hard to Find". Explore Online: Story Corps. "Forgiving Her Son's Killer: 'Not an Easy Thing'". Story Corps, NPR. POETRY. W. H. Auden, "Musee des Beaux Arts". W. H. Auden, "The Unknown Citizen". Lao-tzu, "Weapons at Best". Wilfred Owen, "Dulce et Decorum Est". Marilyn Chin, "Love Poem from Nagasaki". Yusef Komunyakaa, "Facing It". Yusef Komunyakaa, "Nude Interrogation". Langston Hughes, "Let America be America Again". Langston Hughes, "Harlem". Gwendolyn Brooks, "The Chicago Defender Sends a Man to Little Rock". Gwendolyn Brooks, "The Boy Died in My Alley". Allen Ginsberg, "America". Joy Harjo, "Transformations". Tato Laviera, "AmeRican". Elizabeth Spires, "Moment Vanishing". Nikky Finney, "The Afterbirth, 1931". Lucille Clifton, "Jasper Texas 1998". Wole Soyinka, "Telephone Conversation". Emily Dickinson, "I'm Nobody! Who are You?". Dagoberto Gilb, "You Know Him By His Labors, But Not His Face". Taslima Nasrin, "Things Cheaply Had". Anthony Hecht, "The Book of Yolek". Billy Collins, "The Names". Thematic Cluster/Poetry: Human Rights. William Blake, "London". Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, "The Slave Auction". Martin Espada, "Alabanza: In Praise of Local 100". Gloria Anzaldua, "horse". Carolyn Forche, "The Colonel". Paul Celan, "Death Fugue". Thematic Cluster/Poetry: Immigration. Rabiul Hasan, "Returning Poem". Lucia Cherciu, "Spring in a Second Language". Lucia Cherciu, "Seven Years". Marjorie Agosin, "Far Away". Marjorie Agosin, "The Foreigner". Eugene Gloria, "Assimilation". Jose Marti, "Two Homelands". Explore Online: Protest Songs. Woodie Guthrie, "The Dying Miners," "The Farmer Labor Train". Abel Meeropol (pseudonym Lewis Allen), "Strange Fruit" as sung by Billie. Holiday. Bob Dylan, "Blowing in the Wind". John Lennon, "Imagine". Green Day, "Holiday". India Arie, "Video". Jack Johnson, "In Times Like These". Bob Marley, "War". Peter Tosh, "Equal Rights". Dead Prez, "Propaganda". Rage Against the Machine, "Take the Power Back". Explore Online: Performance Poetry: YouTube. Sarah Jones, "Your Revolution". Patricia Smith, Selections from Blood Dazzler and "Skinhead". Saul Williams, "Coded Language". DRAMA. Sophocles, Antigone. Suzan Lori-Parks, "Father Comes Home from the Wars (Part 1) from 365 Days/. 365 Plays. Jose Rivera, "Gas". Lynn Nottage, Excerpt from Ruined. NONFICTION. Sojourner Truth, "Ain't I a Woman?". Elie Wiesel, "Why I Write: Making No Become Yes". Laura Blumenfeld, "The Apology: Letters from a Terrorist". Czeslaw Milosz, "American Ignorance of War". Natalie Angier, "Is War Our Biological Destiny?". Peter Singer, "The Singer Solution to World Poverty". Jason Hartley, "I, Jailor" from Just Another Soldier: A Year on the Ground in Iraq. Zachary Scott-Singley, "Military Blog" from A Soldier's Thoughts. Danusha Veronica Goska, "Political Paralysis". Manning Marable, "The Prism of Race". Emily Bernard, "Figurines". Explore Online: Civil Rights. Civil Rights Timeline. William E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk, "Forethought" and Chapter 1. Martin Luther King Speeches (text and video). Malcolm X Speeches. Dudley Randall, "Ballad of Birmingham". Maya Angelou, "Still I Rise". GRAPHIC LITERATURE. Art Spiegelman, "Here My Troubles Began" from Maus II: A Survivor's Tale. Writing Assignments. Student Essays. Melanie Chopko, "A Mother's Survival" (Thematic Analysis and Research Essay). Gloria M. Winter, "Rosa's Final Scream" (Creative Response Essay). Online Forum and Discussion: Creative Responses to "horse". 9. Borderlands. Thematic Cluster: Crossing the Genres/Apocalypse Now?. Mary Gordon, "The Imagination of Disaster" (Fiction). Ben Okri, "A Prayer from the Living" (Fiction). Federico Garcia Lorca, "Floating Bridges" (Poetry). Mary TallMountain, "The Last Wolf" (Poetry). Lesli-Jo Morizono, "Freakish Times" (Drama). Jared Diamond, "The Ends of the World as We Know Them" (Nonfiction). FICTION. Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., "Harrison Bergeron". Gabriel Garcia Márquez, "The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World," A Tale for. Children. J.G. Ballard, "The Autobiography of J.G.B.". Kevin Brockmeier, "The Year of Silence". Andrew Lam, "The Palmist". Sarah Orne Jewett, "A White Heron". Thematic Cluster/Fiction: Facing Death. George Saunders, "Sea Oak" .Amy Hempl, "Rapture of the Deep". Explore Online: Death in the Midst of Life. Jeff Biggers, "Saying Goodbye in the Sierra Madre". POETRY. William Butler Yeats, "The Second Coming". Louise Bogan, "A Tale". Rabindranath Tagore, Gitanjali: "Songs I and II". Rainer Maria Rilke, "Sonnet 1". Rainer Maria Rilke, "Sonnet 29". Adrienne Rich, "Final Notations". Derek Walcott, "The Season of Phantasmal Peace". Gloria Anzaldua, "To live in the Borderlands means you". Anna Lee Walters, "My Name Is 'I Am Living'". e. e. cummings, "the little horse is newlY". Charles Simic, "Summer Morning". Mary Oliver, "Spring". Robert Frost, "The Bear". Mary Oliver, "The Swan". Marge Piercy, "Toad Dreams". Wislawa Szymborska, "The Century's Decline". Wislawa Szymborska, "Could Have". Wislawa Szymborska, "Hatred". Explore Online: Biographical and Critical Contexts, A Study of Wislawa Szymborska. Biography. Additional Poetry Selections. Banquet Speech. Critical Article: Malgorzata Anna Packalen, "A Domestication of Death: The. Poetic Universe of Wislawa Szymborska". "Wislawa Szymborska Pages". Robert Frost, "Design". Robert Frost, "After Apple-Picking". Explore Online: Most Viewed Essays. "This I Believe": "The Peace that Comes from Animals". Thematic Cluster/Poetry: Life in the Midst of Death. Jorge Luis Borges, "Ars Poetica". John Keats, "Ode on a Grecian Urn". Emily Dickinson, "I heard a Fly buzz--when I died". George Meredith, "Dirge in Woods". William Butler Yeats, "Sailing to Byzantium". Theodore Roethke, "The Waking". Dylan Thomas, "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night". Jane Kenyon, "Coming Home at Twilight in Late Summer". Ted Kooser, "Walking on Tiptoe". DRAMA. William Shakespeare, The Tempest. Laurence Carr, "Scrabble and Tabouli". NONFICTION. Plato, "The Allegory of the Cave". Albert Camus, "The Myth of Sisyphus". Vaclav Havel, "Our Moral Footprint". Terry Tempest Williams, "A Shark in the Mind of One Contemplating Wilderness". Michael Specter, "Test-Tube Burgers". Jim Carrier, "All You Can Eat". Gary Snyder, "The Place, the Region, and the Commons". Annie Dillard, "Sojourner". Alice Walker, "Am I Blue?". Rick Bass, "January 13". Explore Online: Wilderness vs. Wasteland. Bill McKibben, "The Crunch". Explore Online: Nobel Peace Prize Speeches. Shirin Ebadi, Martin Luther King Jr., Aung San Suu Kyi, Wangari Maathai,. Nelson Mandela, Desmond Tutu, Elie Wiesel, and Betty Williams. GRAPHIC LITERATURE. Matt Groening, "Will & Abe's Guide to Bali: Part Two" from Will and Abe's Guide to. the Universe. Writing Assignments. Student Essay. Elaine Livingston, "A Close Reading of Louise Bogan's 'A Tale'" (Close Reading). . PART THREE: READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE GENRES. 10. Fiction. Forms of Narrative. Elements of Fiction. Point of View. Setting. Plot. Conflict. Character. Language. Tone. Symbolism. Theme. The Reading/Writing Process: Fiction. Checklist for Reading and Writing about Short Fiction. Student Portfolio: Response to Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour". Kate Chopin, "The Story of an Hour". Explore Online: Fiction. 11. Poetry. Kinds of Poetry. Narrative Poetry. Lyric Poetry. Matsuo Bash?, "Sleeping at noon". Dramatic Poetry. Elements of Poetry. Voice. Anonymous, "Danaë". Tone. Theme. Carley Rees Bogarad, "Chasing Fire Engines". Setting. Imagery. Margaret Atwood, "You Fit into Me". William Carlos Williams, "The Red Wheelbarrow". Walt Whitman, "When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer". Figures of Speech. John Keats, "Endymion". Metaphor and Simile. Personification, Synecdoche, Metonymy, and Hyperbole. Symbol, Myth, and Allusion. Structure. Stanzas. Gwendolyn Brooks, "We Real Cool". Rhyme and Sound. Rhythm. Meter. Scansion. William Shakespeare, "My mistress' eyes, are nothing like the Sun". Strong Stress Meter. Syllabic Rhythm. Free Verse. The Reading/Writing Process: Poetry. Checklist for Reading and Writing about Poetry. Student Portfolio: Response to Wilfred Owen's "Arms and the Boy". Wilfred Owen, "Arms and the Boy". Explore Online: Poetry. 12.. Drama. Forms of Drama. Greek Drama. Roman Drama. English Drama. Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Drama. Performance Drama. Film and Television. Checklist for Writing about Film. Similarities and Differences between Drama and Film. Elements of Drama. Character. Soliloquy, Monologue, and Dialogue. Action. Plot. Setting. Symbolism. Irony. Theme. The Reading/Writing Process: Drama. Checklist for Reading and Writing about Drama. Student Portfolio: Character Analysis of Nora in Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House. Explore Online: Drama. 13. Nonfiction. Forms of Nonfiction. Speech. Philosophical Treatise. Autobiography. Memoir. Journal. Essay. Kinds of Essays. Forms of Creative Nonfiction. Elements of Nonfiction. The Reading/Writing Process: Nonfiction. Checklist for Reading and Writing about Nonfiction. Student Portfolio: Response to Martin Luther King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail". Martin Luther King, "Letter from Birmingham Jail". 14. Visual Texts. Forms of Visual Texts. Elements of Visual Texts. Visual Rhetoric. Sample Analysis of a Visual Text: Marjane Satrapi's "The Veil". The Reading/Writing Process: Visual Texts. Checklist for Reading and Writing about Visual Texts. Student Essay: Response to Art Spiegelman's Maus II. . PART FOUR: APPENDIXES. A. The Research Process and MLA Documentation. The Research Process. The Research Process Online. General Web Searches. Specialized Web Searches. Electronic Databases and Catalogs Accessed through Libraries. Keeping Accurate Bibliographic Records while Conducting Online Research. Principles of Documentation. Form of MLA Documentation--Citation within the Text. "Works Cited" Page. Common Forms of Bibliographic Entries for the "Works Cited" Page. Principles of Online Documentation. Common Forms of Bibliographic Entries for Online Sources on the "Works. Cited" Page. Endnotes. An Example of the Research Essay--MLA Documentation (Historical and Cultural. Analysis and Argument). Explore Online: The Research Process and MLA Documentation. B. Critical Approaches to Literature. Formalism/New Criticism. Structuralism. Postmodernism. Deconstruction. Psychological Criticism. Reader Response Criticism. Feminist Criticism. Gender Criticism. New Historicism. Marxist Criticism. Postcolonial Criticism. Cultural Studies. Conclusion. C Author Biographies.Glossary. Literary Credits. Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines of Poetry.