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Legal Research and Writing for Paralegals

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780735551053

ISBN10:
0735551057
Format:
Nonspecific Binding
Pub. Date:
8/24/2005
Publisher(s):
ASPEN PUB

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Summary

the Fourth Edition of Legal Research and Writing for Paralegals continues to build a strong foundation for future practice while introducing students to the latest techniques and processes. The text retains the features that earned it such widespread use: clear, well-organized text For The introductory legal research and writing course, designed specifically for paralegal students comprehensive overview of research and writing skills, reinforced by illustrations and exercises integrates writing strategies into each research chapter to demonstrate the link between the two processes timely and thorough coverage of electronic research, including a chapter on internet research as well as fee-based services such as LEXIS and Westlaw. Throughout the text, The author supplies further tips on how to use electronic resources most effectively. useful charts and diagrams help students understand complex topics thorough explanation of proper citation form and updating/validating legal authorities, including Shepardizing and KeyCiting samples of legal writing, such as letters, a court brief, and a legal memorandum This timely revision contains much new material: completely revised text reflects the changing nature of legal publishing to help students learn how to navigate through cyberspace, a section at the end of each chapter, State Your Answer, now offers additional questions relating To The materials discussed. These questions require students to access relevant internet sites and local information, and can be made state-specific. a new feature, The Final Wrap Up, provides practical and pragmatic information on citing and using various research resources and advises students on when to use a certain set and whether it may be cited in various legal documents Practice Tips now appear in each chapter, offering realistic and helpful suggestions for workplace success expanded and updated Legal Citation chapter with more coverage of the ALWD citation manual. The examples of citation form given at the end of each chapter display citations in both Bluebook and ALWD form. Coverage is updated to the new (18th) edition of the Bluebook. Please visit the new companion website to learn more about this book. Website: http://www.aspenlawschool.com/bouchoux_legalresearch4

Table of Contents

Preface xxxiii
Acknowledgments xxxvii
Section I Legal Research: Primary Authorities
1(192)
Finding the Law
3(26)
The Paralegal's Role in Legal Research and Writing
3(2)
Legal Research and Writing as Core Competencies
3(1)
Ethical Duty to Research Accurately
4(1)
Law Libraries
5(4)
Types of Law Libraries
5(2)
Arrangement of Law Libraries
7(1)
Law Library Staff
8(1)
Law Library Courtesy
8(1)
Other Library Services
9(1)
Sources of Law in the United States
9(4)
Cases and Our Common Law Tradition
9(2)
Constitutions and Statutes
11(1)
Administrative Regulations
11(1)
The Executive Branch
12(1)
Legal Systems of Other Countries
13(1)
Legal System of the United States
13(3)
Law Book Publishing
16(3)
Non-Print Research Media
19(1)
Change in Our Legal System
20(3)
Identifying the Holding in a Case
23(1)
Case Citation Form
24(5)
CyberSites
25(1)
Writing Strategies
26(1)
Assignment for Chapter 1
27(1)
State Your Answer
27(2)
The Federal and State Court Systems
29(32)
Federalism
30(2)
Establishment of Federal Court Structure
32(1)
Jurisdiction
32(4)
Federal Question Jurisdiction
33(1)
Diversity Jurisdiction
33(2)
Concurrent Jurisdiction
35(1)
Exclusive Jurisdiction
35(1)
Ground Rules for Cases
36(1)
The Federal Court Structure
37(15)
District Courts
37(1)
United States Courts of Appeal
38(3)
United States Supreme Court
41(9)
Specialized Courts
50(2)
State Court Organization
52(3)
Citation Form
55(6)
Federal Cases
55(1)
State Cases
55(3)
CyberSites
58(1)
Writing Strategies
59(1)
Assignment for Chapter 2
60(1)
State Your Answer
60(1)
Statutory Law
61(44)
Federal Legislation
61(34)
Enactment of Federal Statutes
61(5)
Classification of Federal Statutes
66(1)
Publication of Federal Statutes
67(1)
United States Statutes at Large
67(3)
United States Code
70(1)
Annotated Versions of the United States Code
71(16)
Use of U.S.C., U.S.C.A., and U.S.C.S.
87(2)
Research Techniques
89(5)
Final Research Steps
94(1)
United States Constitution
95(1)
State Legislation
95(5)
Enactment of State Statutes
95(1)
Publication and Codification of State Statutes
96(2)
Research Techniques
98(1)
Descriptive Word Approach
98(1)
Title/Topic Approach
98(1)
Popular Name Approach
98(1)
Uniform and Model Laws
99(1)
Statutory Research Overview
100(1)
Citation Form
100(5)
Federal Statutes
100(1)
State Statutes
100(1)
CyberSites
101(1)
Writing Strategies
102(1)
Assignment for Chapter 3
103(1)
State Your Answer
104(1)
Case Law and Judicial Opinions
105(50)
Selective Publication
106(4)
Standards for Publishing Cases
106(1)
The Controversy Surrounding Unpublished Opinions
107(3)
Elements of a Case
110(10)
Case Name
110(5)
Docket Number and Deciding Court
115(1)
Date of Decision
115(1)
Case Synopsis or Summary
115(1)
Headnotes
115(2)
Names of Counsel
117(1)
Opinion
117(3)
Decision
120(1)
Publication of Cases
120(3)
Official and Unofficial Publication
120(2)
Series of Cases
122(1)
Advance Sheets
122(1)
Publication of State Cases
123(5)
West's National Reporter System
123(3)
Citation Form
126(1)
Discontinuation of Some Official Reports
127(1)
Publication of Federal Cases
128(5)
United States Supreme Court Cases
128(1)
Publication
128(2)
Rapid Access to United States Supreme Court Cases
130(1)
United States Courts of Appeal Cases
131(1)
United States District Court Cases
132(1)
Cases Interpreting Federal Rules
133(1)
Star Paging
133(1)
Specialized National Reporter System Sets
134(3)
West's Military Justice Reporter
134(2)
West's Veterans Appeals Reporter
136(1)
West's Bankruptcy Reporter
136(1)
West's Federal Claims Reporter
136(1)
Federal Cases
136(1)
Features of West's National Reporter System
137(1)
Tables of Cases Reported
137(1)
Tables of Statutes and Rules
137(1)
Table of Words and Phrases
137(1)
List of Judges
138(1)
Key Number System
138(1)
Finding Parallel Cites
138(2)
Cross-References
138(1)
National Reporter Blue Book and State Blue and White Books
139(1)
Shepard's Citations and KeyCite
139(1)
State Digests
140(1)
Summary of West's National Reporter System
140(2)
Briefing Cases
142(6)
Citation Form
148(7)
Federal Cases
148(2)
State Cases
150(1)
CyberSites
151(1)
Writing Strategies
152(1)
Assignment for Chapter 4
153(1)
State Your Answer
153(2)
The Use of Digests, Annotated Law Reports, and Words and Phrases
155(38)
Using Digests to Locate Cases
156(19)
Introduction
156(1)
The American Digest System
157(1)
Organization of the American Digest System
157(3)
West's Digest Topics
160(3)
Locating a Topic and Key Number
163(1)
Descriptive Word Approach
163(1)
Topic Approach
164(2)
Table of Cases Approach
166(1)
``Case on Point'' Approach
166(3)
Using Digests
169(1)
Other West Digests
169(2)
United States Supreme Court Digest
171(1)
Federal Practice Digests
171(1)
Regional Digests
171(1)
State Digests
172(1)
Specialized Digests
172(1)
Common Features of West's Digests
173(1)
Uniform Classification
173(1)
Descriptive Word Indexes
173(1)
Table of Cases
173(1)
Table of Words and Phrases
173(1)
Supplementation
174(1)
Cross-Referencing
174(1)
Other Digests
174(1)
American Law Reports
175(10)
Introduction
175(1)
A.L.R. Organization
176(1)
Features of A.L.R.
177(1)
Finding A.L.R. Annotations
178(1)
Index or Descriptive-Word Approach
178(1)
Digest Approach
178(4)
Miscellaneous Approaches
182(1)
Updating A.L.R. Annotations
182(3)
Words and Phrases
185(2)
Citation Form
187(6)
CyberSites
188(1)
Writing Strategies
189(1)
Assignment for Chapter 5
190(1)
State Your Answer
191(2)
Section II Legal Research: Secondary Authorities and Other Research Aids
193(392)
Encyclopedias, Periodicals, Treatises, and Restatements
195(48)
Encyclopedias
196(16)
Introduction
196(1)
General or National Encyclopedias
196(1)
C.J.S.
197(1)
Am. Jur. 2d
197(4)
Features Common to C.J.S. and Am. Jur. 2d
201(1)
Total Client-Service Library
202(4)
Research Strategies for Using General Encyclopedias
206(2)
Local or State Encyclopedias
208(1)
Introduction
208(1)
Features Common to State Encyclopedias
208(2)
Research Strategies for Using State Encyclopedias
210(1)
Special Subject Encyclopedias
210(1)
Summary
211(1)
Legal Periodicals
212(14)
Introduction
212(1)
Law School Publications
212(2)
Bar Association and Paralegal Association Publications
214(4)
Specialized Publications
218(1)
Legal Newspapers and Newsletters
218(1)
How to Locate Periodical Articles
219(1)
Index to Legal Periodicals & Books
219(4)
Current Law Index, Legal Resource Index, and LegalTrac
223(1)
Other Indexes
224(1)
Special Subject Indexes
225(1)
Other Findings Techniques
225(1)
Summary of Legal Periodicals
225(1)
Texts and Treatises
226(6)
Introduction
226(3)
Common Features of Treatises
229(1)
Use of Treatises
230(1)
Research Strategies for Treatises
231(1)
Restatements
232(5)
Introduction
232(2)
Arrangement of Restatements
234(1)
Research Strategies
234(2)
Effect of Restatements
236(1)
Citation Form
237(6)
CyberSites
238(2)
Writing Strategies
240(1)
Assignment for Chapter 6
241(1)
State Your Answer
242(1)
Miscellaneous Secondary Authorities
243(40)
Attorneys General Opinions
244(1)
Introduction
244(1)
Research Strategies
244(1)
Legal Dictionaries and Thesauri
245(3)
Directories
248(8)
Introduction
248(1)
Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory
248(1)
Overview of Martindale-Hubbell
248(3)
Martindale-Hubbell Law Digest Volumes
251(4)
Local Directories
255(1)
Specialized Directories
255(1)
Internet Directories
255(1)
Form Books
256(5)
Introduction
256(1)
Well-Known Form Books
256(4)
Locating Form Books
260(1)
Research Strategies
260(1)
Summary
261(1)
Uniform Laws
261(5)
Introduction
261(2)
Research Strategies
263(3)
Use of Uniform Laws
266(1)
Looseleaf Services
266(2)
Introduction
266(1)
Arrangement of Looseleaf Services
267(1)
Research Strategies
268(1)
Jury Instructions
268(4)
Introduction
268(2)
Research Strategies
270(2)
Summary
272(1)
Citation Form
273(10)
CyberSites
278(2)
Writing Strategies
280(1)
Assignment for Chapter 7
281(1)
State Your Answer
282(1)
Legal Citation Form
283(78)
Introduction to Citation Form
284(1)
Citation Manuals
285(2)
Introduction
285(1)
Overview of The Bluebook
285(1)
Overview of ALWD
286(1)
Other Citation Manuals
286(1)
The Bluebook
287(4)
Organization of The Bluebook
287(1)
Typeface Conventions
288(2)
Revisions to the 18th Edition of The Bluebook
290(1)
Bluebook Citation Rules and Examples for Primary Authorities
291(24)
Cases
291(1)
Introduction
291(1)
Case Names
291(4)
Parallel Citations
295(5)
Recent Cases
300(2)
Abbreviations in Case Citations
302(1)
Spacing
302(2)
Federal Cases
304(5)
Subsequent History
309(1)
Prior History
309(1)
Parenthetical Information
310(1)
Different Case Name on Appeal
310(1)
Order of Preference for Citations
310(1)
Statutes
311(1)
State Statutes
311(1)
Federal Statutes
312(1)
Miscellaneous Rules Regarding Citation of Statutes
312(3)
Rules
315(1)
Constitutions
315(1)
State Constitutions
315(1)
United States Constitutions
315(1)
Bluebook Citation Rules and Examples for Secondary Authorities
315(4)
Annotations
315(1)
Encyclopedias
316(1)
Periodical Materials
316(1)
Books, Texts, and Treatises
317(1)
Restatements
317(1)
Uniform Laws
317(1)
Dictionaries
318(1)
Attorneys General Opinions
318(1)
Looseleaf Services
318(1)
The ALWD Citation Manual
319(3)
Introduction
319(1)
ALWD Citation Rules and Examples for Primary Authorities
319(1)
Citation of Cases
319(2)
Citation of Statutes
321(1)
ALWD Citation Rules and Examples for Secondary Authorities
321(1)
Annotations
322(1)
Encyclopedias
322(1)
Periodical Materials
322(1)
Books, Texts, and Treatises
322(1)
Restatements
322(1)
Special Citation Issues
322(23)
Introduction
322(1)
Punctuation
323(1)
Citation ``Sentences''
323(1)
Citation ``Clauses''
323(1)
String Citing
324(1)
Introduction
324(1)
Order of Citations in String Cites
325(1)
Quotations
326(1)
Introduction
326(1)
Indicating Quotations in Text
327(2)
Alterations of Quotes
329(1)
Adding Emphasis
330(1)
Omitting Citations
330(1)
Use of Ellipses
331(1)
Omissions from the Middle of a Quote
331(1)
Omissions from the End of a Quote
331(1)
Using Quoted Language as a Phrase
331(1)
Paragraph Structure
332(1)
Citation Signals
333(2)
Short Form Citations
335(1)
Cases
336(1)
Statutes
336(1)
Constitutions
336(1)
Books and Periodical Materials
337(1)
Use of Id., Supra, Infra, and Hereinafter
337(1)
Id.
337(2)
Supra
339(2)
Infra
341(1)
Use of ``Hereinafter''
341(1)
Capitalization in Court Documents and Other Legal Memoranda
342(1)
Electronic Sources, Databases, and the Internet
342(2)
Statutes and Constitutions
344(1)
Books, Journals, and Magazines
344(1)
Tips for Effective Cite-Checking
345(5)
Quick Reference for Citations
350(11)
Cases
350(1)
Statutes
350(1)
Constitutions
351(1)
Encyclopedias
351(1)
Law Review Articles
351(1)
Texts and Treatises
351(1)
Restatements
351(1)
Dictionaries
351(1)
Attorneys General Opinions
352(1)
Summary of Special Citation Issues
352(1)
Internet Citation Form
352(2)
CyberSites
354(2)
Writing Strategies
356(1)
Assignment for Chapter 8
357(2)
State Your Answer
359(2)
Updating and Validating Your Research
361(58)
Introduction to Updating and Validating
362(1)
Shepardizing Cases
363(22)
Locating Shepard's Citations
363(3)
Locating Shepard's References to Your Case
366(1)
Analysis of References in Shepard's
367(1)
Abbreviations
367(1)
History References
368(1)
Treatment References
368(3)
No Indication of Treatment
371(1)
Arrangement of Later Cases
371(1)
Other Identifying Letters
372(1)
References to Headnotes
372(1)
References to Sources Other than Cases
373(1)
Attorneys General Opinions
373(1)
Law Review Articles
373(1)
Annotations
373(1)
Using Shepard's
374(1)
Analyzing Negative Letters
374(2)
Shepardizing Using a Regional Shepard's
376(3)
Shepardizing Neutral or Public Domain Citations
379(1)
When to Shepardize
379(1)
Shepardizing Federal Cases
380(1)
United States Supreme Court Cases
380(1)
Lower Federal Court Cases
380(1)
How Many Volumes to Use When Shepardizing
380(4)
Troubleshooting
384(1)
Using Shepard's to Find Parallel Citations
384(1)
Shepardizing Statutes
385(8)
Locating Shepard's for Statutes
385(1)
Locating Shepard's References to Your Statute
386(1)
Analysis of References in Shepard's
386(1)
History References
386(1)
Treatment References
386(2)
No References to Your Statute
388(1)
Other References
388(1)
Advantages of Shepardizing Statutes
388(1)
Analyzing Negative Letters
389(1)
Shepardizing Federal Statutes
389(1)
When to Shepardize
389(1)
How Many Volumes to Use When Shepardizing a Statue
389(3)
Troubleshooting
392(1)
Shepardizing Constitutions
393(1)
Shepardizing Provisions of State Constitutions
393(1)
Shepardizing Provisions of the United States Constitution
393(1)
Shepardizing Administrative Regulations
394(1)
Shepardizing Restatement Provisions
394(2)
Shepardizing Court Rules
396(1)
Specialized Citators
396(2)
Miscellaneous Citators
398(1)
Shepard's Daily Update Service
398(2)
Electronic Updating of Legal Authorities
400(12)
Introduction to Electronic Updating
400(1)
Shepardizing Online
401(1)
How to Shepardize a Case Online
401(1)
Features of Shepard's Online
402(2)
Shepardizing Statutes and Regulations Online
404(1)
Other Shepard's Products
405(1)
KeyCite
406(1)
How to KeyCite Cases
406(2)
Features of KeyCite
408(1)
KeyCiting Statutes and Regulations
409(1)
Other West Products
410(1)
Comparing Shepardizing Online with KeyCite
411(1)
Other Services
412(1)
Summary
412(7)
CyberSites
414(1)
Writing Strategies
415(1)
Assignment for Chapter 9
416(1)
State Your Answer
417(2)
Special Research Issues
419(62)
Legislative History
420(20)
Introduction to Federal Legislative History Research
420(1)
Documents Composing Federal Legislative History
421(1)
Versions of a Bill
421(1)
Transcripts of Committee Hearings
421(1)
Committee Reports and Prints
422(1)
Debates
422(1)
The Process of Compiling a Legislative History
422(1)
Examining the History of a Statute and Getting a Public Law Number
423(1)
Using a Public Law Number
424(2)
Using Electronic Sources and the Internet to Compile a Legislative History
426(1)
LEXIS
426(1)
Westlaw
427(1)
Thomas
427(1)
GPO Access
428(2)
Obtaining Documents Needed for Legislative Histories
430(1)
Bills and Their Amendments
430(1)
Transcripts of Committee Hearings
430(1)
Committee Reports and Prints
430(1)
Debates
430(1)
Alternate Methods of Obtaining Legislative History for Federal Statutes
431(1)
Compiled Legislative Histories
431(1)
Legislative History Worksheets
431(1)
Commercial Services
431(1)
Reference Assistance
432(1)
Congressional Assistance
432(1)
Law Reviews and Annotations
433(1)
Web-based Tutorials
434(1)
Introduction to State Legislative History
434(1)
Documents Composing State Legislative History
435(1)
The Process of Compiling a State Legislative History
435(1)
Alternate Methods of Obtaining Legislative History for State Statutes
436(1)
Tracking Pending Legislation
437(1)
Summary of Legislative History Research
438(2)
Executive Materials
440(4)
Introduction
440(1)
Proclamations
440(2)
Executive Orders
442(1)
Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents
442(2)
Administrative Law
444(14)
Introduction to Federal Administrative Law
444(1)
Publication of Federal Administrative Law
445(4)
Research Techniques for Administrative Law
449(1)
C.F.R.
449(1)
The Federal Register
449(2)
Updating C.F.R. Regulations
451(1)
List of C.F.R. Sections Affected
451(1)
C.F.R. Parts Affected
451(2)
Electronic and Online Methods of Administrative Law Research
453(1)
Decisions
453(1)
Review of Agency Decisions
454(1)
Locating Federal Cases Reviewing Agency Decisions
455(1)
The United States Government Manual
456(1)
State Administrative Law
457(1)
International Law
458(9)
Introduction
458(1)
Sources of International Law
458(1)
Overview of International Law Research Procedure
459(1)
Basic Texts and Sources
459(1)
Treaties
460(1)
Sources for Treaties
461(1)
Pre-Ratification
461(1)
Post-Ratification
461(1)
Determining the Current Status of Treaties
462(1)
Interpreting Treaties
463(2)
Citation Form
465(1)
International Tribunals
465(1)
International Organizations
466(1)
Municipal Research
467(3)
Introduction
467(1)
Terminology
467(1)
Municipal Research Materials
468(1)
Municipal Research Procedure
468(1)
Interpretations of Municipal Ordinances
469(1)
Rules of Procedure and Court Rules
470(3)
Introduction
470(1)
Federal Rules of Procedure
470(2)
Federal Rules of Court
472(1)
State Rules of Procedure and Court Rules
472(1)
Citation Form
473(8)
CyberSites
475(2)
Writing Strategies
477(1)
Assignment for Chapter 10
478(2)
State Your Answer
480(1)
The Digital Library: LEXIS, Westlaw, and Non-Print Research Sources
481(46)
Microforms
482(3)
Microfilm
482(1)
Microfiche
483(1)
Ultrafiche
483(1)
Summary of Microforms
484(1)
Sound Recordings and Videocassettes
485(1)
Floppy Disks and CD-ROM
485(2)
Floppy Disks
485(1)
CD-ROM
486(1)
Computer-Assisted Legal Research
487(29)
Introduction
487(2)
Lexis
489(1)
Introduction and Organization
489(1)
Constructing a Search
490(4)
Search Advisor
494(1)
Display of Search Results
494(2)
Searching for Statutes
496(1)
Searching for Constitutions
497(1)
Searching for Cases
497(1)
Shepardizing
498(1)
CheckCite and CiteRite II
498(1)
Segment Searching
498(1)
Law Reviews
499(1)
Administrative and Legislative Materials
499(1)
Other LEXIS Features
499(1)
Affiliated Services
500(1)
Delivering Documents
500(1)
Westlaw
501(1)
Introduction and Organization
501(1)
Getting Started
501(1)
Constructing a Search
502(1)
WIN
503(1)
Display of Search Results
504(1)
Searching for Statutes
505(1)
Searching for Cases
505(1)
KeyCiting
506(1)
WestCheck
506(1)
Field Searching/Restrictions
507(1)
Additional Databases
507(1)
Administrative and Legislative Materials
508(1)
Affiliated Services
509(1)
Document Delivery
509(1)
KeySearch
510(1)
Final Pointers on Computer-Assisted Legal Research
511(1)
When to Use LEXIS or Westlaw
511(1)
LEXIS or Westlaw
512(1)
New Developments in LEXIS and Westlaw
513(1)
Limitations of Computer-Assisted Legal Research
514(1)
Getting Help
515(1)
Other Competitors in Commercial Electronic Research
516(1)
Dead-Tree Publishing
517(1)
Citation Form
518(9)
CyberSites
520(1)
Writing Strategies
521(1)
Assignment for Chapter 11
522(4)
State Your Answer
526(1)
E-Research: Legal Research Using the Internet
527(30)
Introduction
528(2)
Glossary of Terms
530(3)
Conducting Legal Research Online
533(4)
Getting Started
533(1)
Using a Good Start Page
533(4)
Strategies and Tips for Internet Legal Research
537(3)
Ethical Concerns Regarding Use of the Internet
540(1)
Surf's Up: The Best Internet Legal Research Sites
541(8)
Best Legal Start Sites
541(1)
Best Sites for Locating Cases
542(1)
Best Sites for Locating Statutes
542(1)
Best Sites for Government Materials
543(1)
Best Sites for Locating Forms
543(1)
Paralegal Sites
544(1)
Best Specialty Sites
544(3)
Best Non-Legal Sites
547(1)
Where to Start When All Else Fails
548(1)
Listservs, Newsgroups, and Blawgs
548(1)
Cautionary Notes on Internet Legal Research
549(1)
Citation Form
550(7)
Net Tips
551(1)
Writing Strategies
552(1)
Assignment for Chapter 12
553(1)
State Your Answer
554(3)
Overview of the Research Process
557(28)
How to Begin
557(11)
Introduction
557(1)
Thinking Things Through
558(2)
Tackling the Project
560(2)
Familiarization
562(1)
Consult Primary Sources
562(2)
Consult Secondary Sources
564(2)
Miscellaneous Research Guides
566(1)
Strategies for Effective Research
566(2)
Working with the Authorities
568(6)
Note-Taking
568(1)
Organizing Your Notes
569(2)
Contents of Notes
571(1)
Complete Notes
572(1)
Staying Focused
573(1)
When to Stop
574(11)
Practical Considerations
574(1)
Complex Projects
575(2)
Quick Questions
577(1)
Established Issues
577(1)
Issues of First Impression
578(1)
How Many Authorities Are Enough?
578(2)
CyberSites
580(2)
Writing Strategies
582(1)
State Your Answer
583(2)
Section III Legal Writing
585(172)
Back to Basics
587(26)
The Mechanics of Writing
587(2)
Grammar, Spelling, and Punctuation
589(24)
Grammar Do's and Don't's
589(1)
Subject-Verb Agreement
589(3)
Sentence Fragments
592(1)
Run-on Sentences
592(1)
Modifiers
592(1)
Split Infinitives
593(1)
Dangling Participles
594(1)
Pronouns
594(5)
Spelling
599(2)
Punctuation
601(1)
Introduction
601(1)
Commas
601(2)
Apostrophes
603(2)
Colons
605(1)
Semicolons
606(1)
Quotation Marks
606(1)
Parentheses
607(1)
Dashes
607(1)
Exclamation Marks
607(1)
Hyphens
608(1)
Slashes or Virgules
608(1)
CyberSites
609(1)
Assignment for Chapter 14
610(1)
State Your Answer
611(2)
Strategies for Effective Writing
613(36)
Introduction
613(1)
The Plain English Movement
614(1)
Prewriting
615(2)
Purpose
615(1)
Audience
616(1)
Precision
617(5)
Word Choice
618(3)
Vague Words
621(1)
Word Connotation
622(1)
Clarity
622(2)
Elegant Variation
623(1)
Negatives
623(1)
Word Order
624(1)
Readability
624(7)
Prefer the Active Voice
624(1)
Use Lists
625(1)
Avoid Nominalizations
626(1)
Avoid Legal Jargon
627(1)
Keep Subjects and Verbs in Proximity
628(1)
Use Forceful Words
629(1)
Repeat Strong Words and Phrases
630(1)
Vary the Length of Sentences
631(1)
Brevity
631(4)
Omit Needless Words
632(1)
Avoid ``Throat-Clearing'' Introductions
633(1)
Avoid Redundancy
633(1)
Avoid Repetition
634(1)
Order
635(4)
Outlines
635(1)
Internal Organization
636(1)
Use Headings
636(1)
Use Effective Paragraphs
636(1)
Use Effective Transitions
637(1)
Use Position and Voice for Emphasis
638(1)
Drafting Techniques
639(3)
Getting Started
639(1)
Finishing on Time
640(1)
Methods of Writing
640(1)
Writing by Hand
641(1)
Dictating
641(1)
Using a Word Processor
641(1)
Electronic Communications
642(7)
Phones and Voice Mail
642(1)
Communication by Facsimile
643(1)
E-mail
643(1)
CyberSites
644(1)
Assignment for Chapter 15
645(2)
State Your Answer
647(2)
Legal Correspondence
649(22)
Letterwriting
649(20)
Introduction
649(1)
Who Will Be Reading This Letter?
650(1)
What Will This Letter Say?
650(1)
The Elements of Letters
651(1)
Letterhead
651(1)
Date
651(1)
Special Mailing Notations
651(1)
Inside Address
652(1)
Reference or Subject Notation
652(1)
Salutation
653(1)
Body
653(1)
Closing and Signature
654(1)
Reference Initials, Enclosures, and Copies
654(1)
Format Considerations
655(1)
Types of Letters
656(1)
General Correspondence
656(1)
Demand Letters
657(7)
Opinion Letters
664(5)
Conclusion
669(2)
CyberSites
669(1)
Assignment for Chapter 16
670(1)
State Your Answer
670(1)
Legal Memoranda
671(16)
Introduction
672(1)
Be Objective
672(1)
Be Specific
673(1)
Be Complete
673(1)
Format of Memoranda
673(9)
Heading
673(2)
Issue(s) or Question(s) Presented
675(1)
Brief Answer(s)
676(1)
Statement of Facts
676(1)
Applicable Statutes
677(1)
Analysis or Discussion
678(4)
Conclusion
682(1)
A Blueprint for Preparing a Memorandum
682(5)
CyberSites
685(1)
Legal Memorandum Assignment for Chapter 17
686(1)
State Your Answer
686(1)
Legal Briefs
687(22)
Introduction
687(1)
Tips on Writing Briefs
688(3)
Be Persuasive
688(2)
Be Honest
690(1)
Know the Rules
690(1)
Trial Court Briefs
691(5)
Introduction
691(1)
Elements of a Trial Brief
691(1)
Caption
691(1)
Introductory Statement
692(1)
Statement of Facts
692(1)
Argument
692(2)
Conclusion
694(1)
Signature and Date
695(1)
Certificate of Service
695(1)
Exhibits
695(1)
Appellate Briefs
696(9)
Introduction
696(1)
Steps in the Appeal Process
696(1)
Standards of Appellate Review
697(1)
Amicus Curiae Briefs
698(1)
Elements of an Appellate Brief
698(1)
Cover Sheet
698(1)
Identification of Parties
699(1)
Table of Contents
700(1)
Table of Authorities
700(1)
Jurisdictional Statement
701(1)
Constitutional and Statutory Provisions
701(1)
Questions Presented
701(1)
Statement of the Case
702(1)
Summary of the Argument
703(1)
Argument
703(1)
Conclusion
704(1)
Signature
704(1)
Certificate of Service
705(1)
Appendix
705(1)
Ten Pointers for Effective Brief Writing
705(4)
CyberSites
706(1)
Court Brief Exercise for Chapter 18
707(1)
Assignment for Chapter 18
708(1)
State Your Answer
708(1)
Postwriting Steps
709(48)
Reviewing and Revising: Stage One
710(1)
Reviewing and Revising: Stage Two
711(1)
Sentence Length
711(1)
Needless Words and Phrases
711(1)
Legalese
712(1)
Passive Voice
712(1)
Proofreading
712(2)
Proofreading Projects by Others
714(1)
Proofreaders' Marks
715(1)
Polishing Your Writing
715(5)
Paper
715(2)
Typeface
717(1)
Type Size
718(1)
Length of Document
718(1)
Headings
719(1)
Quotations and Lists
720(1)
The Final Review
720(1)
Conclusion
721(4)
CyberSites
722(1)
Assignment for Chapter 19
723(1)
State Your Answer
723(2)
Appendices
Appendix A Sample Legal Memorandum
725(6)
Appendix B Sample Brief for Court
731(8)
Appendix C Sample Appellate Brief
739(14)
Appendix D Sample Table of Authorities
753(4)
Glossary 757(14)
Resources 771(4)
Index 775


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