9780387988276

Light Science : Physics and the Visual Arts

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780387988276

  • ISBN10:

    0387988270

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 10/1/1999
  • Publisher: Springer Verlag
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Summary

Intended for anyone with an interest in the visual arts and assuming no prior knowledge of physics, this introduction presents the science of light--that is, the science behind what and how we see. The approach emphasizes phenomena rather than mathematical theory and the joy of discovery rather than the drudgery of derivations--the opposite of "heavy science". Numerous simple experiments are included. 260 illus.

Table of Contents

Preface vii
Our World of Light and Color
1(22)
Rainbows
2(3)
Blue Skies and Red Sunsets
5(1)
Why Clouds Are White
5(1)
The Color of Water
6(1)
Green Leaves of Summer, Crimson Leaves of Autumn
7(1)
What Is Color?
7(2)
Mixing Colors by Addition
9(1)
Mixing Colors by Subtraction
10(2)
Color in Art
12(1)
Shadows
13(2)
Pinhole Camera
15(1)
Summary
16(7)
The Mystery of Light
23(26)
The Nature of Light: Particles or Waves?
23(1)
Waves
24(1)
Progressive Waves
25(1)
Impulsive Waves: Reflection
25(4)
Superposition and Interference
29(1)
Standing Waves
30(1)
Electromagnetic Waves
31(1)
Speed of Light
32(2)
The Particle Nature of Light: Observing Photons
34(1)
Wave Propagation in Two and Three Dimensions
35(2)
The Doppler Effect
37(1)
Water Waves
38(3)
Summary
41(8)
Reflection, Mirrors, and Kaleidoscopes
49(30)
Images Formed by Plane and Curved Mirrors
51(4)
Concave Mirrors
55(4)
Convex Mirrors
59(1)
Anamorphic Art
60(2)
Kaleidoscopes
62(3)
Other Applications of Mirrors in the Visual Arts
65(4)
Mirrors in the Performing Arts: One-Way Mirrors
69(2)
Summary
71(8)
Refraction of Light
79(26)
Bending of Light at a Boundary
79(2)
Snell's Law
81(1)
Dispersion
82(1)
Total Internal Reflection
83(3)
Diamonds
86(1)
Lenses
86(1)
Image Formation by Lenses
87(5)
Converging Lens
88(2)
Diverging Lens
90(1)
Stopped Lens
91(1)
Simple Cameras
92(1)
The Human Eye
93(2)
Telescopes and Microscopes
95(2)
Summary
97(8)
Interference and Diffraction
105(24)
Interference of Waves from Two Identical Sources
105(1)
Light Passing Through Two Slits: Young's Experiment
106(2)
Interference in Thin Films
108(3)
Michelson Interferometer
111(1)
Applications of Interference
111(2)
Antireflection Coatings
111(1)
Multilayer Mirrors
112(1)
Multilayer Interference Filters
113(1)
Diffraction
113(3)
Combined Interference and Diffraction
116(3)
How Diffraction Limits Resolution
119(1)
Multiple Slits and Gratings
120(1)
3-D with Jumping Colors
121(1)
Summary
121(8)
Light Sources
129(22)
Blackbody Radiation
129(2)
Spectra of Light Sources
131(1)
Spectral Sensitivity of the Eye
132(1)
Measuring Illumination
133(1)
Atoms
134(2)
Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
136(1)
Laser Light
137(3)
Light-Emitting Diodes
140(2)
Gas-Filled Arc Lamps
142(1)
Summary
143(8)
Polarized Light
151(22)
Polarization by Selective Absorption
152(3)
Law of Malus
154(1)
Three Polaroid Filters
155(1)
Polarization by Reflection
155(2)
Polarization by Double Refraction: Birefringence
157(2)
Polarization by Scattering
159(1)
Three-Dimensional Images
160(2)
Wave Plates
162(1)
Photoelasticity
163(1)
Optical Activity
163(2)
Applications of Polarized Light in Art
165(1)
Summary
166(7)
Color Vision
173(30)
Spectral Color
174(2)
Photoreceptors in the Eye
176(2)
Additive Color Mixing (Revisited)
178(2)
Transmission and Reflection of Colored Light: Subtractive Color Mixing Revisited
180(4)
Spectral and Monochromatic Filters
181(1)
Spectral Power Distribution of Filtered Light
182(1)
Spectral Reflectance
183(1)
Color Perception
184(3)
How Many Colors Can We See?
184(1)
Afterimages
185(1)
Contrast
185(1)
Color Constancy
186(1)
Paints and Inks
187(1)
Halftone Printing
187(1)
Four-Color Printing
187(1)
Color Systems
188(4)
Theories of Color Vision
192(1)
Sources of Color
193(1)
Colored Glass
194(1)
Glazes and Enamels
194(1)
Paint
195(1)
Summary
196(7)
Holography
203(22)
Transmission Holograms
204(3)
Virtual and Real Images
205(1)
Two-Beam Transmission Holograms
206(1)
Reflection Holograms
207(2)
Bragg Reflection
208(1)
Transfer Holograms
209(1)
Rainbow (Slit-Transfer) Holograms
209(1)
Phase Holograms
210(1)
Color Holograms
210(3)
Lippmann Color Holograms
211(1)
Multicolor Rainbow Holograms
212(1)
Pseudocolor Through Shrinkage
212(1)
Multiple Scenes
213(1)
Holographic Stereograms
213(1)
Embossed Holograms
214(1)
Holographic Interferometry
214(3)
Real-Time Interferometry
215(1)
Double-Exposure Interferometry
215(1)
Time-Averaged Interferometry
216(1)
TV Holography
217(3)
Photopolymers
220(1)
Computer-Generated Holograms
220(1)
Summary
220(5)
Photography
225(20)
Evolution of Photography
225(2)
Cameras
227(2)
Focal Lengths, f-Numbers, and Field of View
229(3)
Film
232(2)
Color Film
234(3)
Color Reversal Films
235(1)
Color Negative Films
236(1)
Instant Color Films
237(1)
Lighting for Color Photography
237(1)
High-Speed Flash Photography
237(3)
Digital Photography
240(1)
Summary
240(5)
Computer Images
245(18)
Evolution of Computer Imaging
245(4)
What Is a Computer?
249(2)
Bits and Bytes
251(1)
Graphic Displays
252(1)
Software
252(1)
The Imaging Process
253(3)
Computer-Aided Design
256(1)
Computer Animation
257(1)
Motion Capture and Performance Animation: Digital Puppets
258(1)
Visual Effects for ``Titanic''
259(1)
Summary
260(3)
Optical Recording, Communication, and Photonics
263(18)
Optical Storage and the Compact Disc
263(3)
Recordable Compact Discs
266(1)
DVD
267(2)
DVD for Movies and Video
267(2)
DVD for Computers
269(1)
DVD for Audio
269(1)
Optical Communication
269(1)
Optical Computing
270(1)
Optical Scanners
271(1)
Holographic Memories
272(1)
The Mouse
273(1)
The Future of Photonics
274(2)
Summary
276(5)
Symmetry in Art and Nature
281(22)
Translational Symmetry
281(2)
Rotational Symmetry
283(3)
Reflection Symmetry
286(1)
Inversion Symmetry
286(2)
Snowflakes
288(1)
Right-Hand and Left-Hand Symmetry
289(3)
Chirality and Life
291(1)
Spirals and Propellers
291(1)
Symmetry and Conservation Laws
292(3)
Symmetry of Tiles
295(1)
Border Art: Classes of Translational Symmetry
296(1)
Decorative Patterns: Classes of Planar Symmetry
297(2)
Summary
299(4)
Visual Perception and Illusions
303(30)
Visual Illusions
304(1)
Everyday Illusions
304(3)
Classifying Illusions
307(3)
Ambiguous Figures
310(2)
Distortion Illusions
312(4)
Impossible Figures
316(2)
The Grand Illusion: How Artists Produce a Sense of Depth
318(9)
Aerial Perspective and Rayleigh Scattering
320(2)
Shadows and Illumination
322(1)
The Magic of Linear Perspective
323(1)
The Use of Depth Cues: From the Sublime to the Impossible
324(3)
Summary
327(6)
Appendix A Numerical Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises 333(2)
Appendix B Standard International (SI) Units of Measurement 335(2)
Appendix C Scientific or Exponential Notation 337(2)
Appendix D Mathematical Helps 339(1)
Appendix E Graphs 340(2)
Appendix F Glossary 342(11)
Appendix G Materials in Paintings 353(6)
Appendix H Analysis of Art Using Physics and Chemistry 359(2)
Appendix I Conservation and Restoration of Art 361(4)
Appendix J Laboratory Experiments 365(62)
Experiment 1.1 Exploring Color
365(3)
Experiment 1.2 Shadows and Light Rays
368(2)
Experiment 2.1 Waves on a Coiled Spring (Slinky TM)
370(2)
Experiment 2.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves in One Dimension
372(2)
Experiment 2.3 Standing Waves on a Wire
374(1)
Experiment 2.4 Waves in Two Dimensions (Ripple Tank)
375(3)
Experiment 3.1 Law of Reflection and Plane Mirrors
378(4)
Experiment 3.2 Construct a Kaleidoscope
382(3)
Experiment 3.3 Image Formation by Concave Mirrors
385(2)
Experiment 4.1 Refraction and Total Internal Reflection
387(3)
Experiment 4.2 Converging Lens
390(2)
Experiment 4.3 Simple Magnifier and Telescope
392(1)
Experiment 5.1 Diffraction and Interference of Water Waves
393(1)
Experiment 5.2 Diffraction Grating
394(2)
Experiment 5.3 Diffraction from Tracks of a Compact Disc
396(2)
Experiment 5.4 Michelson Interferometer
398(1)
Experiment 6.1 Spectrum Analysis with a Prism Spectrometer
399(1)
Experiment 6.2 Spectrum Analysis with a Diffraction Grating
400(1)
Experiment 7.1 Exploration of Polarized Light
401(4)
Experiment 8.1 Color Perception
405(5)
Experiment 8.2 Mixing Pigments: Subtractive Color Mixing
410(2)
Experiment 9.1 Making a Reflection Hologram
412(1)
Experiment 9.2 Making a Transmission Hologram
413(3)
Experiment 9.3 Making a Cylindrical Hologram
416(1)
Experiment 9.4 Holographic Images
417(1)
Experiment 10.1 Exploring a Single-Use Camera with Built-In Flash
418(3)
Experiment 10.2 Field of View and Depth of Field of a Camera Lens
421(1)
Experiment 13.1 Symmetry Exploration
421(6)
Name Index 427(4)
Subject Index 431

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