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Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, Compact

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130978028

ISBN10:
0130978027
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

For Introduction to Literature courses; and 2nd semester Freshman Composition courses that emphasize writing about literature. This compact version of the best-selling Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing retains the dedication to integrating unequalled writing about literature coverage throughout. It is dedicated throughout to the interlocking processes of reading and writing. In addition to carefully chosen literary selections, each chapter contains detailed information about the process of writing about literature, with hundreds of thought-provoking questions and sample student essays.

Table of Contents

Thematic Table of Contents xxxvii
Preface to the Second Compact Edition xlvi
Introduction: Reading, Responding To, And Writing About Literature
1(56)
What Is Literature, and why Do We study It?
1(1)
Types of Literature: The Genres
2(1)
Reading Literature and Responding to It Actively
3(2)
The Necklace
5(7)
Guy de Maupassant
To go to a ball, Mathilde Loisel borrows a necklace from a rich friend, but her rhapsodic evening has unforseen consequences that alter her life
Reading and Responding in a Notebook or Computer File
12(3)
Writing Essays on Literary Topics
15(1)
Three Major Stages in Thinking and Writing: Discovering Ideas, Making Initial Drafts, and Completing the Essay
16(1)
The Discovery of Ideas (``Brainstorming'')
16(6)
Assembling Materials and Beginning to Write
22(3)
Drafting the Essay
25(3)
Writing a First Draft
28(2)
Developing an Outline
30(1)
Demonstrative Student Essay, First Draft: Ho IV Setting in ``The Necklace'' Is Related to the Character of Mathilde
31(1)
Developing and Strengthening Essays through Revision
32(4)
Checking Development and Organization
36(2)
Using Exact Comprehensive and Forceful Language
38(3)
Demonstrative Student Essay, Improved Draft: How Maupassant Uses Setting in ``The Necklace'' to Show the Character of Mathilde
41(2)
Essay Commentaries
43(1)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about the Writing Process
43(1)
Responding to Literature: Likes and Dislikes
44(2)
Stating Reasons for Favorable Responses
46(1)
Stating Reasons for Unfavorable Responses
46(3)
Writing about Responses: Likes and Dislikes
49(1)
Demonstrative Student Essay: Some Reasons for Liking Maupassant's ``The Necklace''
50(2)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Responses to Literature
52(5)
Reading and Writing About Fiction
Fiction: An Overview
57(41)
Modern fiction
58(1)
The Short Story
59(1)
Elements of Fiction I: Verisimilitude and Donnee
59(2)
Elements of Fiction II: Character, Plot, Structure, and Idea or Theme
61(3)
Elements of Fiction III: The Writer's Tools
64(5)
Stories For Study
69(29)
Neighbors
69(5)
Raymond Carver
Bill and Arlene Miller are looking after the apartment of the Stones, their neighbors, whose life seems to be brighter and fuller than theirs
The Things They Carried
74(11)
Tim O'Brien
In Vietnam, American soldiers carry not only their weighty equipment, but many memories
Everyday Use
85(7)
Alice Walker
Mrs. Johnson, with her daughter Maggie, is visited by her citified daughter Dee, whose return home is accompanied by surprises
The Precis or Abridgment
92(1)
Guidelines for Precis Writing
92(3)
Writing a Precis
95(1)
Demonstrative Student Essay: A Precis of Alice Walker's ``Everyday Use,''
95(2)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Fiction
97(1)
Plot and Structure: The Development and Organization of Stories
98(37)
Plot, the Motivation and Causation of Fiction
98(2)
The Structure of Fiction
100(1)
Formal Categories of Structure
100(2)
Formal and Actual Structure
102(2)
Stories for Study
104(31)
The Three Strangers
104(15)
Thomas Hardy
The rustic and isolated country-shepherds of Higher Crowstairs celebrate a christening, but the evening provides more action than they expected
What I Have Been Doing Lately
119(2)
Jamaica Kincaid
Life develops from the recirculation of dreams and fantasies
Blue Winds Dancing
121(5)
Tom Whitecloud
Yearning to spend Christmas at home, a young Indian student travels from his university in California to his native village in Wisconsin
Writing about the Plot of a Story
126(1)
Demonstrative Student Essay: Conflicting Values in Thomas Hardy's ``The Three Stranger,''
127(2)
Writing about Structure in a Story
129(2)
Demonstrative Student Essay: Conflict and Suspense in Thomas Hardy's ``The Three Stranger
131(2)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Plot and Structure
133(2)
Characters: The People in Fiction
135(57)
Character Traits
136(1)
How Authors Disclose Character in Literature
137(2)
Types of Characters: Round and flat
139(2)
Reality and Probability: Verisimilitude
141(1)
Stories for Study
142(50)
Barn Burning
142(12)
William Faulkner
A young country boy grows in awareness, conscience, and individuality despite his hostile father
A Jury of Her Peers
154(15)
Susan Glaspell
On a small family farm, two women accompanying their husbands on a criminal investigation discover interesting details in the farmhouse kitchen. Their growing realizations force them to make an unexpected decision
Shopping
169(9)
Joyce Carol Oates
Mrs. Dietrich and her daughter Nola go shopping on Saturday morning, but does their time together bring hoped-for intimacy?
Two Kinds
178(8)
Amy Tan
Jing-Mei follows her own wishes and leads her own kind of life despite her mother's hopes and guidance
Writing about Character
186(2)
Demonstrative Student Essay: The Character of Minnie Wright in Susan Glaspell's ``A Jury of Her Peers,''
188(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Character
191(1)
Point of View: The Position or Stance of the Narrator or Speaker
192(46)
An Exercise in Point of View: Reporting an Accident
194(1)
Conditions That Affect Point of View
195(1)
Determining a Work's Point of View
196(4)
Mingling Points of View
200(1)
Summary: Guidelines for Point of View
201(1)
Stories For Study
202(36)
An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
202(7)
Ambrose Bierce
A condemned man dreams of escape, freedom, and family
The Song of Songs
209(4)
Ellen Gilchrist
In despair and uncertainty, Barrett Clare receives a phone call from her real mother, whose ``song'' is one of need
The Lottery
213(6)
Shirley Jackson
What would it be like if the prize at a community-sponsored lottery were not the cash that people ordinarily expect from lottery drawings)?
The Old Chief Mshlanga
219(8)
Doris Lessing
A woman recalls rural conditions of racial inequality and oppression in colonial Rhodesia
How to Become a Writer
227(5)
Lorrie Moore
There is more to becoming a writer than simply sitting down at a table and beginning to write
Writing about Point of View
232(2)
Demonstrative Student Essay: Shirley Jackson's Dramatic Point of View in ``The Lottery''
234(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Point of View
237(1)
Setting: The Background of Place, Objects, and Culture in Stories
238(50)
What Is Setting?
238(1)
The Literary Uses of Setting
239(5)
Stories For Study
244(44)
The Portable Phonograph
244(5)
Walter Van Tilburg Clark
In civilized times, listening to music brings people together, but what happens in a future time when civilization has been destroyed?
The Secret Sharer
249(26)
Joseph Conrad
What punishment does a man deserve if he committed his crime while attempting to save many people?
The Shawl
275(3)
Cynthia Ozick
In a Nazi concentration camp, can a mother save her starving and crying baby?
The Masque of the Red Death
278(5)
Edgar Allan Poe
In a time of plague, Prince Prospero surrounds himself with friends, locks his doors, and throws great parties, but an uninvited guest suddenly appears
Writing about Setting
283(2)
Demonstrative Student Essay: The Setting of Conrad's ``The Secret Sharer,''
285(2)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Setting
287(1)
Tone and Style: The Words that Convey Attitudes in Fiction
288(38)
Diction: The Writer's Choice and Control of Words
289(4)
Tone, Irony, and Style
293(1)
Tone, Humor, and Style
294(1)
Stories for Study
295(31)
The Story of an Hour
295(2)
Kate Chopin
Louise Mallard is shocked by news of her husband's death, but there is still a greater shock in store for her
Soldier's Home
297(6)
Ernest Hemingway
Harold Krebs, a veteran of World War I combat, returns home and finds that adjusting to peacetime life is unsettling
The Found Boat
303(7)
Alice Munro
After the snows of winter have melted, young people begin learning about themselves as they start putting aside their childish ways
First Confession
310(6)
Frank O'Connor
Jackie as a young man recalls his mixed memories of the events surrounding his first childhood experience with confession
Luck
316(3)
Mark Twain
The career of a famous general and knight is described by a follower who was there at all the battles
Writing about Tone and Style
319(2)
Demonstrative Student Essay: Frank O'Connor's Control of Tone and Style in ``First Confession,''
321(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about one Style
324(2)
Symbolism and Allegory: Keys to Extended Meaning
326(50)
Symbolism
326(3)
Allegory
329(2)
Fable Parable, and Myth
331(1)
Allusion in Symbolism and Allegory
332(1)
Stories For Study
332(44)
The Fox and the Grapes
332(1)
Aesop
What do people say about things they can't have?
The Myth of Atalanta
333(2)
Anonymous
In ancient times, how did a superior woman maintain her power and her integrity?
Unfinished Masterpieces
335(2)
Anita Scott Coleman
Worthiness does not rise when suppressed by poverty and racial inequality
Young Goodman Brown
337(10)
Nathaniel Hawthorne
In colonial Salem, Goodman Brown has a bewildering encounter that changes his outlook on life and his attitude toward people
The Loons
347(6)
Margaret Laurence
The dark side of progress and change is that much potential beauty and ability are shunted aside and lost
The Payable of the Prodigal Son
353(2)
St. Luke
Is there any limit to what a person can do to make divine forgiveness impossible?
The Hammon and the Beans
355(4)
Americo Paredes
Are the principles of American liberty and equality to be confined to people of only one group or should they be safeguards for everyone?
The Chrysanthemums
359(8)
John Steinbeck
On a small California ranch, Elisa Allen's hopes are raised, along with her sense of self-worth
The Thimble
367(2)
Michel Tremblay
Can people capably shoulder the responsibilities that life delivers to them?
Writing about Symbolism or Allegory
369(3)
Demonstrative Student Essay: Allegory and Symbolism in Nathaniel Hawthorne's ``Young Goodman Brown,''
372(2)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Symbolism and Allegory
374(2)
Idea or Theme: The Meaning and the Message in Fiction
376(34)
Ideas and Assertions
376(1)
Ideas and Values
377(2)
The Place of Ideas in Literature
379(1)
How to Find Ideas
380(2)
Stories for Study
382(28)
The Lesson
383(5)
Tony Cade Bambara
A group of children is taken to an expensive toy store, and some of them draw conclusions about society and themselves
Araby
388(5)
James Joyce
An introspective boy develops insights after keeping his promise to attend a street bazaar and trying to buy a gift
The Horse Dealer's Daughter
393(11)
D. H. Lawrence
A man and woman, whose lives have been indeterminate, find in each other a new reason for being
Writing about a Major Idea in Fiction
404(2)
Demonstrative Student Essay: D. H. Lawrence's Idea in ``The Horse Dealer's Daughter'' That Commitment Is Essential to Life
406(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Ideas
409(1)
Five Stories for Additional Study and Enjoyment
410(41)
Snow
410(6)
Robert Olen Butler
From disrupted times and separate cultures, a man and woman reach out to each other
The Curse
416(4)
Andre Dubus
A man who witnesses a gang attack on a defenseless woman experiences deep anguish and self-reproach
The Point of It
420(10)
E. M. Forster
Though life sometimes seems pointless and worthy only of being forgotten the life well-lived has great value
The Yellow Wallpaper
430(11)
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Who is the woman who seems to be trying to emerge from behind the yellow wallpaper?
The Jilting of Granny Weatherall
441(10)
Katherine Anne Porter
At the very last, Granny Weatherall has her memories and is surrounded by her loving adult children
Reading and Writing About Poetry
Meeting Poetry: An Overview
451(29)
The Nature of Poetry
451(1)
Schoolsville
451(2)
Billy Collins
What scenes of school are memorable and also droll?
Hope
453(1)
Lisel Mueller
What is hope, and where do we find it?
Here a Pretty Baby Lies
454(2)
Robert Herrick
Do nothing that might disturb this sleeping child
Poetry of the English Language
456(1)
How to Read a Poem
456(2)
Studying Poetry
458(1)
Sir Patrick Spens
458(3)
Anonymous
What happens when Sir Patrick and his men go out to sea?
Poems for Study
461(19)
My Last Duchess
461(2)
Robert Browning
The Duke shows his wife's portrait to the visiting envoy of the Count
Because I Could Not Stop for Death
463(1)
Emily Dickinson
Is Death a!1 invited or uninvited guest?
Catch
464(1)
Robert Francis
Why is a poem like a baseball?
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
464(1)
Robert Frost
Why docs the speaker tell about driving on after pausing to see winter scene?
The Man He Killed
465(1)
Thomas Hardy
The battlefield soldier thinks about his fallen enemy
Eagle Poem
466(1)
Joy Harjo
How is prayer like the circular flight of the eagle?
The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner
467(1)
Randall Jarrell
What was the duly, even at birth, of the ball turret gunner?
Ogichidag
467(1)
Jim Northrup
What has been the life's purpose of three generations of men?
Where Children Live
468(1)
Naomi Shihab Nye
What permanent effects do children produce on a home?
A Christmas Carol
469(1)
Christina Rossetti
What present can a poor worshiper give the newly born Christ child?
Sonnet 55: Not Marble, Nor the Gilded Monuments
470(1)
William Shakespeare
How can powerful rhyme outlive politics, war, and history?
True Love
471(1)
Judith Viorst
True love transcends the obstacles of daily life together
It Is a Beauteous Evening, Calm and Free
472(1)
William Wordsworth
We live in the divine presence even ``when we know it not.''
Writing a Paraphrase of a Poem
473(1)
Demonstrative Student Paraphrase: A Paraphrase of Thomas Hardy's ``The Man He Killed,''
474(1)
Writing an Explication of a Poem
474(2)
Demonstrative Student Essay: An Explication of Thomas Hardy's ``The Man He Killed,''
476(2)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about the Nature of Poetry
478(2)
Words: The Building Blocks of Poetry
480(26)
Choice of Diction: Specific and Concrete, General and Abstract
481(1)
Levels of Diction
481(1)
Special Types of Diction
482(3)
Syntax
485(1)
Denotation and Connotation
486(1)
The Naked and the Nude
487(2)
Robert Graves
Word choices have profound effects on Our perceptions
Poems for Study
489(17)
The Lamb
489(1)
William Blake
Why is the Iamb worthy of being blessed?
Green Grow the Rashes, O
490(1)
Robert Burns
If one finds love everything else is insignificant
Jabberwocky
491(1)
Lewis Carroll
Who is the Jabberwock, and why should he be fought?
next to of course god america i
492(1)
E.E. Cummings
Is this speaker saying anything significant, even if he has the platform?
Holy Sonnet 14: Batter My Heart, Three-Personed God
493(1)
John Donne
Why is God's care superior to human reason?
The Fury of Aerial Bombardment
493(1)
Richard Eberhart
What eternal truth does humankind possess?
Sonnet on the Death of Richard West
494(1)
Thomas Gray
Why does the speaker believe he grieves in vain?
Loveliest of Trees, the Cherry Now
495(1)
A.E. Housman
What should we do with the time we have on earth?
Of Being
496(1)
Denise Levertov
What makes the world a mystery?
Richard Cory
496(1)
Edwin Arlington Robinson
Can anyone ever understand the personal pain of others?
Dolor
497(1)
Theodore Roethke
What are the major costs of our commercial society?
I Think Continually of Those Who Were Truly Great
498(1)
Stephen Spender
Does true greatness mean what we usually think it does?
Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock
498(1)
Wallace Stevens
What is this disillusionment, and how can it be overcome?
Eating Poetry
499(1)
Mark Strand
Can it be fun to eat poetry? Can poetry be digested? Understood?
Daffodils
500(1)
William Wordsworth
How do daffodils bring both immediate and recollected pleasure?
Writing about Diction and Syntax in Poetry
501(1)
Demonstrative Student Essay: Extraordinary Definitions in Stephen Spender's ``I Think Continually of Those Who Were Truly Great,''
502(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about the Words of Poetry
505(1)
Imagery: The Poem's Link to the Senses
506(28)
Responses and the Writer's Use of Detail
506(1)
The Relationship of Imagery to Ideas and Attitudes
507(1)
Types of Imagery
508(1)
Cargoes
508(1)
John Masefield
What do cargo-bearing ships tell us about the past and the present?
Anthem for Doomed Youth
509(2)
Wilfred Owen
How do sounds of war disturb the sounds of peaceful ritual?
The Fish
511(3)
Elizabeth Bishop
What does the speaker think upon catching a battle-hardened fish?
Poems for study
514(20)
The Tyger
514(1)
William Blake
Is the source of good also the source of evil?
Sonnets from the Portuguese, No 14: If Thou Must Love Me
515(1)
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Is there any reason for Love beyond Love itself?
Kubla Khan
516(1)
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
What is the nature of Kubla Khan's dome of pleasure?
I Know I'm Not Sufficiently Obscure
517(1)
Ray Durem
What is the speaker saying when he says that he is not ``sufficiently obscure''?
Preludes
518(2)
T. S. Eliot
Why should the various scenes be considered as introductions to life? What kind of life is it?
Channel Firing
520(1)
Thomas Hardy
What is so loud that it wakens the dead, and what can the dead say?
The Pulley
521(1)
George Herbert
How does God draw people to belief and faith?
Spring
522(1)
Gerard Manley Hopkins
How do images of earthly spring lead to thoughts of Edenic paradise?
A Time Past
523(1)
Denise Levertov
Can the fondest of memories persist despite disaffection and change?
The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently
524(1)
Thomas Lux
How is our voice when reading silently the clearest voice we know?
Photos of a Salt Mine
525(1)
P.K. Page
How can a salt mine be the subject of a poem?
In a Station of the Metro
526(1)
Ezra Pound
What do people at the subway station resemble?
Sonnet 130: My Mistress' Eyes Are Nothing Like the Sun
527(1)
William Shakespeare
What is the difference between real praise and exaggerated praise?
Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802
527(1)
William Wordsworth
Can the morning panorama of the city be considered beautiful?
Writing about Imagery
528(2)
Demonstrative Student Essay: The Image's of John Masefield's ``Cargoes,''
530(2)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Imagery in Poetry
532(2)
Figures of Speech, or Metaphorical Language: A Source of Depth and Range In Poetry
534(29)
Metaphors and Similes: The Major Figures of Speech
535(1)
Characteristics of Metaphorical Language
536(1)
On First Looking into Chapman's Homer
537(1)
John Keats
How can a Renaissance translation of Homer's ancient epic poems be as exciting as discovering a new planet, or a new ocean?
Other Figures of Speech
538(1)
Bright Star
539(2)
John Keats
How can a distant star be an incentive to constancy in love?
Let Us Take the Road
541(1)
John Gay
Is it possible to turn lead to gold?
Poems for Study
542(21)
A Red, Red Rose
543(1)
Robert Burns
The speaker compares the beauty of his love to the beauty of a rose
A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning
543(2)
John Donne
The speaker tells his sweetheart not to grieve while he is on a trip
The Iceberg Seven-eighths Under
545(1)
Abbie Huston Evans
How much do we know, but how much more do we not know?
Harlem
546(1)
Langston Hughes
What can happen when hopeful dreams are suppressed?
To Autumn
546(1)
John Keats
All seasons are beautiful in their way, and autumn is especially beautiful
Sic Vita
547(1)
Henry King
There are a number of things and actions with which life may be compared
Conjoined
548(1)
Judith Minty
In what way can married people be compared to a large onion?
A Work of Artifice
549(1)
Marge Piercy
How can culture and artifice stultify the lives of women?
Metaphors
550(1)
Sylvia Plath
What are these metaphors, and what are they about?
Looking at Each Other
550(1)
Muriel Rukeyser
More is described here than simply looking
Sonnet 18: Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?
551(1)
William Shakespeare
Despite the passage of time, it is possible to retain life
Sonnet 30: When to the Sessions of Sweet Silent Thought
552(1)
William Shakespeare
When thoughts are about loss, what other thoughts can restore them?
On Monsieur's Departure
552(1)
Elizabeth Tudor
Queen Elizabeth I
How does this famous queen of England express her secret uneasiness?
Earth Tremors Felt in Missouri
553(1)
Mona Van Duyn
How can human discontents seem as great as actual earthquake tremors?
Facing West from California's Shores
554(1)
Walt Whitman
Despite a life of wandering, there are still many deep secrets
London, 1802
555(1)
William Wordsworth
What is necessary for restoring an aimless society to a sense of purpose?
I Find No Peace
555(1)
Sir Thomas Wyatt
Why does the speaker say his loved one causes both delight and strife?
Writing about Figures of Speech
556(3)
Demonstrative Student Paragraph: Wordsworth's Use of Overstatement in ``London, 1802,''
559(1)
Demonstrative Student Essay: A Study of Shakespeare's Metaphors in Sonnet 30
560(1)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Figures of Speech in Poetry
561(2)
Tone: The Creation of Attitude in Poetry
563(30)
Tone, Choice, and Response
564(1)
The First-Rate Wife
564(1)
Cornelius Whur
The speaker obligingly describes how a woman may become a first-rate wife. What are we to make of this speaker?
Tone and the Need for Control
565(1)
Dulce et Decorum Est
566(1)
Wilfred Owen
Can ideals of war be sustained in the face of the reality of war?
Tone and Common Grounds or Assent
567(1)
Tone and Irony
568(1)
The Workbox
569(2)
Thomas Hardy
This dialogue between a husband and wife reveals much about both
Tone and Satire
571(1)
Epigram from the French
571(1)
Alexander Pope
The speaker presents a stinging but ironic insult
Epigram, Engraved on the Collar or a Dog which I Gave to His Royal Highness
572(1)
Alexander Pope
Are social pretensions confined only to human beings?
Poems for Study
573(20)
Homage to my hips
573(1)
Lucille Clifton
The speaker takes delight in the power other body
she being Brand
574(1)
E.E. Cummings
What do making love and driving a new car have in common?
I Am A Black Woman
575(1)
Mari Evans
What anguish has an American black woman experienced?
Theme for English B
576(1)
Langston Hughes
How would you grade this poem if you were the English instructor?
The Planned Child
577(1)
Sharon Olds
How important was the speaker to her mother?
Late Movies with Skyler
578(2)
Michael Ondaatje
How can watching late movies bring two people together?
Dying
580(1)
Robert Pinsky
What do all living beings have in common?
From Epilogue to the Satires, Dialogue I
581(1)
Alexander Pope
What can be held sacred when morality is under attack?
Nothing Is Lost
582(1)
Anne Ridler
In what ways are our ancestors still alive?
My Papa's Waltz
583(1)
Theodore Roethke
How does the speaker remember his father's behavior after taking on a load of whiskey?
A Description of the Morning
584(1)
Jonathan Swift
Is there anything heroic about life at the beginnings of the day?
My Physics Teacher
585(1)
David Wagoner
Classroom demonstrations in physics don't always work out as hoped for
Dimensions
586(1)
C.K. Williams
Would any world anywhere else be any better than the one we have?
Writing about Tone in Poetry
587(2)
Demonstrative Student Essay: The Shifting Attitudes of Sharon Olds's Speaker in ``The Planned Child,''
589(2)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Tone in Poetry
591(2)
Form: The Shape of the Poem
593(46)
Characteristics of Closed-Form Poetry
593(1)
Types of Closed Forms
594(2)
The Eagle
596(3)
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
What words can describe this most majestic of all birds?
Spun in High, Dark Clouds
599(1)
Anonymous
What is the essential quality of falling snow?
The Uses of the Closed Form to Shape and Polish Meaning
600(1)
Sonnet 116: Let Me Not to the Marriage of True Minds
600(1)
William Shakespeare
True love does not change, no matter what is often done against it
Open-Form Poetry
601(1)
Reconciliation
602(1)
Walt Whitman
What does it take to bring human beings to reconciliation with each other?
Visual and Concrete Poetry
603(1)
Easter Wings
604(1)
George Herbert
How can God's grace be described and also pictured at the same time?
Poems For Study
605(34)
One Art
606(1)
Elizabeth Bishop
What constitutes the greatest loss of all?
We Real Cool
607(1)
Gwendolyn Brooks
Of what value is it to indulge in destructive delights?
Sonnet
607(1)
Billy Collins
How do you write a sonnet about a sonnet?
Buffalo Bill's
608(1)
E.E. Cummings
What one thing happens to everyone, no matter how great they are?
To the Memory of Mr. Oldham
609(1)
John Dryden
What can be said in a final goodbye?
Desert Places
610(1)
Robert Frost
What is more frightening than the emptiness of outer space?
Nikki-Rosa
610(1)
Nikki Giovanni
``Black love is Black wealth
Museum
611(1)
Robert Hass
How does life go on despite many forces opposing it?
Virtue
612(1)
George Herbert
What one thing gives lasting life?
Mantle
613(1)
William Heyen
What happens to youthful energy and glory?
Swan and Shadow
614(1)
John Hollander
Have you ever seen a poem shaped like a swimming swan?
God's Grandeur
615(1)
Gerard Manley Hopkins
An expression of amazement and gratitude for the earth's beauty
Ode to a Nightingale
615(3)
John Keats
The nightingale's beautiful song provides an insight into eternal beauty
The Sound of the Sea
618(1)
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
The sea is impelled by mysterious forces, as we are
In Bondage
618(1)
Claude McKay
``Life is greater than the thousand wars / Men wage for it.''
When I Consider How My Light is Spent
619(1)
John Milton
Human beings serve God best when they follow God's ways
Annabel Lee
620(1)
Edgar Allan Poe
Ideal love, now lost, can still exist in memory
Ballad of Birmingham
621(1)
Dudley Randall
A mother's hopes and plans for her child's safety are cruelly thwarted
The Waking
622(1)
Theodore Roethke
What does it take to learn how to live?
Sonnet 73: That Time of Year Thou May'st in Me Behold
623(1)
William Shakespeare
Despite encroaching age, living requires present commitment
Ode to the West Wind
624(2)
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Today's thoughts create the future, just as spring follows winter
Ozymandias
626(1)
Percy Bysshe Shelley
What has happened to the superpowers of past ages?
Women
627(1)
May Swenson
Women should be pedestals to men, shouldn't they?
Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night
628(1)
Dylan Thomas
What is, is, but we should not therefore be happy about accepting ill
Reapers
628(1)
Jean Toomer
What is hurt by progress?
The Shape of History
629(1)
Charles H. Webb
How can history be compared to the shape of a cone?
Poetics Against the Angel of Death
630(1)
Phyllis Webb
Does the writing of poems preserve life despite inevitable death?
The Dance
631(1)
William Carlos Williams
Brueghel's painting captures life in an active and joyous moment
The Solitary Reaper
632(1)
William Wordsworth
An ordinary experience gives permanent thoughts of beauty
Writing about Form in Poetry
633(2)
Demonstrative Student Essay: form and Meaning in George Herbert's ``Virtue,''
635(2)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Poetic Form
637(2)
Symbolism and Allusion: Windows to Wide Expanses of Meaning
639(37)
Symbolism and Meanings
639(2)
Snow
641(2)
Virginia Scott
Tradition of place gives permanence to life
The Function of Symbolism in Poetry
643(2)
Allusions and Meaning
645(1)
Studying for Symbols and Allusions
646(1)
Poems for Study
647(29)
Dover Beach
648(1)
Matthew Arnold
When you lose certainty, what remains for you?
Beach Glass
649(1)
Amy Clampitt
Even the most beautiful objects come from sand and return to sand
The Poplar Field
650(1)
William Cowper
Nothing stays the same; everything changes, and much is lost
In Just-
651(1)
E.E. Cummings
In springtime, children dance, and play, and grow. Whee!
The Canonization
652(2)
John Donne
How does spiritual love parallel human love?
Collage of Echoes
654(1)
Isabella Gardner
What stays in the memory after a long life?
The Geese
655(1)
Jorie Graham
Should life be measured by wars and politics, or by everyday actions?
In Time of ``The Breaking of Nations,''
656(1)
Thomas Hardy
What continues even though kingdoms fade into nothingness?
The Collar
656(2)
George Herbert
What does it mean to be dedicated to the service of God?
Tears
658(1)
Josephine Jacobsen
Why are tears uniquely human, and what do they tell about us?
The Purse-Seine
659(2)
Robinson Jeffers
The circle of the net is closing
La Belle Dame Sans Merci
661(1)
John Keats
What happened when the knight met the lady in the meadows?
To His Coy Mistress
662(2)
Andrew Marvell
Why should we not live our lives to the utmost now?
Wild Geese
664(1)
Mary Oliver
The world goes on, and love goes on
A Noiseless Patient Spider
665(1)
Walt Whitman
In measureless space, the soul, somewhere, needs to find a place
Year's End
665(2)
Richard Wilbur
We want more time, more time, but is there ever to be more time?
Lines Written in Early Spring
667(1)
William Wordsworth
A beautiful spot in the woods leads the speaker to moral thoughts
The Second Coming
668(1)
William Butler Years
Harmful forces are being loosened in our modern world
Writing about Symbolism and Allusion in Poetry
669(3)
Demonstrative Student Essay: Symbolism and Allusion in William Butler Yeats's ``The Second Coming,''
672(2)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Symbolism and Allusion in Poetry
674(2)
Myths: Systems of Symbolic Allusion in Poetry
676(29)
Mythology as an Explanation of How Things Are
676(4)
Mythology and Literature
680(1)
Leda and the Swan
681(2)
William Butler Yeats
We have the power to live, but do we have the knowledge?
Six Poems Related to the Myth of Odysseus
683(1)
Poems for Study
683(7)
Penelope's Song
684(1)
Louise Gluck
Penelope is waiting for Odysseus' return, but is she pleased?
Odysseus
685(1)
W.S. Merwin
When people wander, do they really ever have a sense of home?
Penelope
685(1)
Dorothy Parker
Why should not Penelope be called brave?
The Suitor
686(1)
Linda Pastan
This is the story that usually no one bothers to tell
Ulysses
687(2)
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
What can we learn from all our journeys and experiences?
Odyssey: 20 Years Later
689(1)
Peter Ulisse
What is it like to return home after a seemingly endless journey?
Six Poems Related to the Myth of Icarus
689(1)
Poems For Study
690(5)
Flight 063
690(1)
Brian Aldiss
The challenge is there for us, if only we are brave enough to accept it
Musee des Beaux Arts
691(1)
W.H. Auden
Even when someone suffers, life goes on
Icarus
692(1)
Edward Field
When you've been up, can you bear being down?
Waiting for Icarus
693(1)
Muriel Rukeyser
If you stay home and wait, life is not without frustrations
To a Friend Whose Work Has Come to Triumph
694(1)
Anne Sexton
Rejoice when brave and planned efforts succeed
Landscape with the Fall of Icarus
694(1)
William Carlos Williams
In spring when there are many jobs to do, is there time to worry about someone else?
Three Poems Related to the Myth of the Phoenix
695(1)
Poems for Study
695(3)
Berceuse
696(1)
Amy Clampitt
When something new arises, are things necessarily better than before?
Hunting the Phoenix
696(1)
Denise Levertov
Is growth automatic, or must it be sought?
The Phoenix Again
697(1)
May Sarton
Even over seas of grief, the phoenix will take flight
Two Poems Related to the Myth or Oedipus
698(1)
Poems for Study
698(7)
Myth
699(1)
Muriel Rukeyser
Why was not Oedipus' answer to the Sphinx inclusive?
On the Way to Delphi
699(1)
John Updike
In the actual physical locations of ancient Thebes, where Oedipus was king, everything is changed, or is it?
Writing about Myths in Poetry
700(2)
Demonstrative Student Essay: Myth and Meaning in Dorothy Parker's ``Penelope,''
702(2)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Myth in Poetry
704(1)
Two Poetic Careers: Emily Dickinson and Robert Frost
705(33)
Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)
705(8)
Life and Work
705(3)
Poetic Characteristics
708(1)
Poetic Subjects
709(2)
Bibliographic Sources
711(1)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about the Poetry of Dickinson
712(1)
Poems
713(10)
Emily Dickinson
After Great Pain, a Formal Feeling Comes (J 341, F 372)
714
How can ceremony salve a wounded heart?
Because I Could Not Stop for Death (J712, F479)
463(251)
Is Death all invited or uninvited guest?
The Bustle in a House (J 1078, F 1108)
714(1)
What actions follow a death in the family?
The Heart Is the Capital of the Mind (J 1354, F1381)
714(1)
What controls the mind and also the world?
Cannot Live with You (J 640, F 706)
714(2)
Why would life together be impossible?
I Died for Beauty-but Was Scarce (J 449, F 448)
716(1)
Beauty and Truth are insignificant in the face of death
I Felt a Funeral in My Brain (J 280, F 340)
716(1)
What is it like when knowledge ends?
I Heard a Fly Buzz -When I Died (J 465, F 491)
716(1)
What continues after the loss of vision and life?
I Like to See It Lap the Miles (J 585, F 383)
717(1)
The railroad train is like a huge but playful monster
I'm Nobody! Who Are you? (J 288, F 260)
717(1)
What is the difference between Nobody and Somebody?
I Never Lost as Much But Twice (J 49, F 39)
718(1)
I have been comforted twice, and I need comfort again
I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed (J 214, F 207)
718(1)
Here's a riddle: Who or what can taste a liquor that was never brewed?
Much Madness Is Divinest Sense (J435, D620)
718(1)
Who makes and controls the definitions of madness and sanity?
My Life Closed Twice Before Its Close (J 1732, F 1773)
719(1)
How deep is the grief at parting with loved ones?
My Triumph Lasted Till the Drums (J 1227, F 1212)
719(1)
Before doing battle, people should think of the horror of warfare
One Need Not Be a Chamber-To Be Haunted (J 670, F 407)
719(1)
One can wall out danger, but not the danger within oneself
Safe in Their Alabaster Chambers (J 216, F 124)
720(1)
When is one safe from natural and political change?
Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church (J 324, F 236)
720(1)
Does one need to attend church to practice religion?
The Soul Selects Her Own Society (J 303, F 409)
721(1)
What is the effect of limiting one's life and friends?
Success Is Counted Sweetest (J 67, F 112)
721(1)
Who recognizes success better than the unsuccessful?
Tell All the Truth but Tell It Slant (J 1129, F 1263)
721(1)
People sometimes cannot bear the immediate light of truth
There's a Certain Slant of Light (J 258, F 320)
722(1)
How can a certain slant of light disturb our souls?
This World Is Not Conclusion (J 501, F 373)
722(1)
Why have believers borne contempt and crucifixion?
Wild Nights -Wild Nights! (J 249, F 269)
723(1)
Do wild nights give moorage and peace to the spirit?
Robert Frost (1874-1963)
723(6)
Life and Work
723(3)
Poetic Characteristics
726(1)
Poetic Subjects
727(1)
Bibliographic Sources
728(1)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about the Poetry of Robert Frost
728(1)
Poems
729(5)
Robert frost
Alphabetical List
Acquainted with the Night (1928)
734
Birches (1915)
730(6)
Choose Something like a Star (1943)
736
A Considerable Speck (1942)
735
Desert Places (1936)
610(124)
Design (1936)
734
Fire and Ice (1920)
733
Mending Wall (1914)
729(4)
Misgiving (1923)
733(1)
Nothing Gold Can Stay (1923)
733
'Out, Out-'(1916)
732
The Road Not Taken (1915)
731(4)
The Silken Tent (1936)
735
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (1923)
464(271)
The Strong Are Saying Nothing (1937)
735
Chronological List
Mending Wall (1914)
729(1)
Is neighborliness created only by good fences?
Birches (1915)
730(1)
How is life like a boy swinging from a birch tree to the ground?
The Road Not Taken (1915)
731(1)
How important is choosing the road that has been less traveled?
'Out, Out-'(1916)
732(1)
Shouldn't children play rather than work?
Fire and Ice (1920)
733
Which is more destructive, rage or indifference?
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (1923)
464(269)
Why does the speaker tell about driving on after pausing to see the winter scene?
Misgiving (1923)
733(1)
Falling autumn leaves suggest thoughts of continued life
Nothing Gold Can Stay (1923)
733(1)
What happens to dawn, and to spring days?
Acquainted with the Night (1928)
734
This genial poet confesses to having a dark side
Desert Places (1936)
610(124)
What is more frightening than the emptiness of outer space?
Design (1936)
734(1)
Does design, or destiny, govern all life, from big to small?
The Silken Tent (1936)
735(1)
How can the attractiveness of a loved one be explained?
Strong Are Saying Nothing (1937)
735(1)
Does seasonal growth suggest ``little or much'' about eternity?
A Considerable Speck (1942)
735(1)
What does the speaker feel glad about seeing ``on any sheet'' of paper?
Choose Something like a Star (1943)
736(2)
What can keep people steady even though their ideas are different?
Eighty-Six Poems for Additional Study and Enjoyment
738(63)
Healing Prayer from the Beautyway Chant
740(1)
Anonymous (Navajo)
What is the hope of this prayer?
Variation on the Word Sleep
741(1)
Margaret Atwood
What is the hope of one in deepest love?
Ka 'Ba
741(1)
Imamu Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones)
How can Blacks create a new correspondence with themselves?
Another Descent
742(1)
Wendell Berry
How does the melting snow suggest a return to our roots?
Women
742(1)
Louise Bogan
Is it the role of women to be provident?
A Black Man Talks of Reaping
743(1)
Arna Bontemps
Why should a Black man not receive the fruits of his toil?
Sonnets from the Portuguese, No. 43: How Do I Love Thee?
743(1)
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Is it possible to count the ways in which one loves?
Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister
744(2)
Robert Browning
Does this monk sound like a monk?
The killers that run...'
746(1)
Leonard Cohen
Is there ally possible good end to political agitation?
Days
746(1)
Billy Collins
Each day is precious, though also precarious
From A Letter to America on a Visit to Sussex, Spring 1942
747(1)
Frances Cornford
While men train for battle, larks sing
Do Not Weep, Maiden, for War Is Kind
748(1)
Stephen Crane
The rationalization for war cannot overbalance the horror of war
if there are any heavens
748(1)
E.E. Cummings
The speaker's mother and father deserve any and all heavens
The Lifeguard
749(1)
James Dickey
The boy drowns, and guilt overwhelms the unsuccessful lifeguard
The Good Morrow
750(1)
John Donne
This clever poem exalts love and lovemaking
Holy Sonnet 10: Death Be Not Proud
751(1)
John Donne
How does eternal life put down death?
Sympathy
751(1)
Paul Laurence Dunbar
Why does the caged bird sing?
The Negro
752(1)
James Emanuel
How can Negroes achieve their own identities?
Like God
752(2)
Lynn Emanuel
Does God script our lives the way a story writer creates fiction?
The Beauty of the Trees
754(1)
Chief Dan George
What is it that makes the speaker's heart soar?
Woman
754(1)
Nikki Giovanni
Can a woman be anyone else than a woman?
Sonnet Ending with a film Subtitle
755(1)
Marilyn Hacker
How does a woman steel herself against betrayal?
Little Cosmic Dust Poem
755(1)
John Haines
Love is undeniably the center of the universe
Snapshot of Hue
756(1)
Daniel Halpern
Once the debris of war is gone, the horror is only a dim memory
Leaves
756(1)
H.M. (SAM) Hamod
The son follows in the footsteps of his Arabic father
She's Free!
757(1)
Frances E.W. Harper
In this pre-Civil War poem, a former slave rejoices in gaining freedom
Called
758(1)
Michael S. Harper
It is dangerous for domesticated animals to break free
Spring Rain
759(1)
Robert Hass
Spring rain is part of a natural cycle of planting and growth
Those Winter Sundays
759(1)
Robert Hayden
A father does many loving duties that are unknown to his children
The Hair: Jacob Korman's Story
760(1)
William Heyen
Polish Jews resisted fiercely before being forced to go to the Nazi death Camp
Advice to Young Ladies
760(1)
A.D. Hope
How difficult has it been for women, historically, to assert themselves?
Pied Beauty
761(1)
Gerard Manley Hopkins
Praise God for all of Nature's varied beauty
Negro
762(1)
Langston Hughes
What are just a few of the outrages experienced by Blacks?
The Negro Speaks of Rivers
762(1)
Langston Hughes
Blacks have worked as slaves along all the famous rivers of history
The Answer
763(1)
Robinson Jeffers
Love should preserve and save all creation, not just the human race
Ode on a Grecian Urn
763(2)
John Keats
Beauty and truth alone remain though generations pass from the earth
Rhine Boat Trip
765(1)
Irving Layton
What terrible memory overshadows the beauty of German traditions?
A Final Thing
765(1)
Li-Young Lee
How miraculous and transforming is the birth of a child?
In Computers
766(1)
Alan P. Lightman
If all experience is saved in computers, will anything be lost?
The Choosing
767(1)
Liz Lochhead
What choices made in childhood make such differences in adulthood?
Every Traveler Has One Vermont Poem
768(1)
Audre Lorde
Even in Arcadia there is ugliness
Patterns
769(2)
Amy Lowell
A woman learns that her fiance has been killed in overseas battle
The White City
771(1)
Claude McKay
What things about the ``white city'' make the speaker hate?
Listen
772(1)
W.S. Merwin
Despite everything bad, there is cause for thanks
The Bear
772(1)
Scott Momaday
An aged bear represents the force and mystery of Nature
Life Cycle of Common Man
773(1)
Howard Nemerov
A life of living accumulates a good deal of physical and cultural detritis
wahbegan
774(1)
Jim Northrup
Not all casualties of war are named on tombstones
Ghosts
775(1)
Mary Oliver
As Americans won the West, they created vast fields of death
Marks
776(1)
Linda Pastan
How is life as a mother and wife comparable to a student's life?
The Secretary Chant
777(1)
Marge Piercy
How does business life affect womanhood?
Last Words
777(1)
Sylvia Plath
How is the speaker's entombment like that of an Egyptian mummy?
Mirror
778(1)
Sylvia Plath
Over time, what does the mirror itself see?
Bells for John Whiteside's Daughter
779(1)
John Crowe Ransom
Why did death take away the life in so vigorous a little body?
Assailant
779(1)
John Raven
The speaker describes a surprising and unusual assailant
rite on: white america
779(1)
Sonia Sanchez
Because of the treatment of Blacks, America is still a pioneer land
Chicago
780(1)
Carl Sandburg
Why does this city sing and laugh so proudly?
Dreamers
781(1)
Siegfried Sassoon
Even when the guns begin, what do soldiers really think about?
The Paperweight
781(1)
Gjertrud Schnackenberg
A paperweight house in falling snow tells us what?
I Have a Rendezvous with Death
782(1)
Alan Seeger
What is this rendezvous, and what rendezvous would be better?
My Mother's Face
783(1)
Brenda Serotte
In the mirror, whom does the speaker think she sees?
Fear No More the Heat o' the Sun
783(1)
William Shakespeare
How does death mark an end of fear and care?
Sonnet 29: When in Disgrace with Fortune and Men s Eyes
784(1)
William Shakespeare
In the midst of despair and self-doubt, what can lift up the soul?
Sonnet 146: Poor Soul, the Center of My Sinful Earth
784(1)
William Shakespeare
How can the soul outlast death itself?
Auto Wreck
784(1)
Karl Shapiro
What is the meaning and where is the purpose in accidental death?
Where Mountain Lion Lay Down with Deer
785(1)
Leslie Marmon Silko
How long has it been since the earth itself created lift?
Bluejays
786(1)
Dave Smith
In danger, the birds stay in the trees, cautious hut also interested
Not Waving But Drowning
787(1)
Stevie Smith
Can a friendly wave be distinguished from a gesture for help?
Oranges
787(1)
Gary Soto
On a first date, a boy benefits from a clerk's understanding
Traveling Through the Dark
788(1)
William Stafford
To save others, should some be sacrificed?
Burying an Animal on the Way to New York
789(1)
Gerald Stern
Hurrying cars leave the ghosts of dead animals in their wake
The Emperor of Ice-Cream
789(1)
Wallace Stevens
The empire of ice cream melts, but it gives pleasure while it exists
Question
790(1)
May Swenson
Where do we go without our bodies to carry us?
The Blue Booby
790(1)
James Tate
How little, or how much, is needed by males to court females?
Perfection Wasted
791(1)
John Up Dike
What happens when your own brand of magic ceases forever?
The Boxes
792(1)
Shelly Wagner
A mother thinks of the boxes with which her son might have played
Revolutionary Petunias
793(1)
Alice Walker
What is the difference between vengeance and justice?
Go, Lovely Rose
793(1)
Edmund Waller
What is the common fate of all things rare?
Song of Napalm
794(1)
Bruce Weigl
Is there any way to deny the agony of those lost in war?
On Being Brought from Africa to America
795(1)
Phillis Wheatley
This eighteenth-century poem tells us that Blacks, too, may be angels
Full of Life Now
795(1)
Walt Whitman
Be not too certain but I am now with you
Dirge for Two Veterans
796(1)
Walt Whitman
At what point during war can human beings be reconciled?
April 5, 1974
797(1)
Richard Wilbur
From the soft ground will come flowers
The Red Wheelbarrow
797(1)
William Carlos Williams
The world consists of things and beings
The Wild Swans at Coole
797(1)
William Butler Yeats
Where will the wild swans go when I am no longer here to see them?
The Day Zimmer Lost Religion
798(3)
Paul Zimmer
Can the threat of punishment make us religious?
Reading and Writing about Drama
The Dramatic Vision: An Overview
801(49)
Drama as Literature
801(8)
Performance: The Unique Aspect of Drama
809(3)
Drama from Ancient Times to Our Own: Tragedy, Comedy, and Additional Forms
812(3)
The Visit to the Sepulchre (Visitatio Sepulchri)
815(4)
Anonymous
How do the three Marys respond to what the Angel tells them?
Reading Plays
819(1)
Plays For Study
820(30)
The More the Merrier
820(11)
Stanley Kauffmann
Do problems stop, or start, once people say ``Yes'' to each other?
Tea Party
831(4)
Betty Keller
How can people be made interested in coming into the house for a visit?
Before Breakfast
835(7)
Eugene O'Neill
What happens in the face of anger, alienation, and lost hope?
Writing about the Elements of Drama
842(4)
Demonstrative Student Essay: Eugene O'Neill's Use of Negative Descriptions and Stage Directions in Before Breakfast as a Means of Revealing Character
846(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about the Elements of Drama
849(1)
The Tragic Vision: Affirmation Through Loss
850(177)
The Origins of Tragedy
851(2)
The Ancient Competitions in Tragedy
853(2)
Aristotle and the Nature of Tragedy
855(5)
Irony in Tragedy
860(2)
The Ancient Athenian Audience and Theater
862(2)
Ancient Greek Tragic Actors and Their Costumes
864(1)
Performance and the Formal Organization of Greek Tragedy
865(2)
Plays for Study
867(160)
Oedipus the King
867(42)
Sophocles
Can anyone, even a great king, evade Destiny or Fate?
Renaissance Drama and Shakespeare's Theater
909(5)
Hamlet
914(104)
William Shakespeare
In this, the greatest play in English literature, the harmfulness of an initial act of evil affects the highest and most influential people in the kingdom of Denmark
Writing about Tragedy
1018(1)
An Essay about a Problem
1019(3)
Demonstrative Student Essay: The Problem of Hamlet's Apparent Delay
1022(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Tragedy
1025(2)
The Comic Vision: Restoring the Balance
1027(100)
The Origins of Comedy
1027(3)
Comedy from Roman Times to the Renaissance
1030(1)
The Patterns, Characters, and Language of Comedy
1031(2)
Types of Comedy
1033(3)
Plays for Study
1036(91)
A Midsummer Night's Dream
1036(57)
William Shakespeare
The problems faced by lovers are resolved through the magic of the natural world, not the legal rules of government and custom
Comedy from Shakespeare's Day to the Present
1093(2)
The Bear
1095(10)
Anton Chekhov
A bachelor and a widow meet and immediately detest each other, but their lives are about to undergo great change
Am I Blue
1105(16)
Beth Henley
Two souls in the process of getting lost find each other and regain much of what they were losing
Writing about Comedy
1121(2)
Demonstrative Student Essay: Setting as Symbol and Comic Structure in A Midsummer Night's Dream
1123(2)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Comedy
1125(2)
Three Plays for Additional Study and Enjoyment
1127(152)
Henrik Ibsen, A Dollhouse
1127(1)
Ibsen's Life and Early Work
1128(1)
Ibsen's Major Prose Plays
1128(1)
A Dollhouse: Ibsen's Best-Known Realistic Problem Play
1129(2)
A Dollhouse (Et Dukkehjem)
1131(51)
Henrik Ibsen
In a seemingly perfect household, both Nora and then Torvald discover that all is not and was not well in their lives
Langston Hughes, Mulatto
1182(1)
Hughes and the African-American Theater after 1920
1183(1)
Hughes's Career as a Dramatist
1183(1)
Mulatto and the Reality of the Southern Black Experience
1184(1)
Mulatto
1185(24)
Langston Hughes
Life on a Georgia plantation in the 1930s begins to shake, and then it crumbles
Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman
1209(1)
Miller's Career in the Post-World War II Years
1209(1)
Death of a Salesman and the Well-Made Play
1209(1)
Death of a Salesman: Tragedy, Symbolism, and Broken Dreams
1210(2)
Death of a Salesman
1212(67)
Arthur Miller
Willie Loman, the salesman, after many years of responbilities, hard work, failure, and unfulfilled hopes, still clings to his dreams of success
Special Writing Topics about Literature 1279(70)
Writing and Documenting the Research Essay
1281(28)
Selecting a Topic
1281(2)
Setting up a Bibliography
1283(1)
Online Library Services
1284(2)
Taking Notes and Paraphrasing Material
1286(9)
Documenting Your Work
1295(4)
Strategies for Organizing Ideas in Your Research Essay
1299(2)
Demonstrative Student Research & say: The Ghost in Hamlet
1301(8)
Critical Approaches Important in the Study of Literature
1309(15)
Moral/Intellectual
1310(1)
Topical/Historical
1311(1)
Critical/Formalist
1312(2)
Structuralist
1314(1)
Feminist
1315(1)
Economic Determinist/Marxist
1316(1)
Psychological/ Psychoanalytic
1317(2)
Archetypal/Symbolic/Mythic
1319(1)
Deconstructionist
1320(1)
Reader-Response
1321(3)
Taking Examinations on Literature
1324(11)
Answer the Questions That Are Asked
1324(2)
Systematic Preparation
1326(3)
Two Basic Types of Questions about Literature
1329(6)
Comparison-Contrast and Extended Comparison-Contrast: Learning By Seeing Literary Works Together
1335(14)
Guidelines for the Comparison-Contrast Method
1336(3)
The Extended Comparison-Contrast Essay
1339(1)
Writing a Comparison Contrast Essay
1340(1)
Demonstrative Student Essay (Two Works): The Treatment of Responses to War in Amy Lowell's ``Patterns'' and Wilfred Owen's ``Anthem for Doomed Youth,''
1341(3)
Demonstrative Student Essay (Extended Comparison-Contrast): Literary Treatments of the Conflicts between Private and Public Life
1344(4)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Comparison and Contrast
1348(1)
Appendix I. MLA Recommendations for Documenting Electronic Sources 1349(4)
Appendix II. Brief Biographies of the Poets in Part II 1353(24)
Glossary of Literary Terms 1377(22)
Credits 1399(8)
Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines of Poetry 1407


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