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Animal Manure Recycling Treatment and Management,9781118488539
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Animal Manure Recycling Treatment and Management

by ; ; ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9781118488539

ISBN10:
1118488539
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
10/7/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley
List Price: $133.33

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Summary

A rapidly changing and expanding livestock and poultry production sector is causing a range of environmental problems on local, regional and global scales.

Animal Manure Recycling: Treatment and Management presents an accessible overview of environmentally friendly technologies for managing animal manure more efficiently and in a sustainable manner. The book describes the physical and chemical characteristics of animal manure and microbial processes, featuring detailed examples and case studies showing how this knowledge can be used in practice. Readers are introduced to the sustainable use of animal manure for crop fertilisation and soil amelioration. Environmentally friendly technologies for reducing emissions of ammonia, odour and the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane are presented, and reduction of plant nutrient losses using separation technologies is introduced. Finally and most importantly, the book describes methods to commercialise and transfer knowledge about innovations to end-users.

Topics covered include:

  • Regulation of animal manure management
  • Manure organic matter: characteristics and microbial transformations
  • Greenhouse gas emissions from animal manures and technologies for their reduction
  • Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures
  • Bioenergy production
  • Animal manure residue upgrading and nutrient recovery in bio-fertilisers
  • Life cycle assessment of manure management systems
  • Innovation in animal manure management and recycling
Animal Manure Recycling: Treatment and Management presents state-of-the-art coverage of the entire animal manure chain, providing practical information for engineers, environmental consultants, academics and advanced students involved in scientific, technical and regulatory issues related to animal manure management.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xvii

1 Animal Manure – From Waste to Raw Materials and Goods 1

Sven Gjedde Sommer

References 4

2 Animal Production and Animal Manure Management 5

Sven Gjedde Sommer and Morten Lykkegaard Christensen

2.1 Introduction 5

2.2 Housing, Feedlots and Exercise Areas 7

2.2.1 Cattle 7

2.2.2 Pigs 11

2.2.3 Poultry 12

2.2.4 Integrated Production Systems 14

2.3 Management of Manure 15

2.3.1 Deep Litter Management 15

2.3.2 Slurry Management 16

2.3.3 Separation of Slurry 17

2.4 Systems Analysis Method for Assessing Mass Flows 18

2.4.1 Mass Balance and Process Specifications 19

2.5 Summary 23

References 23

3 Regulations on Animal Manure Management 25

Sven Gjedde Sommer, Oene Oenema, Teruo Matsunaka and Lars Stoumann Jensen

3.1 Introduction 25

3.2 Environmental Issues 26

3.3 Need for Government Regulations 29

3.4 Global Regulation – Multilateral Environmental Agreements 30

3.5 Regional Regulations – Exemplified with EU Directives and Regulations 31

3.5.1 EU CAP and its Reforms 31

3.5.2 EU Environmental Directives 32

3.5.3 Reducing Ammonia Emissions from Manure Management in Europe 33

3.6 National Regulations on Agricultural Pollution 34

3.6.1 United States 34

3.6.2 Japan 35

3.6.3 Denmark 36

3.7 Summary 38

References 39

4 Manure Characterisation and Inorganic Chemistry 41

Morten Lykkegaard Christensen and Sven Gjedde Sommer

4.1 Introduction 41

4.2 Livestock Manure Categories 42

4.3 Physical Characterisation of Manure 45

4.3.1 Particle Size 45

4.3.2 Manure Density and Viscosity 46

4.3.3 Electrochemical Properties 47

4.4 Manure Inorganic Chemistry 49

4.4.1 Ions in Solution 50

4.4.2 pH Buffer System 51

4.4.3 Volatile Components 55

4.4.4 Absorbed Exchangeable Cations 58

4.4.5 Crystals and Adsorbed Ions 59

4.5 Summary 63

References 63

5 Manure Organic Matter – Characteristics and Microbial Transformations 67

Lars Stoumann Jensen and Sven Gjedde Sommer

5.1 Introduction 67

5.2 Manure Organic Matter Composition 68

5.2.1 Carbon 69

5.2.2 Nitrogen 70

5.2.3 Characterisation of Manure Organic Matter 71

5.3 Manure Microbiology 73

5.4 Microbial and Biochemical Transformations in Manure 75

5.4.1 Aerobic Decomposition of Organic Matter 78

5.4.2 Anaerobic Decomposition of Organic Matter 80

5.5 Transformations of Nitrogen 82

5.5.1 Urea and Uric Acid Transformation 83

5.5.2 Ammonification or Mineralisation – Organic Nitrogen Transformation

to Ammonium 84

5.5.3 Immobilisation 84

5.5.4 Nitrification 85

5.5.5 Nitrification–Denitrification Coupling 86

5.6 Summary 87

References 87

6 Sanitation and Hygiene in Manure Management 91

Bj¨orn Vinner°as

6.1 Hygiene Risks Associated with Manure Management 91

6.2 Why Must the Pathogens in Manure be Managed? 92

6.2.1 Manure Treatment 93

6.2.2 Expression of Pathogen Reduction 93

6.3 Manure Treatment Alternatives 95

6.3.1 Storage 96

6.3.2 Anaerobic Treatment 96

6.3.3 Composting 97

6.4 Chemical Treatment 99

6.4.1 Ammonia Treatment 99

6.4.2 Ammonia Sanitisation at the Farm Level 102

6.5 Summary 102

References 103

7 Solid–Liquid Separation of Animal Slurry 105

Morten Lykkegaard Christensen, Knud Villy Christensen and Sven Gjedde Sommer

7.1 Introduction 105

7.2 Removal and Separation Efficiency 106

7.3 In-House Separation 107

7.4 Solid–Liquid Separation of Manure Slurry 108

7.4.1 Sedimentation 108

7.4.2 Centrifugation 111

7.4.3 Drainage 113

7.4.4 Filtration with Pressure 116

7.4.5 User Demand on Performance of the Technology 118

7.5 Pre-Treatment: Chemical Additives 119

7.5.1 Precipitation, Coagulation and Flocculation 119

7.5.2 Struvite Crystallisation 122

7.6 Post-Treatment: Separation Techniques 124

7.6.1 Evaporation of Water and Stripping of Ammonia 124

7.6.2 Membranes 125

7.7 Summary 129

References 129

8 Gaseous Emissions of Ammonia and Malodorous Gases 131

Sven Gjedde Sommer and Anders Feilberg

8.1 Introduction 131

8.2 Characteristics of Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide 132

8.3 Processes Involved in Emission 133

8.3.1 Liquid and Air Diffusion Processes 134

8.3.2 Air–Water Equilibrium 136

8.3.3 Acid–Base Equilibrium 138

8.4 Two-Layer Transport and Release Model 141

8.4.1 Gas or Liquid Film Controlling Transfer 144

8.5 Assessment of Gas Release and Emission 147

8.5.1 Calculations Using Emission Coefficients 147

8.5.2 Gas Release and Chemical Equilibrium 148

8.5.3 Effects of Air Turbulence and Surface Component Concentration on Emissions 149

8.6 Summary 150

References 151

9 Ammonia and Malodorous Gases: Sources and Abatement Technologies 153

Anders Feilberg and Sven Gjedde Sommer

9.1 Introduction 153

9.2 Measurement Methods 154

9.2.1 Odour Measurement 155

9.2.2 Relationships Between Odour and Odorants 156

9.3 Ammonia Emissions 157

9.3.1 Pig and Cattle Houses – Slatted Floor and Slurry Pits 157

9.3.2 Pig and Cattle Houses – Solid Floor and Deep Litter 159

9.3.3 Poultry Houses 159

9.3.4 Ammonia Emissions from Manure Storage 161

9.3.5 Field-Applied Manure 162

9.4 Odour Emissions 164

9.4.1 Livestock Buildings 165

9.4.2 Volatile Organic Compounds and Hydrogen Sulphide Emissions from

Livestock Production 166

9.5 Technologies and Additives to Reduce NH3 and Odour Emissions 167

9.5.1 Air Treatment Techniques 167

9.5.2 Slurry Additives 170

9.5.3 Feed Additives 171

9.6 Summary 172

References 173

10 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Animal Manures and Technologies for their Reduction 177

Sven Gjedde Sommer, Tim J. Clough, David Chadwick and Søren O. Petersen

10.1 Introduction 177

10.2 Processes of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Production 179

10.3 Methane Production from Manure 180

10.3.1 Effect of Temperature 181

10.3.2 Manure Storage Methods 181

10.3.3 Field-Applied Manure 182

10.4 Nitrous Oxide Production from Manure 183

10.4.1 Stored Manure 183

10.4.2 Field-Applied Manure 185

10.5 Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions 186

10.5.1 Reduced Inoculum 188

10.5.2 Mitigation Technologies and Management 188

10.5.3 Reducing Volatile Solids and Nitrogen 188

10.5.4 Additives 189

10.5.5 Covers 190

10.5.6 Whole System Analysis of Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gases 190

10.6 Summary 191

References 192

11 Nutrient Leaching and Runoff from Land Application of Animal Manure and Measures

for Reduction 195

Peter Sørensen and Lars Stoumann Jensen

11.1 Introduction 195

11.2 Leaching and Runoff of Manure Nitrogen 199

11.2.1 Leaching of Manure Nitrogen in the First Year after Application and Methods

for Reducing the Risk 199

11.2.2 Long-Term Leaching of Manure Nitrogen 201

11.2.3 Nitrogen Losses via Runoff and Strategies for Reducing the Risk 203

11.3 Leaching and Runoff of Manure Phosphorus 203

11.3.1 Leaching of Manure Phosphorus 204

11.3.2 Phosphorus Losses via Runoff and Strategies for Reducing the Risk 205

11.4 Leaching and Runoff of Potassium 207

11.5 Summary 208

References 208

12 Technologies and Logistics for Handling, Transport and Distribution of Animal Manures 211

Claus Grøn Sørensen, Sven Gjedde Sommer, Dionysis Bochtis and Alan Rotz

12.1 Introduction 211

12.2 Overview of Manure Systems 213

12.3 Animal Manure Characteristics 213

12.4 Removal from Animal Houses 214

12.4.1 Solid Manure 214

12.4.2 Liquid Manure and Slurry 217

12.5 Manure Storage 217

12.5.1 Solid Manure Stores 217

12.5.2 Liquid Manure Stores 218

12.5.3 Stirring – Homogenising Liquid Manure 219

12.6 Transport of Manure 219

12.6.1 Liquid Manure Transport by Gravity 219

12.6.2 Transport of Slurry by Pumping 219

12.6.3 Tanker Transport 220

12.7 Application of Manure in the Field 220

12.7.1 Solid Manure Application 220

12.7.2 Liquid Manure Application 220

12.8 Manure Operations Management 222

12.8.1 Emptying the Animal House 222

12.8.2 Transport of Manure 224

12.8.3 Application in the Field 228

12.9 Farm Scenarios 232

12.10 Summary 234

References 234

13 Bioenergy Production 237

Sven Gjedde Sommer, Alastair James Ward and James J. Leahy

13.1 Introduction 237

13.2 Biomass and Energy 240

13.2.1 Operation of Combustion Plant 247

13.2.2 Pre-Treatment of Biomass 250

13.2.3 Energy Production Using Straw Residues 251

13.2.4 Residues from Incineration 252

13.3 Biogas Production 252

13.3.1 Biogas Process 253

13.3.2 Inhibition of the Biogas Production Process 256

13.3.3 Gas Production Rates 260

13.3.4 Biogas Digester Design 261

13.3.5 Dimensioning Digesters 264

13.3.6 Water Removal 266

13.3.7 Dihydrogen Sulfide Removal 266

13.3.8 Carbon Dioxide Removal and Upgrading Biogas for the Natural

Gas Network and Transport Fuels 266

13.4 Summary 267

References 267

14 Animal Manure Residue Upgrading and Nutrient Recovery in Biofertilisers 271

Lars Stoumann Jensen

14.1 Introduction 271

14.2 Manure Upgrading Options 272

14.3 Composting of Manures 276

14.3.1 Basic Composting Concepts 276

14.3.2 Control of the Composting Process 279

14.3.3 Biofertiliser Value of Manure-Based Composts in Agriculture 281

14.3.4 Use of Compost Products in the Non-Agricultural Sector 282

14.4 Drying and Pelletising Solid Manures 283

14.5 Manure Combustion and Gasification Ash 284

14.5.1 Ash Extraction and Conversion 285

14.6 Biochar from Pyrolysis or Carbonisation of Solid Manures 287

14.7 Precipitates and Mineral Concentrates from Liquid Manures 288

14.7.1 Struvite 288

14.7.2 Mineral Concentrates 288

14.8 Summary 290

References 291

15 Animal Manure Fertiliser Value, Crop Utilisation and Soil Quality Impacts 295

Lars Stoumann Jensen

15.1 Introduction 295

15.2 Fertilisation and Crop Nutrient Use Efficiency 296

15.2.1 Source of Nitrogen Supply to Crops 297

15.2.2 Crop Yield Response to Fertiliser Nitrogen and the Economic Optimum 298

15.2.3 Crop Nitrogen Uptake Efficiency 299

15.3 Use of Animal Manures as Organic Fertilisers 302

15.3.1 Manure Chemical Properties and Effects on Soil Fertility 302

15.3.2 Manure Effects on Soil Biological Activity and Nutrient Turnover 304

15.3.3 Manure Effects on Soil Physical Properties 308

15.4 Manure Fertiliser Value as Affected by Application Method, Manure Type

and Treatment 308

15.4.1 MFE Value 309

15.4.2 Manure Application Methods 311

15.4.3 First-Year N-MFE Value for Various Manure Types 314

15.4.4 Long-Term Manure Nitrogen Turnover and Residual MFE Value 320

15.4.5 Strategies for Combined Manure and Mineral Fertiliser Use 323

15.5 Summary 324

References 325

16 Life Cycle Assessment of Manure Management Systems 329

Sander Bruun, Marieke ten Hoeve and Morten Birkved

16.1 Introduction 329

16.2 Introduction of Life Cycle Assessment Methodology 330

16.3 Four Phases of a Life Cycle Assessment 330

16.4 Goal and Scope 330

16.4.1 System Boundaries 331

16.4.2 Allocation Problems 331

16.4.3 Consequential versus Attributional Life Cycle Assessments 333

16.5 Inventory Analysis 334

16.6 Impact Assessment 336

16.6.1 Impact Category Definition, Classification and Characterisation 336

16.6.2 Normalisation 337

16.6.3 Weighting 338

16.7 Interpretation 339

16.8 Summary 339

References 341

17 Innovation in Animal Manure Management and Recycling 343

Thomas Schmidt

17.1 Introduction – Why is Innovation Important? 343

17.2 Innovation Typology 345

17.3 Identifying New Innovations 347

17.4 Assessing the Potential of New Innovations 350

17.5 Commercialisation of New Innovations 352

17.6 Summary 355

References 355

Index



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