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Living Religions,9780205835850

Living Religions

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Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780205835850

ISBN10:
0205835856
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
9/30/2010
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $142.00

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Customer Reviews

Excellent Primer on the World's Religions  March 31, 2011
by


I have never read a religious studies textbook so focused and well researched. Mary Pat Fisher truly shows she knows what she is writing about. This book not only provides thought-provoking questions at the end of each chapter, but it is also full of wonderful illustrations! A picture really is worth a thousand words. I couldn't be happier with it. I want also to say that ecampus is the best place for rental textbooks






Living Religions: 5 out of 5 stars based on 1 user reviews.

Summary

Living Religionspresents a highly readable and stimulating survey of the modern religious world though an emphasis on the personal consciousness of believers and their own accounts of their religion and relevance in contemporary life. "Religion is not a museum piece. Religion is a vibrant force in the lives of many people around the world, and many religions are presently experiencing a renaissance." - Mary Pat Fisher, Preface toLiving Religions Along with a team of specialist consultants in each faith, and drawing on a wealth of scholarly research and firsthand source material, Mary Pat Fisher provides a fresh and challenging insight into the historical development and teachings of traditional faiths, indigenous religions, and new religious movements. She considers how the contemporary beliefs and practices of each of these traditions have evolved, and explores the changing nature of each religion; particularly the role of women, and the issues and controversies such as fundamentalism, violence, globalization, and interfaith initiatives.

Author Biography

Mary Pat Fisher writes about all religions, not only from academic research, but also from her experiences with religions around the world.  Much of her knowledge comes from the unique interfaith community in India, Gobind Sadan, where she has lived since 1991.  In addition to eight editions of Living Religions, she has written other textbooks about religions and also about art.

 


 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

"In order to try to understand each religion from the inside, I have traveled for many years to study and worship with devotees and teachers of all faiths, and to interview them about their experience of their tradition.  People of all religions also come to the Gobind Sadan Institute for Advanced Studies in Comparative Religions, in New Delhi, where it is my good fortune to meet and speak with them about their spiritual experiences and beliefs. 

 

In preparing this book, I have worked directly with consultants who are authorities in specific traditions and who have offered detailed suggestions and resources.  For breadth of scholarship, I have engaged the help of a new group of consultants..."

EIGHTH EDITION CONSULTANTS:

JOSEPH ADLER Kenyon College

AFE ADOGAME University of Edinburgh

ROBIN RINEHART Lafayette College

KARMA LEKSHE TSOMO University of San Diego

WANG MINQING Cornell University and Hunan University, China

VANESSA OCHS University of Virginia

AMY DEROGATIS Michigan State University

ALI IHSAN YITIK Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey

DR. MOHINDER SINGH Bhai Vir Singh Sahitya Sadan, New Delhi

CHRISTINE GUDORF Florida International University

ARVIND SHARMA McGill University, Montreal

Table of Contents

Brief Table of Contents

 

Chapter 1. Religious Responses.

Chapter 2. Indigenous Sacred Ways.

Chapter 3. Hinduism.

Chapter 4. Jainism.

Chapter 5. Buddhism.

Chapter 6. Daoism and Confucianism.

Chapter 7. Shinto.

Chapter 8. Judaism.

Chapter 9. Christianity.

Chapter 10. Islam.

Chapter 11. Sikhism.

Chapter 12. New Religious Movements.

Chapter 13. Religion in the Twenty-First Century.

 

Glossary.

Index.

Timeline.

 

 

Complete Table of Contents

 

Preface                                          ix

Teaching and learning resources                      xiii

MAP  Religions of the World Today                    xiv

TIMELINE                                             xvi

 

 

Chapter 1

 

RELIGIOUS RESPONSES                                  1

Why are there religions?                             3

— Materialistic perspective: humans invented religion     3

— Functional perspective: religion is useful         4

— Belief perspective: Ultimate Reality exists        7

Understandings of Sacred Reality                     10

EXCLUSIVISM VS. UNIVERSALISM  A letter from

I. H. Azad Faruqi                                    12

Ritual, symbol, and myth                             14

TEACHING STORY  Descendants of the Eagle             17

Absolutist and liberal interpretations               18

BOX  Angels Weep                                     19

The encounter between science and religion           20

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  When Science Approaches Religion    25

Women in religions                                   26

Negative aspects of organized religions              28

Suggested reading                                    29

Key terms                                            31

Review questions                                     32

Discussion questions                                 32

MyReligionLab                                        32

 

CHAPTER 2

 

INDIGENOUS SACRED WAYS                               33

Understanding indigenous sacred ways                 34

MAP  Distribution of Indigenous Groups               34

Cultural diversity                                   38

The circle of right relationships                    39

— Relationships with spirit                          40

YORUBA TEACHING STORY Osun and the Power of Woman    43

— Kinship with all creation                          43

— Relationships with power                           48

Spiritual specialists                                50

— Storytellers and other sacred roles                50

— Mystical intermediaries                            53

LIVING INDIGENOUS SACRED WAYS  An Interview with

Nadezhda Ananyevna Stepanova                         55

Group observances                                    56

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  The Sun Dance Way

of Self-Sacrifice                                    58

— Individual observances                             61

Contemporary issues                                  62

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  The Orang Asli of Malaysia:

Traditions being Lost                                64

RELIGION IN PUBLIC LIFE  Winona LaDuke               68

Suggested reading                                    70

Key terms                                            71

Review questions                                     72

Discussion questions                                 72

MyReligionLab                                        72

 

Chapter 3

 

HINDUISM                                             73

Philosophical and metaphysical origins               74

— The Indus Valley Civilization                      74

MAP  The Indian Subcontinent                         75

TIMELINE  Hinduism                                   76

— The Vedas                                          77

Major philosophical systems                          80

— Samkhya                                            80

— Advaita Vedanta                                    81

— Yoga                                               81

Religious foundations and theistic paths             85

— Shaktas                                            86

— Shaivites                                          88

— Vaishnavites                                       90

— The epics and Puranas                              91

TEACHING STORY  Hanuman, the Monkey Chief            94

The Hindu way of life                                97

— Rituals                                            97

— Castes, duties, and life goals                     99

— Life stages                                        100

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  Sacred Thread Ceremony         101

— The guru                                           102

— Women’s duties                                     103

— Fasts, prayers, and auspicious designs             103

— Reverence of trees and rivers                      104

LIVING HINDUISM  An Interview with Somjit Dasgupta   105

— Pilgrimages                                        106

— Festivals                                          107

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  Holi                           108

Hinduism in the modern world                         111

— Modern movements                                   111

— Global Hinduism                                    112

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  Dharmic Principles:

The Swadhyaya Movement                               113

RELIGION IN PUBLIC LIFE  Dr. Karan Singh             116

— Hindu identity                                     117

Suggested reading                                    118

Key terms                                            119

Review questions                                     120

Discussion questions                                 120

MyReligionLab                                        120

 

Chapter 4

 

JAINISM                                              121

The Tirthankaras and ascetic orders                  121

Freeing the soul: the ethical pillars                123

— Karma                                              123

TEACHING STORY  The Story of Bahubali                124

— Ahimsa                                             125

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  Jain Purification              127

— Aparigraha                                         127

— Anekantwad                                         128

Spiritual practices                                  128

Festivals and pilgrimages                            130

LIVING JAINISM  An Interview with M. P. Jain         131

World Jainism                                        132

Suggested reading                                    133

Key terms                                            134

Review questions                                     134

Discussion questions                                 134

MyReligionLab                                        134

 

Chapter 5

 

BUDDHISM                                             135

The life and legend of the Buddha                    135

TIMELINE  Buddhism                                   137

The Dharma                                           141

— The Four Noble Truths                              142

— The Noble Eightfold Path to liberation             143

— The wheel of birth and death                       144

TEACHING STORY  The Great Ape Jataka Tale            146

— Nirvana                                            147

Branches of Buddhism                                 148

MAP  The Spread of Buddhism                          149

— Theravada: the path of mindfulness                 149

— Mahayana: the path of compassion and wisdom        156

MAP  Distribution of Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism      157

— Chan and Zen: the great way of enlightenment       160

CHART  Major Branches of Buddhism                    160

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  Zen Oxherding Pictures         162

— Pure Land: devotion to Amitabha Buddha             164

— Nichiren: salvation through the Lotus Sutra        164

— Vajrayana: the indestructible path                 166

RELIGION IN PUBLIC LIFE  His Holiness the Dalai Lama 169

— Festivals                                          170

Buddhism in the West                                 171

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  Life in a Western Zen Monastery     172

LIVING BUDDHISM  An Interview with Karma Lekshe Tsomo     176

Socially engaged Buddhism                            177

Suggested reading                                    181

Key terms                                            182

Review questions                                     183

Discussion questions                                 183

MyReligionLab                                        183

 

Chapter 6

 

DAOISM AND CONFUCIANISM                              184

Ancient traditions                                   184

— Worship and divination                             185

MAP  Historic Sites of Daoism and Confucianism       185

— Cosmic balance                                     187

TIMELINE  Daoism and Confucianism                    188

Daoism—the way of nature and immortality             189

— Teaching of Daoist sages                           190

TEACHING STORY  Three in the Morning                 192

— Popular religion and organized Daoism              194

— Inner alchemy                                      195

— Daoist sects                                       196

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  The Lantern Festival           198

— Daoism today                                       199

Confucianism—the practice of virtue                  203

— Master Kong’s life                                 204

— The Confucian virtues                              205

— Divergent followers of Confucius                   206

— The state cult                                     207

— Neo-Confucianism                                   208

— Confucianism under communism                       209

LIVING CONFUCIANISM  An Interview with Ann-ping Chin 212

— Confucianism in East Asia                          213

Suggested reading                                    214

Key terms                                            216

Review questions                                     216

Discussion questions                                 216

MyReligionLab                                        216

 

Chapter 7

 

SHINTO                                               217

The roots of “Shinto”                                217

— Kinship with nature                                218

— Honoring the kami                                  219

— Shrines                                            220

MAP  Major Shinto Shrines                            221

TEACHING STORY  Amaterasu comes out of the cave      222

— Ceremonies and festivals                           223

— Purification                                       225

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  Purification by Waterfall      226

Buddhist and Confucian influences                    227

State Shinto                                         228

“Sect Shinto”                                        229

Shinto today                                         230

LIVING SHINTO  An Interview with Hitoshi Iwasaki     232

Suggested reading                                    233

Key terms                                            234

Review questions                                     234

Discussion questions                                 234

MyReligionLab                                        234

ZOROASTRIANISM                                       235

 

Chapter 8

 

JUDAISM                                              239

A history of the Jewish people                       239

TIMELINE  Judaism                                    240

— Biblical stories                                   241

MAP  The Early Israelites                            243

TEACHING STORY  Abraham’s Willingness to Sacrifice Isaac  245

BOX  The Ten Commandments                            248

— Return to Jerusalem                                251

— Rabbinic Judaism                                   255

— Judaism in the Middle Ages                         259

— Kabbalah and Hasidism                              262

— Judaism and modernity                              264

— The Holocaust                                      266

MAP  Jewish Populations and the Holocaust            269

— Zionism and contemporary Israel                    269

Torah                                                273

— The one God                                        273

— Love for God                                       274

— The sacredness of human life                       275

— Law                                                275

LIVING JUDAISM  An Interview with Eli Epstein        276

— Suffering and faith                                277

Sacred practices                                     278

Holy days                                            282

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  Passover Innovations           285

Contemporary Judaism                                 286

— Major branches today                               286

CHART  Major Branches of Judaism Today               287

RELIGION IN PUBLIC LIFE  Rabbi David Saperstein      288

— Jewish feminism                                    291

— Jewish renewal                                     293

Suggested reading                                    294

Key terms                                            296

Review questions                                     297

Discussion questions                                 297

MyReligionLab                                        297

 

Chapter 9

 

CHRISTIANITY                                         298

Historical evidence                                  298

Evidence of the Bible                                299

The life and teachings of Jesus                      301

— Birth                                              301

— Preparation                                        302

— Ministry                                           304

MAP  Jesus’ Ministry                                 304

LIVING CHRISTIANITY  An Interview with David Vandiver     307

TEACHING STORY  The Good Samaritan                   308

— Challenges to the authorities                      310

TIMELINE  Christianity                               311

— Crucifixion                                        313

— Resurrection and Ascension                         316

BOX  Books of the New Testament                      317

The early Church                                     318

— From persecution to empire                         318

MAP  St. Paul’s Missionary Journeys                  320

— Evolving organization and theology                 322

— Early monasticism                                  325

Church administration                                326

MAP  Distribution of Christians Today                326

— East–West division                                 327

— Social chaos and the papacy                        329

Intellectual revival and monasticism                 330

Medieval mysticism                                   331

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  Russian Orthodox Kenoticism    333

The Protestant Reformation                           334

CHART  Major Divisions of Christianity Today         335

The Roman Catholic Reformation                       339

Liberal trends                                       340

The Second Vatican Council                           341

The Orthodox world today                             342

BOX  Eastern Orthodox Church                         343

— The Russian Orthodox Church                        344

— Distinctive features of Orthodox spirituality      345

Central beliefs in contemporary Christianity         347

Sacred practices                                     349

— Worship services and sacraments                    349

— The liturgical year                                352

— Contemplative prayer                               355

— Devotion to Mary                                   357

— Veneration of saints and angels                    359

Contemporary trends                                  360

— Evangelicalism                                     363

— Spirit-oriented movements                          365

— The great reversal                                 368

— Liberation theology                                370

RELIGION IN PUBLIC LIFE  Archbishop Desmond M. Tutu  371

— Feminist theology                                  373

— Creation-centered Christianity                     375

— Ecumenical movement                                375

Suggested reading                                    377

Key terms                                            378

Review questions                                     379

Discussion questions                                 379

MyReligionLab                                        380

 

Chapter 10

 

ISLAM                                                381

Pre-Islamic Arabia                                   381

TIMELINE  Islam                                      382

The Prophet Muhammad                                 383

The Qur’an                                           388

The central teachings                                391

— The Oneness of God and of humanity                 391

— Prophethood and the compass of Islam               392

— Human relationship to the divine                   393

— The unseen life                                    394

— The Last Judgment                                  394

The Five Pillars                                     396

— Belief and witness                                 396

— Daily prayers                                      397

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  Salaat                         398

— Zakat                                              399

— Fasting                                            399

— Hajj                                               400

LIVING ISLAM  An Interview with Dr. Syed M. Hussain  401

Sunni and Shi’a                                      404

— Sunnis                                             404

— Shi’a                                              406

Sufism                                               407

The spread of Islam                                  411

MAP  The spread of Islam                             411

TEACHING STORY  Transformation by Islam              412

— Islamic culture                                    413

— Eastward expansion                                 415

Relationships with the West                          418

— Islam in the West                                  420

Muslim resurgence                                    421

— Tradition and modern life                          423

— Outreach and education                             424

RELIGION IN PUBLIC LIFE  Shirin Ebadi                425

— Islam in politics                                  427

— Islam for the future                               435

Suggested reading                                    436

Key terms                                            438

Review questions                                     438

Discussion questions                                 439

MyReligionLab                                        439

 

Chapter 11

 

SIKHISM                                              440

The sant tradition                                   440

Guru Nanak                                           441

TIMELINE  Sikhism                                    443

The succession of Gurus                              444

TEACHING STORY  Guru Arjun Dev’s Devotion            445

Central beliefs                                      450

LIVING SIKHISM  An Interview with Inderpreet Kaur    451

Sacred practices                                     453

RELIGION IN PUBLIC LIFE  His Holiness Baba Virsa Singh    456

Sikhism today                                        457

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  Amrit Ceremony on Baisakhi     458

MAP  The Punjab                                      459

Suggested reading                                    463

Key terms                                            463

Review questions                                     464

Discussion questions                                 464

MyReligionLab                                        464

 

Chapter 12

 

NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS                              465

Social context of new religious movements            465

Charismatic leadership                               468

— Unification Movement                               468

— Sathya Sai Baba                                    470

Offshoots of older religions                         471

— Mormon Church                                      471

— Jehovah’s Witnesses                                473

— Radhasoami                                         475

LIVING TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION 

An Interview with Wolfgang Hecker                    476

Combinations of older religions                      477

— Caodaism                                           477

— African-inspired syncretic religions               478

— Theosophical Society                               480

— Baha’i                                             482

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  The Baha’i Model for

Governance of the World                              483

Social trends                                        484

— Ethnic identity: Rastafari                         484

— Nature spirituality                                486

— New Age spirituality                               491

Opposition to new religious movements                494

Will new religious movements last?                   497

Suggested reading                                    497

Key terms                                            499

Review questions                                     499

Discussion questions                                 499

MyReligionLab                                        499

 

Chapter 13

 

RELIGION IN THE

TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY                                 500

Globalization                                        500

Secularism                                           501

Religious pluralism                                  502

— Hardening of religious boundaries                  503

— Religion after 11 September                        505

Religion in politics                                 507

RELIGION IN PRACTICE  Excerpts from

Obama’s Historic Cairo Speech                        509

Interfaith movement                                  510

— Responses to other faiths                          511

— Interfaith initiatives                             513

Religion and social issues                           517

RELIGION IN PUBLIC LIFE  Jimmy Carter                518

Religion and materialism                             522

Religion and the future of humanity                  523

Suggested reading                                    524

Key terms                                            525

Review questions                                     525

Discussion questions                                 525

MyReligionLab                                        525

 

 

Notes                                                527

Glossary                                             540

Index                                                549

Credits                                              558

 



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