9780324236675

Macroeconomics (with InfoTrac)

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780324236675

  • ISBN10:

    0324236670

  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2004-12-22
  • Publisher: South-Western College Pub
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Summary

Offering a unique blend of solid theoretical content and student accessibility, this text: 1) covers all the basics of macroeconomics, 2) gives students a clear idea of how economists think about the world, 3) stresses the key concepts in economics, and 4) is extremely rich in intriguing applications that convey the prevalence of economics in everyday life. Many principles instructors are constantly challenged with the goal of getting students excited about realization that economics is everywhere! Arnold has taken this to another level. He is so passionate about touching his students that he felt the need to write a Macroeconomics text that is dedicated to opening the science of economics through the pictures and applications of our lives. Arnold is considered the most innovative author in this market to meet the fast pace interests of both instructors and students. His five themes of Theory and Model building, Key Concepts, Primary and Secondary Consequences, Real-World Applications, and the idea that Economics is about gifts, exchanges, and transfers, set the tone for a teaching text that is extremely approachable by instructors and students.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Student Learning Guide xxii
An Introduction to Economics
Part 1: Economics: The Science of Scarcity
What Economics Is About
1(24)
Definitions of Economics
2(1)
Economic Categories
2(2)
Positive and Normative Economics
3(1)
Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
3(1)
Key Concepts in Economics
4(12)
Thinking in Terms of Scarcity and Its Effects
4(2)
Thinking in Terms of Opportunity Cost
6(2)
Thinking in Terms of Costs and Benefits
8(1)
Thinking in Terms of Decisions Made at the Margin
9(1)
Thinking in Terms of Efficiency
10(2)
Thinking in Terms of Unintended Effects
12(1)
Thinking in Terms of Equilibrium
13(1)
Thinking in Terms of the Ceteris Paribus Assumption
14(1)
Thinking in Terms of the Difference Between Association and Causation
15(1)
Thinking in Terms of the Difference Between the Group and the Individual
15(1)
Economists Build and Test Theories
16(5)
What Is a Theory?
16(1)
Building and Testing a Theory
17(2)
How Do We Judge Theories?
19(1)
What to Ask a Theorist
20(1)
A Reader Asks
21(1)
Chapter Summary
21(2)
Key Terms and Concepts
23(1)
Questions and Problems
23(1)
Internet Activities
24(1)
Appendix A: Working With Diagrams
25(408)
Two-Variable Diagrams
25(1)
Slope of a Line
26(1)
Slope of a Line Is Constant
26(2)
Slope of a Curve
28(1)
The 45° Line
28(1)
Pie Charts
29(1)
Bar Graphs
29(1)
Line Graphs
30(2)
Appendix Summary
32(1)
Questions and Problems
32(1)
Economic Activities: Producing and Trading
33(27)
The Production Possibilities Frontier
34(7)
The Straight-Line PPF: Constant Opportunity Costs
34(1)
The Bowed-Outward (Concave-Downward) PPF: Increasing Opportunity Costs
35(1)
Law of Increasing Opportunity Costs
36(1)
Economic Concepts Within a PPF Framework
37(4)
Trade or Exchange
41(4)
The Purpose of Trade
41(1)
Periods Relevant to Trade
42(1)
Trade and the Terms of Trade
42(1)
Costs of Trades
43(2)
Trades and Third-Party Effects
45(1)
Production, Trade, and Specialization
45(4)
Producing and Trading
46(2)
Profit and a Lower Cost of Living
48(1)
A Benevolent and All-Knowing Dictator Versus the Invisible Hand
49(1)
Producing, Trading, and Economic Systems
49(4)
Economic Systems
49(2)
But First, a Warning
51(1)
Economic Systems and the PPF
51(1)
Three Economic Questions That Deal With Production
51(1)
Trade
52(1)
Prices
52(1)
Property Rights
53(3)
Economic Systems and Property Rights
53(1)
Do Property Rights Matter?
54(1)
Property Rights and Scarce Resources
54(2)
A Reader Asks
56(1)
Chapter Summary
56(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
57(1)
Questions and Problems
57(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
58(1)
Internet Activities
59(1)
Supply and Demand: Theory
60(33)
A Note About Theory
61(1)
Demand
61(11)
The Law of Demand
61(1)
Four Ways to Represent the Law of Demand
62(1)
Absolute and Relative Price
63(1)
Why Quantity Demanded Goes Down as Price Goes Up
63(1)
Individual Demand Curve and Market Demand Curve
64(1)
A Change in Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand
65(3)
What Factors Cause the Demand Curve to Shift?
68(4)
Supply
72(4)
The Law of Supply
72(1)
Why Most Supply Curves Are Upward-Sloping
72(1)
The Market Supply Curve
72(1)
Changes in Supply Mean Shifts in Supply Curves
73(1)
What Factors Cause the Supply Curve to Shift?
74(1)
A Change in Supply Versus a Change in Quantity Supplied
75(1)
The Market: Putting Supply and Demand Together
76(8)
Supply and Demand at Work at an Auction
77(1)
The Language of Supply and Demand: A Few Important Terms
78(1)
Moving to Equilibrium: What Happens to Price When There Is a Surplus or a Shortage?
78(1)
Speed of Moving to Equilibrium
79(1)
Moving to Equilibrium: Maximum ana Minimum Prices
80(1)
Equilibrium in Terms of Consumers' and Producers' Surplus
80(2)
What Can Change Equilibrium Price and Quantity?
82(2)
Price Controls
84(5)
Price Ceiling: Definition and Effects
84(3)
Do Buyers Prefer Lower Prices to Higher Prices?
87(1)
Price Floor: Definition and Effects
88(1)
A Reader Asks
89(1)
Chapter Summary
89(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
90(1)
Questions and Problems
90(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
91(1)
Internet Activities
92(1)
Supply and Demand: Practice
93(28)
Application 1: Why Do Colleges Use GPAs, ACTs, and SATs for Purposes of Admission?
94(1)
Application 2: What Will Happen to the Price of Marijuana if the Purchase and Sale of Marijuana Are Legalized?
95(1)
Application 3: Where Did You Get That Music?
96(1)
Application 4: The Minimum Wage Law
97(1)
Application 5: Price Ceiling in the Kidney Market
98(2)
Application 6: Health Care and the Right to Sue Your HMO
100(2)
Application 7: If Gold Prices Are the Same Everywhere, Then Why Aren't House Prices?
102(1)
Application 8: Do You Pay for Good Weather?
103(1)
Application 9: Paying All Professors the Same Salary
103(2)
Application 10: Price Floors and Winners and Losers
105(1)
Application 11: College Superathletes
106(2)
Application 12: Supply and Demand on a Freeway
108(1)
Application 13: What Does Price Have to Do With Getting to Class on Time?
109(2)
Application 14: Aisle Seats on Commercial Airplanes
111(1)
Application 15: 10 A.M. Classes in College
112(1)
Application 16: What Is the Price of an A?
113(1)
A Reader Asks
114(1)
Chapter Summary
115(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
116(1)
Questions and Problems
116(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
117(1)
Internet Activities
117(1)
Economics in Perspective: Musical Notes, Economic Notes
118(3)
Macroeconomics
Part 2: Macroeconomic Fundamentals
Macroeconomic Measurements, Part I: Prices and Unemployment
121(18)
Macroeconomic Measurements
122(1)
Measuring Prices
122(7)
Measuring Prices Using the CPI
122(2)
Inflation and the CPI
124(1)
How Is the CPI Used?
125(1)
The Substitution Bias in Fixed-Weighted Measures
126(1)
GDP Implicit Price Deflator
127(1)
Converting Dollars from One Year to Another
128(1)
Measuring Unemployment
129(7)
Who Are the Unemployed?
129(2)
The Unemployment and Employment Rates
131(1)
Reasons for Unemployment
132(1)
Discouraged Workers
132(1)
Types of Unemployment
133(1)
What Is Full Employment?
134(1)
Cyclical Unemployment
134(2)
A Reader Asks
136(1)
Chapter Summary
136(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
137(1)
Questions and Problems
137(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
137(1)
Internet Activities
138(1)
Macroeconomic Measurements, Part II: GDP and Real GDP
139(26)
Gross Domestic Product
140(4)
Three Ways to Compute GDP
140(1)
What Is the Difference Between GDP and GNP?
141(1)
What GDP Omits
142(1)
GDP Is Not Adjusted for Bads Generated in the Production of Goods
143(1)
Per Capita GDP
143(1)
Is Either GDP or Per Capita GDP a Measure of Happiness or Well-Being?
143(1)
The Expenditure Approach to Computing GDP for a Real-World Economy
144(3)
Expenditures in a Real-World Economy
144(1)
Computing GDP Using the Expenditure Approach
145(1)
An Easy Way to See That GDP = C + I + G + (EX -- IM)
146(1)
The Income Approach to Computing GDP for a Real-World Economy
147(5)
Computing National Income
147(3)
From National Income to GDP: Making Some Adjustments
150(2)
Other National Income Accounting Measurements
152(1)
Net Domestic Product
152(1)
Personal Income
152(1)
Disposable Income
153(1)
Real GDP
153(4)
Why We Need Real GDP
153(1)
Computing Real GDP
154(1)
The General Equation for Real GDP
155(1)
What Does It Mean if Real GDP Is Higher in One Year Than in Another Year?
155(1)
Real GDP, Economic Growth, and Business Cycles
156(1)
What Lies Ahead
157(1)
A Reader Asks
158(1)
Chapter Summary
159(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
160(1)
Questions and Problems
160(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
160(1)
Internet Activities
161(2)
Economics in Perspective: The Stories Behind the Numbers
163(2)
Part 3: Macroeconomic Stability, Instability, and Fiscal Policy
Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply
165(30)
The Two Sides to an Economy
166(1)
Aggregate Demand
166(12)
Why Does the Aggregate Demand Curve Slope Downward?
166(3)
A Change in the Quantity Demanded of Real GDP Versus a Change in Aggregate Demand
169(1)
Changes in Aggregate Demand---Shifts in the AD Curve
169(1)
How Spending Components Affect Aggregate Demand
170(1)
Factors That Can Change C, I, G, and NX (EX -- IM), and Therefore Can Change AD
171(4)
The Interest Rate and the Loanable Funds Market
175(3)
Can a Change in the Money Supply Change Aggregate Demand?
178(1)
Short-Run Aggregate Supply
178(6)
Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve: What It Is and Why It Is Upward-Sloping
179(2)
What Puts the ``Short Run'' in SRAS?
181(1)
Changes in Short-Run Aggregate Supply---Shifts in the SRAS Curve
182(2)
Putting AD and SRAS Together: Short-Run Equilibrium
184(5)
How Short-Run Equilibrium in the Economy Is Achieved
184(1)
The Unemployment Rate in the Short Run
185(2)
Thinking in Terms of Short-Run Equilibrium Changes in the Economy
187(2)
Long-Run Aggregate Supply
189(2)
Going From the Short Run to the Long Run
189(1)
Short-Run Equilibrium, Long-Run Equilibrium, and Disequilibrium
190(1)
A Reader Asks
191(1)
Chapter Summary
191(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
192(1)
Questions and Problems
193(1)
Working with Numbers and Graphs
193(1)
Internet Activities
194(1)
The Self-Regulating Economy
195(20)
The Classical View
196(3)
Classical Economists and Say's Law
196(1)
Classical Economists and Interest Rate Flexibility
197(2)
Classical Economists on Prices and Wages
199(1)
Three States of the Economy
199(5)
Real GDP and Natural Real GDP: Three Possibilities
200(1)
The Labor Market and the Three States of the Economy
201(2)
One Nagging Question: How Can the Unemployment Rate Be Less Than the Natural Unemployment Rate?
203(1)
The Self-Regulating Economy
204(7)
What Happens if the Economy Is in a Recessionary Gap?
204(1)
What Happens if the Economy Is in an Inflationary Gap?
205(1)
The Self-Regulating Economy: A Recap
206(1)
Policy Implication of Believing the Economy Is Self-Regulating
207(1)
Changes in a Self-Regulating Economy: Short Run and Long Run
208(3)
A Reader Asks
211(1)
Chapter Summary
211(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
212(1)
Questions and Problems
212(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
213(1)
Internet Activities
213(2)
Economic Instability: A Critique of the Self-Regulating Economy
215(26)
Questioning the Classical Position
216(5)
Keynes's Criticism of Say's Law in a Money Economy
216(1)
Keynes on Wage Rates
217(1)
New Keynesians and Wage Rates
218(1)
Keynes on Prices
219(1)
Is It a Question of the Time It Takes for Wages and Prices to Adjust?
220(1)
The Simple Keynesian Model
221(6)
Assumptions
221(1)
The Consumption Function
222(1)
Consumption and Saving
223(1)
The Multiplier
224(2)
The Multiplier and Reality
226(1)
The Simple Keynesian Model in the AD-AS Framework
227(4)
Shifts in the Aggregate Demand Curve
227(1)
The Keynesian Aggregate Supply Curve
227(2)
The Economy in a Recessionary Gap
229(1)
Government's Role in the Economy
229(1)
The Theme of the Simple Keynesian Model
230(1)
The Simple Keynesian Model in the TE/TP Framework
231(6)
Deriving a Total Expenditures (TE) Curve
231(1)
What Will Shift the TE Curve?
231(1)
Comparing Total Expenditures (TE) and Total Production (TP)
231(2)
Moving From Disequilibrium to Equilibrium
233(1)
The Graphical Representation of the Three States of the Economy in the TE/TP Framework
234(1)
The Economy in a Recessionary Gap and the Role of Government
234(1)
The Theme of the Simple Keynesian Model
235(2)
A Reader Asks
237(1)
Chapter Summary
237(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
238(1)
Questions and Problems
238(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
239(1)
Internet Activities
240(1)
The Federal Budget and Fiscal Policy
241(43)
The Federal Budget
242(6)
Government Expenditures
242(1)
Government Tax Revenues
243(1)
Budget Deficit, Surplus, or Balance
244(3)
Structural and Cyclical Deficits
247(1)
How Much Can the Federal Government Spend?
247(1)
The Public Debt
248(1)
Fiscal Policy
248(1)
Some Relevant Fiscal Policy Terms
248(1)
Two Important Notes
249(1)
Demand-Side Fiscal Policy
249(9)
Shifting the Aggregate Demand Curve
249(1)
Fiscal Policy: A Keynesian Perspective
249(1)
Crowding Out: Questioning Expansionary Fiscal Policy
250(3)
The New Classical View of Fiscal Policy
253(3)
Lags and Fiscal Policy
256(2)
Crowding Out, Lags, and the Effectiveness of Fiscal Policy
258(1)
Supply-Side Fiscal Policy
258(3)
Marginal Tax Rates and Aggregate Supply
258(1)
The Laffer Curve: Tax Rates and Tax Revenues
258(3)
A Reader Asks
261(1)
Chapter Summary
262(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
263(1)
Questions and Problems
263(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
263(1)
Internet Activities
264(1)
Part 4: Money, the Economy, and Monetary Policy
Money and Banking
265(5)
Money: What Is It and How Did It Come to Be?
266(1)
Money: A Definition
266(1)
Three Functions of Money
266(1)
From a Barter to a Money Economy: The Origins of Money
267(1)
Money in a Prisoner of War Camp
267(1)
Money, Leisure, and Output
268(2)
What Gives Money Its Value?
270(1)
Defining the Money Supply
270(2)
M1
270(1)
M2
271(1)
Where Do Credit Cards Fit In?
272(1)
How Banking Developed
272(2)
The Early Bankers
272(2)
The Federal Reserve System
274(1)
The Money Creation Process
274(7)
The Bank's Reserves and More
274(1)
The Banking System and the Money Expansion Process
275(3)
Why Maximum? Answer: No Cash Leakages and Zero Excess Reserves
278(1)
Who Created What?
279(1)
It Works in Reverse: The ``Money Destruction'' Process
279(1)
We Change Our Example
280(1)
A Reader Asks
281(1)
Chapter Summary
282(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
282(1)
Questions and Problems
282(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
283(1)
Internet Activities
283(1)
The Federal Reserve System
284(13)
The Federal Reserve System
285(3)
The Structure of the Fed
285(2)
Functions of the Federal Reserve System
287(1)
Fed Tools for Controlling the Money Supply
288(6)
Open Market Operations
288(2)
The Required Reserve Ratio
290(1)
The Discount Rate
291(2)
Which Tool Does the Fed Prefer to Use?
293(1)
A Reader Asks
294(1)
Chapter Summary
295(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
295(1)
Questions and Problems
295(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
296(1)
Internet Activities
296(1)
Money and the Economy
297(27)
Money and the Price Level
298(5)
The Equation of Exchange
298(1)
From the Equation of Exchange to the Simple Quantity Theory of Money
299(1)
The Simple Quantity Theory of Money in an AD-AS Framework
300(2)
Dropping the Assumptions That V and Q Are Constant
302(1)
Monetarism
303(4)
Monetarist Views
303(1)
Monetarism and AD--AS
304(2)
The Monetarist View of the Economy
306(1)
Inflation
307(7)
One-Shot Inflation
307(3)
Continued Inflation
310(4)
Money and Interest Rates
314(6)
What Economic Variables Are Affected by a Change in the Money Supply?
314(1)
The Money Supply, the Loanable Funds Market, and Interest Rates
315(3)
So, What Happens to the Interest Rate as the Money Supply Changes?
318(1)
The Nominal and Real Interest Rates
319(1)
A Reader Asks
320(1)
Chapter Summary
321(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
322(1)
Questions and Problems
322(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
322(1)
Internet Activities
323(1)
Monetary Policy
324(22)
The Money Market
325(2)
The Demand for Money
325(1)
The Supply of Money
325(1)
Equilibrium in the Money Market
326(1)
Transmission Mechanisms
327(5)
The Keynesian Transmission Mechanism: Indirect
327(1)
The Keynesian Mechanism May Get Blocked
328(3)
The Monetarist Transmission Mechanism: Direct
331(1)
Monetary Policy and the Problem of Inflationary and Recessionary Gaps
332(3)
Monetary Policy and the Activist-Nonactivist Debate
335(4)
The Case for Activist (or Discretionary) Monetary Policy
336(1)
The Case for Nonactivist (or Rules-Based) Monetary Policy
336(3)
Nonactivist Monetary Proposals
339(3)
A Constant-Money-Growth-Rate Rule
339(1)
A Predetermined-Money-Growth-Rate Rule
339(1)
The Fed and the Taylor Rule
340(2)
A Reader Asks
342(1)
Chapter Summary
343(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
343(1)
Questions and Problems
343(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
344(1)
Internet Activities
345(1)
Part 5: Expectations and Growth
Expectations Theory and the Economy
346(19)
Phillips Curve Analysis
347(1)
The Phillips Curve
347(1)
Samuelson and Solow: The Phillips Curve Is Americanized
348(1)
The Controversy Begins: Are There Really Two Phillips Curves?
348(5)
Things Aren't Always as We Thought
348(1)
Friedman and the Natural Rate Theory
348(3)
How Do People Form Their Expectations?
351(2)
Rational Expectations and New Classical Theory
353(6)
Rational Expectations
353(1)
Do People Anticipate Policy?
353(1)
New Classical Theory: The Effects of Unanticipated and Anticipated Policy
354(1)
Policy Ineffectiveness Proposition (PIP)
355(1)
Rational Expectations and Incorrectly Anticipated Policy
355(1)
How to Fall Into a Recession Without Really Trying
356(3)
New Keynesians and Rational Expectations
359(1)
Looking at Things From the Supply Side: Real Business Cycle Theorists
359(3)
A Reader Asks
362(1)
Chapter Summary
362(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
363(1)
Questions and Problems
363(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
364(1)
Internet Activities
364(1)
Economic Growth: Resources, Technology, and Ideas
365(20)
A Few Basics About Economic Growth
366(3)
Do Economic Growth Rates Matter?
366(1)
Growth Rates in Selected Countries
366(1)
Two Types of Economic Growth
367(1)
Economic Growth and the Price Level
368(1)
What Causes Economic Growth?
369(7)
Natural Resources
369(1)
Labor
370(1)
Capital
370(1)
Technological Advances
371(1)
Free Trade as Technology
371(1)
Property Rights Structure
372(1)
Economic Freedom
373(1)
Policies to Promote Economic Growth
373(1)
Economic Growth and Special Interest Groups
374(2)
New Growth Theory
376(3)
What Was Wrong With the Old Theory? Or, What's New With New Growth Theory?
376(1)
Discovery, Ideas, and Institutions
377(1)
Expanding Our Horizons
377(2)
A Reader Asks
379(1)
Chapter Summary
379(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
380(1)
Questions and Problems
380(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
381(1)
Internet Activities
381(1)
Economics in Perspective: Debates in Macroeconomics
382(3)
The World Economy
Part 6: International Economics: Theory and Policy
International Trade
385(18)
International Trade Theory
386(3)
How Do Countries Know What to Trade?
386(3)
How Do Countries Know When They Have a Comparative Advantage?
389(1)
Trade Restrictions
389(10)
The Distributional Effects of International Trade
389(2)
Consumers' and Producers' Surplus
391(1)
The Benefits and Costs of Trade Restrictions
392(3)
If Free Trade Results in Net Gain, Why Do Nations Sometimes Restrict Trade?
395(3)
What Price Jobs?
398(1)
The World Trade Organization (WTO)
399(1)
A Reader Asks
399(1)
Chapter Summary
400(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
401(1)
Questions and Problems
401(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
401(1)
Internet Activities
402(1)
International Finance
403(30)
The Balance of Payments
404(6)
Current Account
404(4)
Capital Account
408(1)
Official Reserve Account
408(1)
Statistical Discrepancy
408(1)
What the Balance of Payments Equals
409(1)
The Foreign Exchange Market
410(2)
The Demand for Goods
410(1)
The Demand for and Supply of Currencies
411(1)
Flexible Exchange Rates
412(4)
The Equilibrium Exchange Rate
412(1)
Changes in the Equilibrium Exchange Rate
413(1)
Factors That Affect the Equilibrium Exchange Rate
414(2)
Fixed Exchange Rates
416(7)
Fixed Exchange Rates and Overvalued/Undervalued Currency
416(2)
What Is So Bad About an Overvalued Dollar?
418(1)
Government Involvement in a Fixed Exchange Rate System
419(1)
Options Under a Fixed Exchange Rate System
419(2)
The Gold Standard
421(2)
Fixed Exchange Rates Versus Flexible Exchange Rates
423(3)
Promoting International Trade
423(1)
Optimal Currency Areas
423(3)
The Current International Monetary System
426(2)
A Reader Asks
428(1)
Chapter Summary
428(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
429(1)
Questions and Problems
430(1)
Working With Numbers and Graphs
430(1)
Internet Activities
431(2)
Appendix B: Should You Major in Economics?
433(6)
Five Myths About Economics and an Economics Major
434(2)
What Awaits You as an Economics Major?
436(1)
What Do Economists Do?
437(1)
Places to Find More Information
438(1)
Concluding Remarks
438(1)
Self-Test Appendix 439(14)
Glossary 453(8)
Index 461

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