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* Examines marine biology from a unique global and evolutionary perspective
* Written in a clear, conversational style
* Filled with full-color photographs from the world's finest marine biologists
* Robust pedagogy includes "Key Concept" headings, "Basic Facts" summaries, "Going Deeper" boxes, end-of-chapter exercises, and more
Companion Website (www.oup.com/us/levinton): Maintained by the author, this comprehensive resource offers students cited references, "Key Concept" summaries, "Marine Biology Explorations" interactive tours, news updates, helpful review and study tools, and more. For adopting instructors, the site offers password-protected PowerPoint-based lecture notes and downloadable images from the text.
Instructor's Resource CD-ROM: Available to adopting instructors, the CD includes all of the resources listed above along with a Test Bank of approximately 400 questions.
Jeffrey S. Levinton is Distinguished Professor of Ecology and Evolution at Stony Brook University.
Table of Contents
PART I: PRINCIPLES OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINE ECOLOGY
Chapter 1. Sounding the Deep Marine Biology as a Discipline Historical Background of Marine Biology Observation and Hypothesis Testing Habitats and Life Habits: Some Definitions
Chapter 2. The Oceanic Environment The Open Oceans and Marginal Seas Topography and Structure of the Ocean Floor The Ocean Above the Seabed Circulation in the Open Sea: Patterns and Causes Seawater Density and Deep Circulation The Greenhouse Effect and Changing Ocean Climate Hypothesized Effects of Climate Change on Sea Level, Circulation, and Ocean Chemistry The Edge of the Sea
Chapter 3. Ecological and Evolutionary Principles of Marine Biology Ecological Interactions The Ecological Hierarchy Interactions on the Scale of Individuals The Population Level The Community Level: Structure and Interspecies Interactions The Ecosystem Level Species, Genetic Variation, Evolution, and Biogeography
PART II: MARINE ORGANISMS: FUNCTION AND ENVIRONMENT
Chapter 4. The Chemical and Physical Environment Measures of Physiological Performance Temperature HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 4.1 Global Warming: How Can We Tell If We Are at the Edge? Salinity Oxygen Light
Chapter 5. Life in a Fluid Medium Introduction Density, Viscosity, and Reynolds Number GOING DEEPER 5.1 Is Seawater Always Seawater? A Tale from the Regions of Intermediate Reynolds Number Moving Water Water Moving over Surfaces and Obstructions, Such as Organisms Using Water Motion for Biological Advantage HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 5.1 Flow Is a Drag, but It Sure Can Smell Good
Chapter 6. Reproduction, Dispersal, and Migration Ecological and Evolutionary Factors in Sex HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 6.1 A Lover and a Fighter Reproduction, Demography, and Life Cycles Migration HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 6.2 Great Oceanic Migrations that Dwarf the Serengeti Larval Dispersal: The Long and the Short Haul The Microscale: Larval Settlement, Metamorphosis, and Early Juvenile Survival The Mesoscale: Transport by Currents, Loss of Larvae, and Retention Mechanisms HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 6.3 How to Get a Free Ride Out to Sea Planktonic Larvae: Getting Through Major Obstacles to the Final Destination The Macroscale: Major Separations Lead to Biogeographic Structure Planktonic Dispersal: Why Do They Do It?
PART III: ORGANISMS OF THE OPEN SEA
Chapter 7. Plankton Introduction and Definitions Marine Bacteria and Archaea Eukaryotic Phytoplankton Zooplankton Life in the Open Sea Defense Against Predation HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 7.1 Bioluminescence, Night Vision, and Death in the Deep Diurnal Vertical Migration of the Zooplankton Molecular Techniques to Identify Planktonic Microorganismal Diversity GOING DEEPER 7.1 DNA: The Basics
Chapter 8. Marine Vertebrates and Other Nekton Cephalopods Fish Mammals HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 8.1 Whales and Wonder Dogs Marine Birds and Reptiles HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 8.2 Last March of the Penguins? Climate Change and a Bottom-Up Trophic Cascade
PART IV: PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE WATER COLUMN
Chapter 9. Processes in the Open Sea Critical Factors in Plankton Abundance Patchiness of the Plankton The Seasonal Pattern of Plankton Abundance Water Column Parameters and the Spring Diatom Increase Light GOING DEEPER 9.1 The Basics of Photosynthesis Nutrients Required by Phytoplankton Rate of Nutrient Uptake Harmful Algal Blooms HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 9.1 Angry Birds and Lost Seals: Solution of the Effects of a Mysterious Poison Phytoplankton Succession and the Paradox of Phytoplankton Coexistence The Microbial Loop: Nutrient Cycling by Viruses, Heterotrophs and Chemoautotrophs Zooplankton Grazing in the Sea GOING DEEPER 9.2 Quantification of the Effect of Grazing
Chapter 10. Productivity, Food Webs, and Global Climate Change Productivity, Food Webs, and Global Climate Change Productivity and Biomass Food Chains and Food Webs Measuring Primary Productivity GOING DEEPER 10.1 How to Calculate Productivity, Using the Oxygen Technique GOING DEEPER 10.2 Using the Radiocarbon Technique to Estimate Productivity Geographic Distribution of Primary Productivity Global Climate Change and the Global Carbon Pump Climate Change: Some Records and Effects on Oceanic Processes
PART V: ORGANISMS OF THE SEABED
Chapter 11. Benthic Microorganisms, Seaweeds, and Sea Grasses The Big Picture: Domains of Life Bacteria Eukarya Marine Protists, Fungi, and Multicellular Algae Single-Celled Forms of Eukarya Diatoms Fungi Seaweeds Sea Grasses
Chapter 12. The Diversity of Benthic Marine Invertebrates HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 12.1 From Where Did All This Invertebrate Diversity Come? Kingdom Protista: Single-Celled Organisms Phylum Porifera: Sponges, Simplest of Animals Phylum Cnidaria: Hydrozoans, Jellyfish, Anemones, and Corals Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms Phylum Nemertea: Ribbon Worms Phylum Nematoda: The Roundworms Phylum Annelida: Segmented Worms Phylum Sipuncula: Peanut Worms Phylum Ponogonophora: Gutless Wonders Phylum Mollusca: Shelled Invertebrates (Mostly) Phylum Arthropoda: Jointed Appendages The Lophophorate Phyla Phylum Bryozoa: Moss Animals Phylum Brachiopoda: Lingulas and Lampshells Phylum Phoronida: Wormlike Animals with a Lophophore Phylum Echinodermata: Animals with Fivefold Symmetry Phylum Chordata: The Sea Squirts
Chapter 13. Benthic Life Habits Life Habit Classification Life in Mud and Sand GOING DEEPER 13.1 Measuring Grain Size of Sediments Soft Sediments and the Role of Burrowers in Sedimentary Structure Deposit Feeding in Soft Sediments Suspension Feeding Life Habits on Hard Surfaces and in Moving Waters Benthic Carnivores HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 13.1 Diary of a Stinging Snail Benthic Herbivores
PART VI: COASTAL BENTHIC ENVIRONMENTS
Chapter 14. The Tidelands Rocky Shores, Soft-Substratum Shores, Marshes, Mangroves, Estuaries, and Oyster Reefs Rocky Shores and Exposed Beaches Soft-Sediment Interactions in Protected Intertidal Areas HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 14.1 The Powerful Interaction of Invasion and Climate Change Spartina Salt Marshes HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 14.2 The Molecular Sleuth, Part I: Invasion of a Very Aggressive Genotype Mangrove Forests Estuaries Oyster Reefs
Chapter 15. Sea Grass Beds, Rocky Reefs, Kelp Forests, and Coral Reefs Sea Grass Beds The Rocky Reef-Kelp Forest System HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 15.1 Reorganization of a Rocky Subtidal Ecosystem: A Cod and Lobster Tale Subtidal Rocky Reefs Kelp Forests Coral Reefs
PART VII: FROM THE SHELF TO THE DEEP SEA
Chapter 16. From the Continental Shelf to the Deep Sea The Subtidal Landscape Sampling the Subtidal Soft-Bottom Benthos Sediment Type and Benthic Distribution The Deep-Sea Gradient The Shelf-Deep-Sea Gradient Deep-Sea Biodiversity Deep-Sea Island Hotspots of High Diversity Cold-Water Deep Coral Mounds Seamounts Hot-Vent Environments, Cold Seeps, and Whale-Fish Falls Pressure Change Polar Environments Arctic Subtidal Polar Environments The Antarctic Shelf Benthos - A Special Case of Isolation
Chapter 17. Biodiversity and Conservation of the Ocean Diversity, Speciation, Extinction, and Biogeographic Factors Major Gradients of Species Diversity Explanations of Regional Diversity Differences Conserving Marine Biodiversity Marine Invasions
PART VIII. HUMAN IMPACT ON THE SEA
Chapter 18. Fisheries and Food from the Sea The Fishery Stock and Its Variability Stocks and Markers Life History and Stock Size Stock Health and Production GOING DEEPER 18.1 A Simple Model to Explain the Maximum Sustainable Yield Fishing Techniques and Their Effects Fisheries Impact and Management Hot Topics in Marine Biology 18.1 Is Fisheries Policy at Odds with Managing Marine Ecosystems? Causes and Cures of Stock Reduction GOING DEEPER 18.2 Age-Based or Life-History Stage-Based Population Models Overexploitation of Whales: A Case History Other Types of Degradation Disease as a Major Danger to Coastal Fisheries Mariculture Drugs from the Sea: Marine Natural Products
Chapter 19. Environmental Impacts of Industrial Activities and Human Populations Human Effects on the Marine Environment Measuring the Impact of Pollutants on Populations and Communities Toxic Substances HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 19.1 Is the Gulf of Mexico Adapted to Oil? Nutrient Input and Eutrophication Thermal Pollution and Power Station Fish Mortality Global Environmental Change and the Ocean