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Mastering the World of Psychology

by ; ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205457953

ISBN10:
0205457959
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $106.66
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Summary

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Table of Contents

Introduction to Psychology
1(35)
Psychology: An Introduction
3(2)
The Scientific Method
4(1)
The Goals of Psychology
4(1)
Exploring Psychology's Roots
5(3)
The Founding of Psychology
5(1)
Structuralism
6(1)
Functionalism
6(1)
Women and Minorities in Psychology
7(1)
Schools of Thought in Psychology
8(3)
Behaviorism
8(1)
Psychoanalysis
9(1)
Humanistic Psychology
9(1)
Cognitive Psychology
9(2)
Descriptive Research Methods
11(2)
Naturalistic and Laboratory Observation
11(1)
The Case Study
12(1)
Survey Research
12(1)
The Experimental Method
13(4)
Experiments and Hypothesis Testing
13(1)
Independent and Dependent Variables
14(1)
Experimental and Control Groups
15(1)
Sources of Bias in Experimental Research
15(1)
Limitations of the Experimental Method
16(1)
The Correlational Method
17(2)
The Correlation Coefficient
17(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses of Correlational Studies
17(2)
Participants in Psychological Research
19(1)
Participant-Related Bias in Psychological Research
19(1)
Protecting Research Participants' Rights
19(1)
The Use of Animals in Research
20(1)
Thinking about Theories and Research
20(2)
Evaluating Theories
20(1)
Evaluating Research
20(2)
Current Trends in Psychology
22(4)
Evolutionary Psychology
22(1)
Biological (Physiological) Psychology
23(1)
The Sociocultural Approach
24(1)
Psychological Perspectives and Eclecticism
24(2)
Psychologists at Work
26(1)
Specialties in Psychology
26(1)
Majoring in Psychology
26(1)
Looking Back
27(1)
Chapter 1 Summary
28(3)
Study Guide 1
31(5)
Biology and Behavior
36(36)
The Neurons and the Neurotransmitters
37(5)
The Neurons
37(3)
Neurotransmitters
40(1)
The Variety of Neurotransmitters
41(1)
The Central Nervous System
42(4)
The Spinal Cord
43(1)
The Brainstem
43(1)
The Cerebellum
44(1)
The Midbrain
44(1)
The Thalamus and Hypothalamus
45(1)
The Limbic System
45(1)
The Cerebrum
46(5)
Components of the Cerebrum
46(1)
The Frontal Lobes
47(2)
The Parietal Lobes
49(1)
The Occipital Lobes
50(1)
The Temporal Lobes
50(1)
The Cerebral Hemispheres
51(3)
The Left Hemisphere
51(1)
The Right Hemisphere
51(1)
The Split Brain
52(1)
Handedness, Culture, and Genes
53(1)
Discovering the Brain's Mysteries
54(2)
The EEG and the Microelectrode
55(1)
The CT Scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
55(1)
The PET Scan, fMRI, and Other Imaging Techniques
55(1)
Age and Gender Differences in the Brain
56(2)
The Developing Brain
56(1)
Gender Differences in the Adult Brain
57(1)
Aging and Other Influences on the Brain
58(1)
The Peripheral Nervous System
58(1)
The Endocrine System
59(3)
Genes and Behavioral Genetics
62(1)
The Mechanisms of Heredity
62(1)
Behavioral Genetics
63(1)
Looking Back
63(1)
Chapter 2 Summary
64(3)
Study Guide 2
67(5)
Sensation and Perception
72(36)
The Process of Sensation
74(1)
Vision
75(6)
The Eye
76(1)
Vision and the Brain
77(1)
Color Vision
78(1)
Theories of Color Vision
78(3)
Hearing
81(2)
Sound
81(1)
The Ear
82(1)
Theories of Hearing
83(1)
Smell and Taste
83(2)
Smell
83(1)
Taste
84(1)
The Skin Senses
85(2)
Touch
86(1)
Pain
86(1)
The Spatial Orientation Senses
87(1)
Influences on Perception
88(3)
Attention
88(2)
Prior Knowledge
90(1)
Cross-Modal Perception
90(1)
Principles of Perception
91(6)
Perceptual Organization and Constancy
91(1)
Depth Perception
92(1)
Perception of Motion
93(2)
Puzzling Perceptions
95(2)
Unusual Perceptual Experiences
97(1)
Subliminal Perception
97(1)
Extrasensory Perception
97(1)
Looking Back
98(1)
Chapter 3 Summary
99(3)
Study Guide 3
102(6)
States of Consciousness
108(28)
Consciousness
110(1)
Circadian Rhythms
110(1)
The Influence of Circadian Rhythms
110(1)
Disruptions in Circadian Rhythms
110(1)
Sleep
111(7)
NREM and REM Sleep
111(1)
Sleep Cycles
112(1)
Variations in Sleep
113(1)
Explaining the Function of Sleep
114(1)
Sleep Deprivation
114(1)
Dreams
115(1)
Interpreting Dreams
116(1)
Sleep Disorders
117(1)
Meditation and Hypnosis
118(3)
Meditation
118(1)
Hypnosis
119(2)
Culture and Altered States of Consciousness
121(1)
Psychoactive Drugs
121(8)
How Drugs Affect the Brain
122(1)
Substance Abuse
122(1)
Drug Dependence
123(1)
The Behavioral Effects of Psychoactive Drugs
124(5)
Looking Back
129(1)
Chapter 4 Summary
130(2)
Study Guide 4
132(4)
Learning
136(32)
Classical Conditioning
138(7)
Pavlov and the Process of Classical Conditioning
138(2)
Changing Conditioned Responses
140(2)
John Watson and Emotional Conditioning
142(1)
The Cognitive Perspective
143(1)
Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life
143(2)
Operant Conditioning
145(10)
Thorndike and the Law of Effect
145(1)
B. F. Skinner and the Process of Operant Conditioning
146(1)
Reinforcement
146(1)
Schedules of Reinforcement
147(2)
Variations in Operant Conditioning
149(2)
Punishment
151(2)
Escape and Avoidance Learning
153(1)
Applications of Operant Conditioning
154(1)
Cognitive Learning
155(5)
Learning by Insight
155(1)
Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps
156(1)
Observational Learning
157(3)
Looking Back
160(1)
Chapter 5 Summary
161(2)
Study Guide 5
163(5)
Memory
168(31)
Remembering
170(4)
The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model
170(3)
Three Kinds of Memory Tasks
173(1)
The Nature of Remembering
174(8)
Memory as a Reconstruction
174(2)
Eyewitness Testimony
176(1)
Recovering Repressed Memories
177(2)
Flashbulb Memories
179(1)
Memory and Culture
180(1)
The Serial Position Effect
181(1)
Context and Memory
181(1)
Biology and Memory
182(3)
The Hippocampus and Hippocampal Region
182(2)
Neuronal Changes and Memory
184(1)
Hormones and Memory
184(1)
Forgetting
185(4)
Ebbinghaus and the First Experimental Studies on Forgetting
185(1)
The Causes of Forgetting
186(3)
Improving Memory
189(1)
Looking Back
190(2)
Chapter 6 Summary
192(2)
Study Guide 6
194(5)
Cognition, Language, and Intelligence
199(35)
Cognition
201(6)
Imagery and Concepts
201(1)
Decision Making
202(3)
Problem Solving
205(2)
Artificial Intelligence
207(1)
Language
207(5)
The Structure of Language
208(1)
Animal Language
208(2)
Language and Thinking
210(1)
Learning a Second Language
211(1)
Intelligence
212(15)
The Nature of Intelligence
212(3)
Measuring Intelligence
215(1)
Requirements of Good Tests
216(1)
The Range of Intelligence
217(2)
The IQ Controversy
219(3)
Race and IQ
222(2)
Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities
224(1)
Creativity
225(2)
Looking Back
227(1)
Chapter 7 Summary
228(2)
Study Guide 7
230(4)
Human Development
234(42)
Theories of Development
236(11)
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
236(5)
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Approach
241(1)
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
241(4)
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
245(2)
Prenatal Development
247(2)
Infancy
249(5)
Perceptual and Motor Development
249(2)
Temperament
251(1)
Attachment
252(2)
Early and Middle Childhood
254(4)
Language Development
254(1)
Socialization
255(2)
Gender Role Development
257(1)
Adolescence
258(2)
Puberty and Sexual Behavior
258(1)
Social Relationships
259(1)
Early and Middle Adulthood
260(2)
Physical Changes
260(1)
Intellectual Capacity
260(1)
Social Development
261(1)
Later Adulthood
262(4)
Physical Changes
262(1)
Cognitive Changes
263(1)
Alzheimer's Disease and Other Types of Dementia
264(1)
Social Adjustment
264(1)
Successful Aging
265(1)
Death and Dying
266(1)
Looking Back
267(2)
Chapter 8 Summary
269(2)
Study Guide 8
271(5)
Motivation, Emotion, and Human Sexuality
276(31)
Explaining Motivation
278(5)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
278(1)
Biological Approaches to Motivation
279(2)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
281(1)
Achievement Motivation
281(2)
Hunger
283(4)
Internal and External Cues
283(1)
Explaining Variations in Body Weight
283(2)
Eating Disorders
285(2)
Emotion
287(6)
Explaining the Components of Emotion
287(2)
Emotion and the Brain
289(1)
The Expression of Emotion
290(2)
Gender Differences in Emotion
292(1)
Emotional Intelligence
292(1)
Human Sexuality
293(6)
Sexual Attitudes and Behavior
293(3)
Sexual Desire and Arousal
296(1)
Sexual Orientation
297(2)
Looking Back
299(2)
Chapter 9 Summary
301(1)
Study Guide 9
302(5)
Health and Stress
307(32)
Sources of Stress
309(7)
Holmes and Rahe's Social Readjustment Rating Scale
309(2)
Daily Hassles and Uplifts
311(1)
Making Choices
312(1)
Unpredictability and Lack of Control
312(1)
Stress in the Workplace
312(2)
Catastrophic Events
314(1)
Racism and Stress
315(1)
Responding to Stress
316(2)
Selye and the General Adaptation Syndrome
316(1)
Lazarus's Cognitive Theory of Stress
316(1)
Coping Strategies
317(1)
Health and Illness
318(7)
Two Approaches to Health and Illness
318(1)
Coronary Heart Disease
319(2)
Cancer
321(1)
The Immune System and Stress
322(1)
Personal Factors Reducing the Impact of Stress and Illness
323(1)
Gender, Ethnicity, and Health
324(1)
Lifestyle and Health
325(7)
Smoking and Health
325(1)
Alcohol Abuse
326(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
327(3)
Exercise
330(1)
Alternative Medicine
331(1)
Looking Back
332(1)
Chapter 10 Summary
333(2)
Study Guide 10
335(4)
Personality Theory and Assessment
339(28)
Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
340(4)
The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious
341(1)
The Id, the Ego, and the Superego
341(1)
Defense Mechanisms
342(1)
The Psychosexual Stages of Development
342(2)
Evaluating Freud's Contribution
344(1)
The Neo-Freudians
344(2)
Learning Theories and Personality
346(2)
Humanistic Personality Theories
348(1)
Trait Theories
349(3)
Early Trait Theories
349(1)
Factor Models of Personality
350(1)
The Situation versus Trait Debate
351(1)
Nature, Nurture, and Personality
352(3)
Twin and Adoption Studies
352(2)
Personality and Culture
354(1)
Personality Assessment
355(4)
Observation, Interviews, and Rating Scales
355(1)
Personality Inventories
355(3)
Projective Tests
358(1)
Looking Back
359(2)
Chapter 11 Summary
361(2)
Study Guide 11
363(4)
Psychological Disorders
367(29)
What Is Abnormal?
369(4)
Defining Mental Disorders
369(1)
Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
370(1)
Explaining Psychological Disorders
371(2)
Anxiety Disorders
373(4)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
373(1)
Panic Disorder
373(1)
Phobias
374(2)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
376(1)
Mood Disorders
377(4)
Major Depressive Disorder
377(1)
Culture, Gender, and Depression
377(1)
Bipolar Disorder
378(1)
Causes of Mood Disorders
379(1)
Suicide and Race, Gender, and Age
380(1)
Schizophrenia
381(3)
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia
381(1)
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
382(1)
Brain Abnormalities in Schizophrenia
382(1)
Types of Schizophrenia
382(2)
Risk Factors in Schizophrenia
384(1)
Other Psychological Disorders
384(5)
Somatoform Disorders
384(1)
Dissociative Disorders
385(1)
Sexual Disorders
386(1)
Personality Disorders
386(3)
Looking Back
389(1)
Chapter 12 Summary
390(2)
Study Guide 12
392(4)
Therapies
396(28)
Insight Therapies
397(3)
Psychodynamic Therapies
398(1)
Humanistic Therapies
399(1)
Gestalt Therapy
399(1)
Relationship Therapies
400(2)
Interpersonal Therapy
400(1)
Family Therapy and Couples Therapy
400(1)
Group Therapy
401(1)
Behavior Therapies
402(4)
Behavior Modification Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning
402(1)
Behavior Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning
403(2)
Participant Modeling
405(1)
Cognitive Therapies
406(2)
Rational-Emotive Therapy
406(1)
Beck's Cognitive Therapy
407(1)
Biological Therapies
408(3)
Drug Therapy
408(2)
Electroconvulsive Therapy
410(1)
Psychosurgery
411(1)
Evaluating the Therapies
411(3)
Culturally Sensitive and Gender-Sensitive Therapy
414(2)
Looking Back
416(2)
Chapter 13 Summary
418(1)
Study Guide 13
419(5)
Social Psychology
424
Social Perception
426(1)
Impression Formation
426(1)
Attribution
427(1)
Attraction
427(3)
Factors Influencing Attraction
428(1)
Physical Attractiveness
428(1)
Romantic Attraction and Mating
429(1)
Conformity, Obedience, and Compliance
430(2)
Conformity
430(1)
Obedience
431(1)
Compliance
432(1)
Group Influence
432(3)
Social Facilitation
433(1)
Social Loafing
433(1)
Social Roles
434(1)
Attitudes and Attitude Change
435(3)
Attitudes
435(1)
Cognitive Dissonance
436(1)
Persuasion
437(1)
Prosocial Behavior
438(2)
Reasons for Helping
438(1)
The Bystander Effect
439(1)
Aggression
440(4)
Biological Factors in Aggression
440(2)
Other Influences on Aggression
442(1)
The Social Learning Theory of Aggression
443(1)
Prejudice and Discrimination
444(3)
The Roots of Prejudice and Discrimination
444(2)
Is Prejudice Decreasing?
446(1)
Looking Back
447(1)
Chapter 14 Summary
448(2)
Study Guide 14
450
Appendix: Statistical Methods 1(1)
Answers to Study Guide Questions 1(1)
References 1(1)
Glossary 1(1)
Name Index 1(1)
Subject Index 1(1)
Credits 1(1)
Practice Tests 1


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