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Summary
Help your students learn to calculate dosages accurately with this easy-to-use pocket guide.
Packed with real clinical examples and practice problems, Math for Nurses includes a review of basic math skills, measurement systems, and drug calculations/preparations, making it ideal for use in clinical settings or as a study aid. The book’s step-by-step approach coupled with frequent examples that illustrate problem-solving helps students develop the knowledge and skills they need to calculate dosages effectively and improve the accuracy of drug delivery.
Highlights of the 9th Edition
Complete: This is the only dosage calculation pocket reference available today that covers the steps of drug preparation.
Comprehensive: All methods of dosage calculations are used, including ratio, proportion, formula, and dimensional analysis.
Hands-on: Practice problems throughout the text and end-of-chapter and end-of-unit review questions aid students' application and recall of material.
Practical: A handy pull-out quick-reference card contains basic equivalents, conversion factors, and math formulas.
Interactive: Virtual Chalkboard tutorials (followed by quizzes) solve problems step-by-step using three different methods with a voice over that explains each step.
Author Biography
Mary Jo Boyer, RN, PhD
Vice Provost and Vice President
Branch Campus Operations
Adjunct Nursing Faculty
Former Dean and Professor of Nursing
Delaware County Community College
Media, Pennsylvania
Table of Contents
UNIT 1 Basic Mathematics Review and Refresher 1 1 Preassessment Test: Mathematics Skills Review 3 2 Fractions 9 The Denominator of a Fraction 10 The Numerator of a Fraction 12 Concept of Size 13 Types of Fractions and Value 15 Equivalent or Equal Fractions 17 Simplify or Reduce Fractions to Their Lowest Terms 18 Find the Least Common Denominator 20 Conversion 21 Adding Fractions 24 Adding Mixed Numbers 28 Subtracting Fractions 29 Subtracting Mixed Numbers 31 Multiplying Fractions 36 Dividing Fractions 38 End of Chapter Review 42 3 Decimals 45 Compare Decimal Values 49 Adding Decimals 51 Subtracting Decimals 52 Multiplying Decimals 53 Multiplying by 10, 100, or 1,000 55 Dividing Decimals 55 Dividing by 10, 100, or 1,000 57 Changing Fractions to Decimals 60 Changing Decimals to Fractions 61 Rounding Off Decimals 62 End of Chapter Review 64 4 Percents, Ratio, and Proportion 67 Percent 68 Fractions and Percents 69 Decimals and Percents 72 Ratio and Proportion 76 Use of Ratio and Proportion: Solving for x 79 End of Chapter Review 88 End of Unit 1 Review 93 UNIT 2 Measurement Systems 97 5 The Metric, Household, and Apothecary Systems of Measurement 99 The Metric System 100 Meter—Length 102 Liter—Volume 102 Gram—Weight 102 The Apothecary System 103 Household Measurements 106 Converting Within the Same System: Metric System 110 Converting Within the Same Systems: Household and Apothecary 113 End of Chapter Review 116 6 Approximate Equivalents and System Conversions 119 Dosage Calculations: Converting Between Systems 120 End of Chapter Review 125 End of Unit 2 Review 128 UNIT 3 Dosage Calculations 131 7 Medication Labels 134 Interpreting a Medication Label 135 End of Chapter Review 142 8 Oral Dosage Calculations 145 Calculating Oral Dosages 147 Dosage Calculations for Medications in the Same System and the Same Unit of Measurement 156 Dosage Calculations for Medications in the Same System but with Different Units of Measurement 160 Dosage Calculations for Medications in Different Systems 163 End of Chapter Review 168 9 Parenteral Dosage Calculations 172 Packaging, Syringes, and Needles 173 Types of Injections 176 Dosage Calculations for Medications in the Same System and the Same Unit of Measurement 177 Dosage Calculations for Medications in the Same System but Having Different Units of Measurement 181 Dosage Calculations for Medications in Different Systems 182 Penicillin 184 End of Chapter Review 186 10 Intravenous Therapy 191 Key Terms 192 Intravenous Fluids 193 Intravenous Infusion Sets and Lines 196 Infusion Devices 198 Calculate Intravenous Fluid Administration 199 Calculate Infusion Time in Hours and Minutes 202 Calculate Flow Rate in Milliliters per Hour for Gravity or Pump Infusions 203 Calculate IV Drip Rate or Drops per Minute 206 Constant Factors 210 Intermittent Intravenous Administration 212 End of Chapter Review 218 11 Intravenous Therapies 221 Calculate Flow Rate (Milliliters per Hour) When Dosage Is Known 223 Calculate Dosage, per Hour or per Minute, When Flow Rate Is Known 228 Titrate IV Fluids 233 End of Chapter Review 235 12 Insulin 242 Insulin Preparation 243 Types of Insulin 244 Insulin Delivery Devices 247 Insulin Administration 252 Preparing Insulin for Injection 253 Mixing Two Types of Insulin in One Syringe 254 Continuous Intravenous Insulin Infusion 258 End of Chapter Review 260 13 Heparin Preparation and Dosage Calculations 264 Heparin for Subcutaneous Injection 268 Heparin for Intravenous Infusion 271 Calculate Heparin Flow Rate (Milliliters per Hour) When Units of Heparin per Hour Are Ordered 272 Calculate Heparin Dosage (Units per Hour) When Heparin Is Ordered in Milliliters per Hour 275 Heparin Administration Based on Weight 276 Weight-Based Heparin Protocol 278 End of Chapter Review 283 14 Pediatric Dosage Calculations and Intravenous Therapy 289 Weight Conversions 293 Estimate Safe Total Daily Dosage 298 Calculate Oral and Parenteral Dosages Based on Body Weight (Milligrams per Kilogram) 300 Estimate Body Surface Area 304 Dosage Calculations Based on Body Surface Area 305 Calculate Intravenous Flow Rate 312 Calculate Intermittent Intravenous Medication Administration (Intravenous Piggyback [IVPB]) 314 Calculate IV Push (IVP) Medications 320 End of Chapter Review 322 15 Solutions and Drug Reconstitution 330 Ratio and Proportion 331 Reconstitution: Preparing Injections Packaged as Powders 332 Preparing an Oral or Enteral Feeding 338 Preparing a Topical Irrigating Solution 340 End of Chapter Review 341 End of Unit 3 Review 343 Answers 353 Appendices A. Roman Numerals 377 B. Rounding Off Decimals 380 C. Abbreviations for Drug Preparation and Administration 382 D. Intradermal Injections 386 E. Subcutaneous Injections 388 F. Intramuscular Injections 390 G. Z-Track Injections 392 H. Pediatric Intramuscular Injections 395 I. Nursing Concerns for Pediatric Drug Administration 397 J. Nursing Considerations for Critical Care Drug Administration 399 K. Nursing Considerations for Medication Administration for the Trauma Patient 401 L. Nursing Concerns for Geriatric Drug Administration 403 M. Needleless Intravenous System 406 N. Temperature Conversions: Fahrenheit and Celsius Scales 408 Index 411