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Media Essentialsis a new kind of introductory text. It's built to help students focus on the fundamentals, so that no matter how the media evolves, students can understand what's really going on. Brought to you by best-selling authors Richard Campbell, Christopher R. Martin, and Bettina Fabos, the book distills the essential information on media industries and major concepts, incorporates the authors' accessible critical approach, and gives students all the study tools they need to succeed in the course and to be savvy consumers. And all of this in a brief, attractive format -- for a very attractive price.
RICHARD CAMPBELL, director of the journalism program at Miami University, is the author of “60 Minutes” and the News: A Mythology for Middle America (1991) and coauthor of Cracked Coverage: Television News, the Anti-Cocaine Crusade and the Reagan Legacy (1994). Campbell has written for numerous publications including Columbia Journalism Review, Journal ofCommunication, and Media Studies Journal and he has served on the editorial boards of Critical Studies in Mass Communication and Television Quarterly. As a writer and media critic, he is a frequent speaker on public radio and television.
CHRISTOPHER R. MARTIN is a professor of journalism at University of Northern Iowa and author of Framed! Labor and the Corporate Media (2003). He has written articles and reviews on journalism, televised sports, the Internet, and labor for several publications, including Communication Research, Journal of Communication, Journal of Communication Inquiry, Labor Studies Journal, and Culture, Sport, and Society. He is also on the editorial board of the Journalism of Communication Inquiry.
BETTINA FABOS, an award-winning video maker and former print reporter, is an associate professor of visual communication and interactive media studies at University of Northern Iowa. She is the author of Wrong Turn on the Information Superhighway: Education and the Commercialized Internet (2003). Her areas of expertise include critical media literacy, Internet commercialization, the role of the internet in education, and media representations of popular culture. Her work has been published in Library Trends, Review of Educational Research, and Harvard Educational Review.
Table of Contents
PART ONE: MASS MEDIA INDUSTRIES
Chapter 1- Mass Communication: A Critical Approach THE EVOLUTION OF MASS COMMUNICATION The Oral and Written Eras The Print Era Media Convergence MASS MEDIA AND THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION The Evolution of a New Mass Medium Debating Media's Role in Everyday Life MEDIA LITERACY: WAYS OF UNDERSTANDING The Linear Model The Cultural Model The Social Scientific Model A CLOSER LOOK AT THE CULTURAL MODEL: SURVEYING THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE The “Culture as Skyscraper” Metaphor The “Culture as Map” Metaphor Tracing Changes in Values A CLOSER LOOK AT THE SOCIAL SCIENTIFIC MODEL: GATHERING DATA Comparing Analyses of Cancer News Coverage Gathering and Analyzing Data CRITIQUING MEDIA Evaluating Cultural and Social Scientific Research Conducting Our Own Critiques Benefits of a Critical Perspective Media Literacy Case Study: Bedouins, Camels, Transistors, and Coke CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
Chapter 2- Books and the Power of Print THE EARLY HISTORY OF BOOKS: FROM PAPYRUS TO PAPERBACKS Papyrus, Parchment, and Codex: The Development Stage of Books Writing and Printing Innovations: Books Enter the Entrepreneurial Stage The Printing Press and the Publishing Industry: Books Become a Mass Medium THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN PUBLISHING Early Publishing Houses The Conglomerates The Structure of Publishing Houses TYPES OF BOOKS: TRADITION MEETS TECHNOLOGY Print Books Electronic and Digital Publishing THE ECONOMICS OF THE BOOK INDUSTRY
Money Out BOOKS IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY Censorship Media Literacy Case Study: Banned Books and “Family Values” Declining Readership Physical Deterioration CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
Chapter 3- Newspapers and the Rise and Decline of Modern Journalism THE EARLY HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press The Penny Press: Becoming a Mass Medium Yellow Journalism THE EVOLUTION OF NEWSPAPERS: COMPETING MODELS OF MODERN PRINT JOURNALISM “Objectivity” in Modern Journalism Interpretive Journalism Literary Journalism Journalism in the Technology Age CATEGORIZING NEWS AND U.S. NEWSPAPERS Small Local Papers: Focus on Consensus Regional and National Newspapers: Focus on Conflict Ethnic and Minority Newspapers The Underground Press THE ECONOMICS OF NEWSPAPERS Money In Money Out CHALLENGES FACING NEWSPAPERS Declining Readership Decreasing Competition Media Literacy Case Study: Newspaper Circulation Up! (For Free Papers) Joint Operating Agreement Newspaper Chains Going Digital Blogs Citizen Journalism NEWSPAPERS IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
Chapter 4- Magazines in the Age of Specialization THE EARLY HISTORY OF MAGAZINES The First Magazines: European Origins Magazines in 18th Century America: The Voices of Revolution Magazines in 19th Century America: Specialization and General Interest Going National as the 20th Century Approaches THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN AMERICAN MAGAZINES Distribution and Production Costs Plummet Muckrackers Expose Social Ills General-Interest Magazines Hit Their Stride Media Literacy Case Study: The Evolution of Photojournalism General-Interest Magazines Decline TYPES OF MAGAZINES Men's and Women's Magazines Entertainment, Leisure, and Sports Magazines Age-Specific Magazines Elite Magazines Minority Magazines Alternative Magazines Supermarket Tabloids Online Magazines THE ECONOMICS OF MAGAZINES Money In Money Out MAGAZINES IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
Chapter 5- Sound Recording and Popular Music THE EARLY HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF SOUND RECORDING From Cylinders to Disks: Sound Recording Becomes a Mass Medium From Records to Tapes to CDs: Analog Goes Digital From CDs to MP3s: Sound Recording in the Internet Age
Media Literacy Case Study: The Rise of MP3s and Digital Downloading Records and Radio: A Rocky Relationship U.S. POPULAR MUSIC AND THE RISE OF ROCK The Rise of Pop Music Rock and Roll is Here to Stay Rock Blurs Additional Boundaries Rock and Roll Embattled THE EVOLUTION OF POP MUSIC The British Are Coming! Motown: The Home of Soul Folk and Psychedelic: Protest and Drugs Punk, Grunge, and Alternative Rock: New Genres on the Horizon Hip-Hop Redraws Musical Lines THE ECONOMICS OF SOUND RECORDING A Shifting Power Structure Making and Spending Money SOUND RECORDING IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
Chapter 6- Popular Radio and the Origins of Broadcasting THE EARLY HISTORY OF RADIO Inventors Paving the Way: Morse, Maxwell, and Hertz Innovators in Wireless: Marconi, Fessenden, and De Forest Early Regulation of Wireless/Radio The Networks The Radio Act of 1927 The Golden Age of Radio THE EVOLUTION OF RADIO Transistors: Making Radios Portable The FM Revolution The Rise of Format Radio THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTEMPORARY RADIO Format Specialization Media Literacy Case Study: Host: The Origins of Talk Radio Nonprofit Radio and NPR Radio Goes Digital THE ECONOMICS OF COMMERCIAL RADIO Money In and Money Out From Payola to Pay-for-Play Radio Ownership: From Diversity to Consolidation RADIO IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
Chapter 7- Movies and the Impact of Images THE EARLY HISTORY OF MOVIES Advances in Film Technology Telling Stories: The Introduction of Narrative The Arrival of Nickelodeons THE EVOLUTION OF THE HOLLYWOOD STUDIO SYSTEM Edison's Attempt to Control the Industry A Closer Look at the Three Pillars HOLLYWOOD'S GOLDEN AGE: THE DEVELOPMENT OF STYLE Narrative Techniques in the Silent Era Augmenting Images with Sound Inside the Hollywood System: Setting the Standard for Narrative Style Media Literacy Case Study: Breaking through Hollywood's Race Barrier Outside the Hollywood System: Providing Alternatives THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE STUDIO SYSTEM The Hollywood Ten The Paramount Decision Flight to the Suburbs Television Home Entertainment THE ECONOMICS OF THE MOVIE BUSINESS Money In Money Out New Uncertainties in the Digital Age THE MOVIES IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
Chapter 8- Television, Cable, and Specialization in Visual Culture THE EARLY HISTORY OF TELEVISION Becoming a Mass Medium Controlling TV Content Staining TV's Reputation Introducing Cable THE EVOLUTION OF NETWORK PROGRAMMING Information: Network News Entertainment: Comedy Entertainment: Drama Talk Shows and TV News Magazines Reality TV Public Television THE EVOLUTION OF CABLE PROGRAMMING Media Literacy Case Study: The United Segments of America: Niche Marketing in Cable Basic Cable Premium Cable REGULATORY CHALLENGES FACING TELEVISION AND CABLE Restricting Broadcast Networks' Control Reining in Cable's Growth-for Awhile TELEVISION AND CABLE IN THE DIGITAL AGE Home Video The Internet DBS Cell Phones, Mobile Video, and WiMax THE ECONOMICS OF TELEVISION AND CABLE Money In Money Out Ownership and Consolidation TELEVISION IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
Chapter 9- The Internet and New Technologies: The Media Converge THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE INTERNET Military Functions, Civic Roots The Net Widens THE EVOLUTION OF THE INTERNET: FROM WEB 1.0 TO WEB 2.0 AND BEYOND Web 1.0 Web 2.0 Web 3.0 THE ECONOMICS OF THE INTERNET Money In
Money Out The Noncommercial Web SECURITY AND APPROPRIATENESS ON THE INTERNET Information Security: What's Private? Personal Safety: Online Predators Appropriateness: What Should Be Online? THE INTERNET IN A DEMOCRACRATIC SOCIETY Access: Closing the Digital Divide Ownership and Customization Media Literacy Case Study: Net Neutrality CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
PART TWO: MEDIA FRAMING INDUSTRIES
Chapter 10- Advertising and Commercial Culture EARLY HISTORY OF AMERICAN ADVERTISING: 1850s TO 1950s The First Advertising Agencies Retail Stores: Giving Birth to Branding Patent Medicines: Making Outrageous Claims Department Stores: Fueling a Consumer Culture Transforming American Society Early Regulation of Advertising THE EVOLUTION OF U.S. ADVERTISING: 1950s TO TODAY Visual Design Comes to the Fore New Breeds of Advertising Agencies Are Born Ad Agencies Develop a Distinctive Structure The Internet Alters the Ad Landscape PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES IN CONTEMPORARY ADVERTISING Using Conventional Persuasive Strategies Associating Products with Values Telling Stories Placing Products in Media COMMERCIAL SPEECH AND REGULATION OF ADVERTISING Targeting Children and Teens Triggering Anorexia and Overeating Promoting Smoking Promoting Drinking Hawking Drugs Directly to Consumers Monitoring the Advertising Industry ADVERTISING IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
Chapter 11- Public Relations and Framing the Message EARLY HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS Age of the Press Agent: P. T. Barnum and Buffalo Bill Business Adopts Press Agent Methods Professional Public Relations Emerges THE EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC RELATIONS PR Agencies and In-House PR Services A Closer Look at Public-Relations Functions TENSIONS BETWEEN PUBLIC RELATIONS AND THE PRESS Elements of Interdependence Journalists' Skepticism About PR Practices Shaping PR's Image PUBLIC RELATIONS IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
PART THREE: MEDIA EXPRESSIONS
Chapter 12- The Culture of Journalism: Values, Ethics, and Democracy MODERN JOURNALISM IN THE INFORMATION AGE What Is News? Values in American Journalism
ETHICS AND THE NEWS MEDIA Ethical Predicaments Resolving Ethical Dilemmas REPORTING RITUALS Focusing on the Present Relying on Experts Creating and Balancing Story Conflict Acting as Adversaries JOURNALISM IN THE AGE OF TV AND THE INTERNET Comparing Print and TV News Adapting to the Internet The Power of Visual Language ALTERNATIVE MODELS: PUBLIC JOURNALISM AND FAKE NEWS Public Journalism Fake News JOURNALISM IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
Chapter 13- Legal Controls and Freedom of Expression THE ORIGINS OF FREE EXPRESSION AND FREE PRESS A Closer Look at the First Amendment Interpretations of “Free Expression” The Evolution of Censorship Unprotected Forms of Expression First Amendment versus Sixth Amendment THE FIRST AMENDMENT AND FILM Citizens and Lawmakers Control the Movies The Movie Industry Regulates Itself THE FIRST AMENDMENT, BROADCASTING, AND THE INTERNET
Two Pivotal Court Cases Dirty Words, Indecent Speech, and Hefty Fines Political Broadcasts and Equal Opportunity Fair Coverage of Controversial Issues Communication Policy and the Internet THE FIRST AMENDMENT IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
Chapter 14- Media Economics and the Global Marketplace ANALYZING THE MEDIA ECONOMY How Media Industries Are Structured How Media Companies Operate How the Internet Is Changing the Game THE TRANSITION TO AN INFORMATION ECONOMY Deregulation Trumps Regulation The Rise of Media Powerhouses Business Trends in Media Industries The Age of Hegemony SPECIALIZATION AND GLOBAL MARKETS The Rise of Specialization and Synergy Disney: A Postmodern Media Conglomerate The Growth of Global Audiences SOCIAL ISSUES IN MEDIA ECONOMICS The Limits of Antitrust Laws A Vast Silence Cultural Imperialism THE MEDIA MARKETPLACE IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY CHAPTER ESSENTIALS
Chapter 15- Social Scientific and Cultural Approaches to Research EARLY MEDIA RESEARCH METHODS Propaganda Analysis Public-Opinion Research Social-Psychology Studies Marketing Research SOCIAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Early Theories of Media Effects Early Approaches to Social Scientific Media Research Contemporary Media-Effects Theories Evaluating Social Scientific Research CULTURAL APPROACHES TO MEDIA RESEARCH Early Developments in Cultural Studies Media Research Contemporary Cultural Studies Approaches Evaluating Cultural Studies Research MEDIA RESEARCH IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY CHAPTER ESSENTIALS