9780205355563

Mind, Brain, and Drug An Introduction to Psychopharmacology

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780205355563

  • ISBN10:

    0205355560

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 9/12/2005
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

Covering the basic principles of psychopharmacology, this textbook presents psychopharmacology and drugs of abuse in a readily understood manner. With all of the latest research and a straightforward, engaging writing style, Hedges offers complete coverage of the field without being unnecessarily detailed-and, as a result, provides students with a thorough introduction to this increasingly important area.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
SECTION 1 THE NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF PSYCHOTROPIC DRUG ACTION 1(94)
CHAPTER ONE Neurons, Synapses, and the Brain: A Brief Introduction to Neuroscience
3(24)
NEURONS
4(5)
The Cell Body
5(1)
Receptors
6(1)
Dendrites
6(1)
Axons
7(1)
The Action Potential
7(2)
Types of Neurons
9(1)
THE SYNAPSE
9(2)
Symmetric and Asymmetric Synapses
10(1)
Synaptic Neurotransmitter Release
10(1)
NEUROGLIAL CELLS
11(2)
Oligodendrocytes and Myelin
13(1)
Astrocytes
13(1)
Microglial Cells
13(1)
OVERVIEW OF NEUROANATOMY
13(8)
The Peripheral Nervous System
14(1)
The Central Nervous System
15(6)
SUMMARY
21(1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
22(1)
REFERENCES
22(5)
CHAPTER TWO Neurotransmitters and Receptors
27(20)
SEROTONIN
32(2)
NOREPINEPHRINE
34(1)
DOPAMINE
35(2)
ACETYLCHOLINE
37(1)
GAMMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID (GABA)
38(1)
GLUTAMATE
38(2)
OPIOID NEUROPEPTIDES
40(1)
MELATONIN
40(1)
SUMMARY
41(1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
42(1)
REFERENCES
42(5)
CHAPTER THREE Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamies
47(17)
PHARMACOKINETICS
48(5)
Route of Administration
48(1)
Absorption
49(1)
Distribution
50(1)
Metabolism and Elimination
51(1)
Drug Half-Life and Steady State
52(1)
PHARMACODYNAMICS
53(3)
Potency and Efficacy
54(1)
Dose-Response Curves
55(1)
DRUG CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENT
56(1)
TOLERANCE AND DEPENDENCE
57(2)
SUMMARY
59(1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
60(1)
REFERENCES
60(4)
CHAPTER FOUR The Biology of Mental Disorders
64(31)
THE BIOLOGY OF MOOD DISORDERS
66(7)
Genetics of Mood Disorders
66(2)
The Monoamine Hypothesis
68(1)
Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
68(1)
The Hypothalmic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor
69(1)
Neurotrophic Factors
70(1)
Immunological and Inflammatory Factors
70(1)
Brain-Reward Systems
70(1)
Perinatal Complications
71(1)
Kindling in Bipolar Disorder
71(1)
The Neuroanatomy of Affective Disorders
71(1)
Medical and Neurological Problems in Depression
72(1)
THE BIOLOGY OF ANXIETY DISORDERS
73(6)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
73(1)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (0CD)
73(1)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
74(2)
Panic Disorder
76(1)
Social Phobia
77(2)
THE BIOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
79(4)
Genetics
79(1)
Risk Factors for the Development of Schizophrenia
79(2)
Neuroanatomy of Schizophrenia
81(1)
The Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia
82(1)
THE BIOLOGY OF ATTENTION-DEFICIT, HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
83(4)
SUMMARY
87(1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
88(1)
REFERENCES
88(7)
SECTION 2 THE PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS: THEIR PHARMACOLOGY, METABOLISM, INTERACTIONS, ADVERSE EFFECTS, AND THERAPEUTIC USES 95(32)
CHAPTER FIVE Sedative Hypnotics, Anxiolytics, and Alcohol
97(30)
THE BARBITURATES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS
98(3)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
98(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
99(1)
Adverse Effects
99(1)
Uses
99(2)
BENZODIAZEPINES
101(4)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
101(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
102(1)
Adverse Effects
102(1)
Uses
103(2)
SODIUM OXYBATE
105(2)
ZOLPIDEM (AMBIEN) AND ZALEPLON (SONATA)
107(1)
PREGABALIN
108(1)
BUSPIRONE (BUSPAR)
108(2)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
108(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
109(1)
Adverse Effects
109(1)
Uses
109(1)
ALCOHOL
110(8)
Mechanism of Action and Pharmacology
111(1)
Alcohol-Drug Interactions
112(1)
Physiologic and Cognitive Effects of Alcohol
113(1)
Teratogenic Effects of Alcohol
114(1)
Alcoholism and Its Pharmacological Treatment
115(3)
SUMMARY
118(1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
119(1)
REFERENCES
119(8)
CHAPTER SIX The Psychostimulants, Amphetamines, Cocaine, Caffeine, and Nicotine 127(34)
METHYLPHENIDATE (RITALIN AND OTHERS), PEMOLINE (CYLERT), AND PHENTERMINE
129(3)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
129(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
130(1)
Adverse Effects
131(1)
MODAFINIL (PROVIGIL)
132(1)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
132(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
132(1)
Adverse Effects
133(1)
THE AMPHETÁMINES
133(2)
Mechanism of Action
133(1)
Behavioral Effects
134(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
134(1)
Adverse Effects
134(1)
COCAINE
135(2)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
136(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
136(1)
Behavioral and Physiological Effects
136(1)
ATOMOXETINE (STRATTERA)
137(1)
Mechanism of Action and Pharmacology
137(1)
Adverse Effects
138(1)
USES OF METHYLPHENIDATE, PEMOLINE, PHENTERMINE, MODAFINIL, ATOMOXETINE, AND THE AMPHETAMINES
138(6)
Attention-Deficit, Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)
138(4)
Depression
142(1)
Narcolepsy
142(1)
Non-Narcolepsy–Associated Daytime Drowsiness
142(1)
Appetite Suppression
142(1)
Anesthesia
143(1)
CAFFEINE
144(3)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
144(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
145(1)
Behavioral Effects of Caffeine
145(1)
Physiological Effects of Caffeine
146(1)
NICOTINE
147(4)
Mechanism of Action and Pharmacology
150(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
150(1)
Pharmacological Approaches to Nicotine Dependence
150(1)
SUMMARY
151(2)
STUDY QUESTIONS
153(1)
REFERENCES
154(7)
CHAPTER SEVEN The Opiates 161(18)
MECHANISM OF ACTION, PHARMACOLOGY, AND METABOLISM
163(2)
Endogenous Opiates and Their Receptors
163(2)
EXOGENOUS OPIATES
165(2)
ADVERSE EFFECTS
167(2)
USES
169(5)
Analgesia
169(1)
Cough
170(1)
Management of Opiate Detoxification and Withdrawal
170(1)
Treatment of Opiate Addiction
171(3)
SUMMARY
174(1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
175(1)
REFERENCES
175(4)
CHAPTER EIGHT Marijuana, Hallucinogens, Phencyclidine, and Inhalants 179(23)
MARIJUANA
180(7)
Mechanism of Action and Pharmacology
181(2)
Drug-Drug Interactions
183(1)
Adverse Effects
183(3)
Uses (Controversial)
186(1)
THE HALLUCINOGENS
187(4)
Mechanism of Action and Pharmacology
188(2)
Adverse Effects
190(1)
PHENCYCLIDINE
191(2)
Mechanism of Action and Pharmacology
192(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
192(1)
Adverse Effects
192(1)
THE INHALANTS
193(2)
Mechanism of Action and Pharmacology
194(1)
Adverse Effects
195(1)
Treatment
195(1)
SUMMARY
195(2)
STUDY QUESTIONS
197(1)
REFERENCES
197(5)
CHAPTER NINE The Antidepressants 202(36)
THE TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS
204(4)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
204(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
205(1)
Adverse Effects
205(1)
Uses
206(2)
THE MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS
208(3)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
209(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
209(1)
Adverse Effects
210(1)
Uses
210(1)
THE SPECIFIC SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS
211(5)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
212(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
213(1)
Adverse Effects
213(1)
Uses
214(2)
ATYPICAL AND DUAL-ACTION ANTIDEPRESSANTS
216(9)
Bupropion
216(2)
Mirtazapine (Remeron)
218(2)
Trazodone (Desyrel) and Nefazodone (Serzone)
220(2)
Venlafaxine (Effexor)
222(2)
Duloxetine (Cymbalta)
224(1)
Reboxetine (Edronax)
224(1)
OTHER PUTATIVE MECHANISMS OF ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTION
225(2)
SUMMARY
227(1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
228(1)
REFERENCES
229(9)
CHAPTER TEN The Mood Stabilizers 238(18)
LITHIUM
239(4)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
239(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
240(1)
Adverse Effects
240(1)
Uses
241(2)
CARBAMAZEPINE
243(2)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
243(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
243(1)
Adverse Effects
243(1)
Uses
244(1)
VALPROIC ACID
245(2)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
245(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
245(1)
Adverse Effects
245(1)
Uses
246(1)
LAMOTRIGINE
247(1)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
247(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
247(1)
Adverse Effects
247(1)
Uses
248(1)
GABAPENTIN
248(1)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
248(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
249(1)
Adverse Effects
249(1)
Uses
249(1)
OTHER ANTICONVULSANT MOOD STABILIZERS
249(1)
OTHER NONANTICONVULSANT MOOD STABILIZERS
250(1)
SUMMARY
251(1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
251(1)
REFERENCES
252(4)
CHAPTER ELEVEN First- and Second-Generation Antipsychotics and Anticholinergics 256(24)
TYPICAL OR FIRST-GENERATION ANTIPSYCHOTICS
257(7)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
258(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
259(1)
Adverse Effects
259(2)
Uses
261(3)
ATYPICAL OR SECOND-GENERATION ANTIPSYCHOTICS
264(7)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
265(2)
Drug-Drug Interactions
267(1)
Adverse Effects
267(2)
Uses
269(2)
DRUGS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF EXTRAPYRAMIDAL EFFECTS
271(2)
Anticholinergic Drugs
272(1)
Amantadine (Symmetrel)
273(1)
SUMMARY
273(1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
274(1)
REFERENCES
274(6)
CHAPTER TWELVE The Neurobiology and Treatment of Dementia 280(19)
THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF DEMENTIA
282(4)
Alzheimer's Dementia
282(2)
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
284(1)
Vascular Dementia
284(1)
Frontotemporal Dementia
285(1)
Other Dementias
285(1)
COGNITIVE ENHANCERS
286(5)
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
287(4)
OTHER APPROACHES TO THE TREATMENT OF DEMENTIA
291(2)
Drugs Used to Treat Noncognitive Disturbances Associated with Dementia
292(1)
SUMMARY
293(1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
294(1)
REFERENCES
294(5)
CHAPTER THIRTEEN St. John's Wort, Gingko, Kava, and Valerian 299(18)
ST. JOHN'S WORT
301(3)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
302(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
303(1)
Adverse Effects
303(1)
Uses
303(1)
GINKGO
304(3)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
304(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
305(1)
Adverse Effects
305(1)
Uses
306(1)
KAVA
307(2)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
308(1)
Drug-Drug Interactions
308(1)
Adverse Effects
308(1)
Uses
309(1)
VALERIAN
309(3)
Mechanism of Action, Pharmacology, and Metabolism
309(1)
Adverse Effects
310(1)
Uses
310(2)
SUMMARY
312(1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
312(1)
REFERENCES
313(4)
Appendix 1 Electroconvulsive Therapy, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, and Vagal Nerve Stimulation 317(17)
Appendix 2 List of Generic Drug Names, Trade Names, and Manufacturers 334(4)
Appendix 3 List of Trade Drug Names, (with Generic Names in Parentheses) 338(2)
Glossary 340(5)
Index 345

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