9780415209069

Mod Egypt Pt2:Orientalism V 6

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780415209069

  • ISBN10:

    0415209064

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-02-23
  • Publisher: Routledge

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Table of Contents

PART III (Continued) THE SOUDAN 1882-1907
The Fail of Khartoum October 5, 1884-January 26, 1885
Murder of Colonel Stewart---Difficulties of the Expedition---News from General Gordon---Occupation of Jakdul---The batle of Abu Klea---Death of Sir Herbert Stewart---The column reaches the Nile---Two steamers leave for Khartoum---They arrive too late---Events at Khartoum---General Gordon's character---Capitulation of Omdurman---General Gordon's death---Effect on public opinion
3(15)
The Evacuation of the Soudan January 26, 1885-December 30, 1886
Lord Wolseley urges the necessity of an autumn campaign---The Government hesitate---And then agree---Sir Redvers Buller retreats to Korti---Battle of Kirbekan---The movement on Berber arrested---Operations at Suakin---Action at Hashin---And at Tofrik---Suspension of the Suakin operations---The autumn campaign abandoned---Question of holding Dongola---Change of Government in England---Evacuation of Dongola---Death of the Mahdi---Battle of Ginniss---Review of British policy
18(17)
The Debris of the Soudan
The outlying providences:---1. Darfour: Surrender of the providence---The Senoussieh sect---The revolt of Abu Gemaizeh. 2. Bahr-el-Ghazal: Lupton Bey surrneders---His death. 3. Equatoria: Emin Pasha summoned to surrender---He maintains his position---The Stanley expedition. 4. Sennar: The garrison surrenders. 5. Kassala: The garrison surrenders. 6. The Abyssinian Frontier Garrisons: The Hewett treaty---The garrisons of Amadib, Senhit, Galabat, Gera, and Dedaref. 7. Berbera: Its political status---It is occupied by British troops. 8. Harrar: Withdrawal of the Egyptian garrison---Installation of the Emir Abdullah---King Menelek occupies the providence. 9. Zeyla: It is occupied by British troops. 10. Tajourrah: The French occupy it. 11. Massowah: Its political status---Attitude of the British Government---The Italians occupy Massowah
35(25)
The Defence of Egypt 1886-1892
The Egyptian army---Negotiations with the Dervishes---Fighting on the frontier---The siege of Suakin---Defeat of Osman Digna---Wad-el-Nejumi---Nejumi advances---The battle of Argin and of Toski---Death of Wad-el-Nejumi---Results of the battle---Situation at Suakin---The reoccupation of Tokar---Defeat of Osman Digna
60(19)
The Reconquest of Khartoum October 1895-September 1898
Necessity of reconquering the Soudan---Danger of premature action---The Italian defeat at Adua---It is decided to advance on Dongola---Provision of funds---Sir Herbert Kitchener---Indian expedition to Suakin---Railway construction---Battle of Firket---Capture of Dongola---The Egyptian Government repay the money advanced by the Commissioners of the Debt---The British Government advanced £800,000---Question of a further offensive movement---Capture of Abu Hamed and Berber---Reoccupation of Kassala---British troops sent to the Soudan---The battle of the Atbara---The battle of Omdurman---Cost of the campaign---The War Office---The policy of reconquest
79(32)
The New Soudan
Question of the future political status of the Soudan---Anomalies of the British position---Objections to annexation---And to complete incorporation with Egypt---Intricacy of the problem---The two flags---Speech at Omdurman---The right of couquest---The Agreement of January 19, 1899---Its unusual nature---Its reception by Europe---Advantages of a Free Trade policy
111(12)
PART IV THE EGYPTIAN PUZZLE
The Dwellers in Egypt
The Englishman's mission---Conditions under which it was undertaken---Population of Egypt---Its mixed character---Hostility to England---Main tenets of Islam---Its failure as a social system---Degradation of women---Immutability of the law---Slavery---Intolerance---Incidents of religious belief and ceremonial---Mental and moral attributes---Seclusion of women---Polygamy---Divorce---Coarseness of literature and conversation---Filial piety---Government---Conservatism---Spirit of the laws---Language---Art---Music---Customs---Obstacles to England's mission
123(45)
The Moslems
Classification of the population---The Turco-Egyptians---The Egyptians---The hierarchy---The Grand Mufti---The head of the El-Azhar University---The Grand Kadi---The Sheikh el-Bekri---Mohammed el-Saadat---Abdul-Khalik el-Saadat---Mohammed Abdu---Mohammed Beyram---The Omdehs and Sheikhs---Their submissiveness to the Pashas---Their sympathy with Arabi---Their tyranny over the fellaheen---Their fellings towards England---The Fellaheen---The Bedouins
168(32)
Appendix.---Translation of a Letter from a Sheikh of Keneh to a Sheikh of the Mosque of Seyyidna-Hussein at Cairo
200(1)
The Christians
The Copts---The conservatism of their religion---Their character---Their attitude towards the English---The reform movement---The Syrians---Their position---Their unpopularity---Their attitude towards the English---The Armenians---Their subserviency to the Turks---Nubar Pasha---His son Boghos---Yacoub Pasha Artin---Tigrane Pasha---The Egyptians should not be weighed in European Scales
201(27)
Tge Europeanised Egyptians
The Europeanised Egyptians are generally Agnostics---Effects of Europeanising the East---Gallicised Egyptians---Attractions of French Civilisation---Unsuitability of the French system to form the Egyptian character---The official classes generally hostile to England
228(17)
The Europeans
Number of Europeans---The Levantines---Their characteristics---The Greeks---Their commercial enterprise---The English---The Army of Occupation---Anglo-Egyptian officials---Feelings entertained by other Europeans towards the English---Summary of the classes friendly and hostile to England
245(15)
The Machinery of Government
Nature of the machinery---Parts of the machine---1. The Sultan---The Firman of 1892---The Sinai Peninsula---2. The Khedive---Rescript of August 28, 1878---Constitutionalism of Tewfik Pasha---3. The Ministers---The Departments---Position of an Egyptian Minister---4. The Organic Law of May 1, 1883---The Provincial Councils---The Legislative Council---The Legislative Assembly
260(20)
The British Officials
Qualifications required of an Anglo-Egyptian official---Positions of the civil and military officials---The French in Tunis---The Financial Adviser---Sir Edgar Vincent---The Judicial Adviser---History of his appointment---Sir Raymond West---Justice under Egyptian management---Sir John Scott---The Public Works Department---Sir Colin Scott-Moncrieff---Sir William Garstin---The Financial Secretary---Blum Pasha---Lord Milner---Sir Eldon Gorst---Sub-Departments of Finance---The Interior---Public Instruction---European and Egyptian officials
280(21)
The International Administrations
Internationalism---1. The Commission of the Public Debt---Functions of the Commission---The Egyptian Accounts---The Reserve Fund---Uselessness of the Commission---?. The Railway Administration---3. The Daira Sanieh---4. The Domains Administration
301(15)
The Judicial System
The Mixed Courts---Nubar Pasha's objects in creating them---Attributes and composition of the Mixed Courts---Defects in the institution---The Consular Courts---The Native Tribunals and the Kadi's Courts---Summary of jurisdictions in Egypt
316(5)
The Workers of the Machine
Importance of persons rather than of systems---The British Consul-General---Tewfik Pasha---The Prime Ministers---Cherif Pasha---Nubar Pasha---Riaz Pasha---Mustapha Pasha Fehmi
321(28)
PART V BRITISH POLICY IN EGYPT
The Struggle for a Policy 1882-1883
Intentions of the British Government---Proposal to reduce the garrison---Sir Edward Malet's opinion---Difficulty of combining reform and evacuation---I recommend reduction and concentration at Alexandria---The Government approve of this recommendation---The reduction is countermanded
349(13)
Appendix.---Despatch from Sir Evelyn Baring to Earl Granville, dated October 9, 1883
362(4)
The Northbrook Mission September-November 1884
It is decided to send a Special Commissioner to Cairo---The policy of reporting---Lord Northbrook arrives in Egypt---His financial proposals---His General Report---The Government reject his proposals
366(6)
The Wolff Conventions August 1885-October 1887
Sir Henry Wolff appointed Special Commissioner---Convention of October 24, 1885---Moukhtar Pasha---Convention of May 22, 1887---Comparison of the two conventions---Frontier affairs---The army---Civil reforms---Evacuation---France and Russia oppose the Convention---The Sultan refuses to ratify it---Moukhtar Pasha permanently located in Egypt---Results of the Wolff mission
372(10)
The Neutralisation of the Suez Canal
Neutralisation of Egypt---Neutralisatio of the Canal---The word neutrality---Circular of January 3, 1883---The Suez Canal Commission of 1885---The Commission dissolved---The Wolff Convention---Signature of the Canal Convention---Its application
382(4)
The Anglo-French Agreement of 1904
Apparent insolubility of the Egyptian question---Gradual change in public opinion---Statement of Lord Ellenborough---The Business of diplomacy---The main facts of the problem---The events of 1904---Morocco---Signature of the Anglo-French Agreement---Remarks on the Agreement
386(11)
PART VI THE REFORMS
The Courbash
Universal use of the courbash---Lord Dufferin's Circular---It was partially inoperative---Final abolition of the courbash
397(9)
The Corvee
Connection between the courbash and the corvee---Merits and demerits of the corvee system---The corvee law---Dredging the canals---Proposed reduction of the land-tax---Proposal to abolish the corvee instead of reducing the land-tax---The Powers object---Action of the British Government---The corvee is not called out---A Decree is issued partially abolishing the corvee---Final settlement of the question in 1892
406(14)
Corruption
Universality of corruption---Steps taken to arrest it---Example of British officials---Diminution of corrupt practices
420(6)
European Privilege
Origin of the Capitulations---Difference between Turkey and Egypt---Abuse of the Capitulations---Raison d'etre of European privilege---Anomaly of the British position---Impossibility of arriving at any general solution---Minor changes---The right to enact by-laws---The House Tax---The Professional Tax---Proposal to create a local legislature---Internationalism
426(17)
Finance
The first bankruptcy of Egypt---Risk of a second bankruptcy---The Race against bankruptcy---The era of reform---Fiscal relief---Reduction of taxation---Increase of revenue---Expenditure---Aggregate surplus since 1888---The indebtedness of the fellaheen---Distribution of land---Importance of the financial question
443(13)
Irrigation
Nature's bounty to Egypt---The work of the Pharaohs---Turkish neglect---Progress under British guidance---Programme of the future---Causes of the progress---Qualifications of the officers selected---Absence of international obstruction---Loan of £1,800,000---Support of the public---Importance of the work
456(10)
The Army
Disbandment of the army in 1882---History of the army---Mehemet Ali's Syrian campaigns---Ismail Pasha---The Abyssinian campaign---Tel-el-Kebir---It is decided to form a felaheen army officered by Englishmen---The black battalions---Will the army fight?---Reasons why the reorganisation has been successfully conducted
466(12)
The Interior
Uncertainty of British policy---Difficulties of administrative reform---Lord Dufferin's Police proposals---Mr. Clifford Lloyd---Changes made in the Police organisation---Nubar Pasha's conflict with Mr. Clifford Lloyd---The latter resigns---Friction in the Interior---Appointment of an Adviser---And of Inspectors---Difficulties of the present moment
478(13)
Sub-Departments of the Interior
Prisons---State of the prisons in 1882---Reform---Slavery---The Slave Trade and slavery---The Convention of 1877---The Slave Home---Change of opinion in Egypt---Success of the Convention---Medical and Sanitary Administration---Egyptian superstitions---Clot Bey---State of things in 1883---Improvements effected---Sanitary reform---Impediments to Progress---Treatment of epidemics
491(23)
Justice
Sir Edward Malet's opinion---The Mixed and Consular Courts---The Kadis' Courts---The Native Tribunals---Justice prior to 1883---The French system taken as a model---The judicial machinery---Reforms instituted by Sir John Scott and Sir Malcolm McIlwraith---Opposition to these reforms---The personnel of the Courts---Result of the reforms
514(10)
Education
Educational policy---Obstacles to progress---Want of money---The Pashas---Intellectual awakening of Egypt---The Mosque schools---Primary and Secondary education---Progress made in forming the characters of the Egyptians---Female education
524(19)
The Soudan
The Nature of the Soudan problem---Extent---Population---Results obtained by the Convention of 1899---Executive agency---Finance---Railways---Slavery
543(12)
Conclusion
Sumamry of this work---Changes since the time of Ismail---The British reformers---Their Egyptian allies---Stability of the reforms
555(8)
PART VII THE FUTURE OF EGYPT
The Future of Egypt
Quo Vadis?---The question of the occupation---Its duration Egyptian autonomy---The Capitulations---Desirability of training the Egyptians---Importance of finance---Display of sympathy---Conclusion
563(15)
APPENDIX
Khedives of Egypt---British Secretaries of State for Foreign Affairs---British Agents and Consuls-General in Egypt---Chronological Table of Events
578(7)
Index 585

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