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Modern Control Systems

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Prentice Hall
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Customer Reviews

Modern Control Systems  August 3, 2011

Easy to read, good material for someone new to control systems. The format of the textbook is approachable and the information is immediately useful. This textbook was in perfect condition no problems and fast shipment definitely would do business again.

Modern Control Systems: 4 out of 5 stars based on 1 user reviews.


Modern Control Systems, 12e, is ideal for an introductory undergraduate course in control systems for engineering students. Written to be equally useful for all engineering disciplines, this text is organized around the concept of control systems theory as it has been developed in the frequency and time domains.

It provides coverage of classical control, employing root locus design, frequency and response design using Bode and Nyquist plots. It also covers modern control methods based on state variable models including pole placement design techniques with full-state feedback controllers and full-state observers.

Many examples throughout give students ample opportunity to apply the theory to the design and analysis of control systems. Incorporates computer-aided design and analysis using MATLAB and Lab VIEW Math Script.

Author Biography

Richard C. Dorf is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of California, Davis. Known as an instructor who is highly concerned with the discipline of electrical engineering and its application to social and economic needs, Professor Dorf has written and edited several successful engineering textbooks and handbooks, including the best selling Engineering Handbook, second edition and the third edition of the Electrical Engineering Handbook. Professor Dorf is also co author of Technology Ventures, a leading textbook on technology entrepreneurship. Professor Dorf is a Fellow of the IEEE and a Fellow of the ASEE. He is active in the fields of control system design and robotics. Dr. Dorf holds a patent for the PIDA controller.


Robert H. Bishop is the OPUS Dean of Engineering at Marquette University and is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Prior to coming to Marquette University, he was a Professor of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics at The University of Texas at Austin for 20 years where he held the Joe J. King Professorship and was a Distinguished Teaching Professor. Professor Bishop started his engineering career as a member of the technical staff at the MIT Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. He authors the well-known textbook for teaching graphical programming entitled Learning with LabVIEW and is also the editor-in-chief of the Mechatronics Handbook. A talented educator, Professor Bishop has been recognized with numerous teaching awards including the coveted Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems Award for Excellence in Engineering Teaching. He also received the John Leland Atwood Award by the American Society of Engineering Educators (ASEE) and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) that is given periodically to “a leader who has made lasting and significant contributions to aerospace engineering education.” He is a Fellow of the AIAA, a Fellow of the American Astronautical Society (AAS), and active in ASEE and in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Control Systems 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Brief History of Automatic Control 5

1.3 Examples of Control Systems 10

1.4 Engineering Design 17

1.5 Control System Design 18

1.6 Mechatronic Systems 21

1.7 Green Engineering 25

1.8 The Future Evolution of Control Systems 27

1.9 Design Examples 28

1.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 32

1.11 Summary 34

Skills Check 35

Exercises 37

Problems 39

Advanced Problems 44

Design Problems 46

Terms and Concepts 48


CHAPTER 2 Mathematical Models of Systems 49

2.1 Introduction 50

2.2 Differential Equations of Physical Systems 50

2.3 Linear Approximations of Physical Systems 55

2.4 The Laplace Transform 58

2.5 The Transfer Function of Linear Systems 65

2.6 Block Diagram Models 79

2.7 Signal-Flow Graph Models 84

2.8 Design Examples 90

2.9 The Simulation of Systems Using Control Design Software 113

2.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 128

2.11 Summary 130

Skills Check 131

Exercises 135

Problems 141

Advanced Problems 153

Design Problems 155

Computer Problems 157

Terms and Concepts 159


CHAPTER 3 State Variable Models 161

3.1 Introduction 162

3.2 The State Variables of a Dynamic System 162

3.3 The State Differential Equation 166

3.4 Signal-Flow Graph and Block Diagram Models 171

3.5 Alternative Signal-Flow Graph and Block Diagram Models 182

3.6 The Transfer Function from the State Equation 187

3.7 The Time Response and the State Transition Matrix 189

3.8 Design Examples 193

3.9 Analysis of State Variable Models Using Control Design Software 206

3.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 209

3.11 Summary 213

Skills Check 214

Exercises 217

Problems 220

Advanced Problems 227

Design Problems 230

Computer Problems 231

Terms and Concepts 232


CHAPTER 4 Feedback Control System Characteristics 234

4.1 Introduction 235

4.2 Error Signal Analysis 237

4.3 Sensitivity of Control Systems to Parameter Variations 239

4.4 Disturbance Signals in a Feedback Control System 242

4.5 Control of the Transient Response 247

4.6 Steady-State Error 250

4.7 The Cost of Feedback 253

4.8 Design Examples 254

4.9 Control System Characteristics Using Control Design Software 268

4.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 273

4.11 Summary 277

Skills Check 279

Exercises 283

Problems 287

Advanced Problems 293

Design Problems 296

Computer Problems 300

Terms and Concepts 303


CHAPTER 5 The Performance of Feedback Control Systems 304

5.1 Introduction 305

5.2 Test Input Signals 305

5.3 Performance of Second-Order Systems 308

5.4 Effects of a Third Pole and a Zero on the Second-Order System

Response 314

5.5 The s-Plane Root Location and the Transient Response 320

5.6 The Steady-State Error of Feedback Control Systems 322

5.7 Performance Indices 330

5.8 The Simplification of Linear Systems 339

5.9 Design Examples 342

5.10 System Performance Using Control Design Software 356

5.11 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 360

5.12 Summary 364

Skills Check 364

Exercises 368

Problems 371

Advanced Problems 377

Design Problems 379

Computer Problems 382

Terms and Concepts 384


CHAPTER 6 The Stability of Linear Feedback Systems 386

6.1 The Concept of Stability 387

6.2 The Routh—Hurwitz Stability Criterion 391

6.3 The Relative Stability of Feedback Control Systems 399

6.4 The Stability of State Variable Systems 401

6.5 Design Examples 404

6.6 System Stability Using Control Design Software 413

6.7 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 421

6.8 Summary 424

Skills Check 425

Exercises 428

Problems 430

Advanced Problems 435

Design Problems 438

Computer Problems 440

Terms and Concepts 442


CHAPTER 7 The Root Locus Method 443

7.1 Introduction 444

7.2 The Root Locus Concept 444

7.3 The Root Locus Procedure 449

7.4 Parameter Design by the Root Locus Method 467

7.5 Sensitivity and the Root Locus 473

7.6 PID Controllers 480

7.7 Negative Gain Root Locus 492

7.8 Design Examples 496

7.9 The Root Locus Using Control Design Software 510

7.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 516

7.11 Summary 518

Skills Check 522

Exercises 526

Problems 530

Advanced Problems 539

Design Problems 543

Computer Problems 549

Terms and Concepts 551


CHAPTER 8 Frequency Response Methods 553

8.1 Introduction 554

8.2 Frequency Response Plots 556

8.3 Frequency Response Measurements 577

8.4 Performance Specifications in the Frequency Domain 579

8.5 Log Magnitude and Phase Diagrams 582

8.6 Design Examples 583

8.7 Frequency Response Methods Using Control Design Software 596

8.8 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 602

8.9 Summary 603

Skills Check 608

Exercises 613

Problems 616

Advanced Problems 626

Design Problems 628

Computer Problems 631

Terms and Concepts 633


CHAPTER 9 Stability in the Frequency Domain 634

9.1 Introduction 635

9.2 Mapping Contours in the s-Plane 636

9.3 The Nyquist Criterion 642

9.4 Relative Stability and the Nyquist Criterion 653

9.5 Time-Domain Performance Criteria in the Frequency Domain 661

9.6 System Bandwidth 668

9.7 The Stability of Control Systems with Time Delays 668

9.8 Design Examples 673

9.9 PID Controllers in the Frequency Domain 691

9.10 Stability in the Frequency Domain Using Control Design Software 692

9.11 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 700

9.12 Summary 703

Skills Check 711

Exercises 715

Problems 721

Advanced Problems 731

Design Problems 735

Computer Problems 740

Terms and Concepts 742


CHAPTER 10 The Design of Feedback Control Systems 743

10.1 Introduction 744

10.2 Approaches to System Design 745

10.3 Cascade Compensation Networks 747

10.4 Phase-Lead Design Using the Bode Diagram 751

10.5 Phase-Lead Design Using the Root Locus 757

10.6 System Design Using Integration Networks 764

10.7 Phase-Lag Design Using the Root Locus 767

10.8 Phase-Lag Design Using the Bode Diagram 772

10.9 Design on the Bode Diagram Using Analytical Methods 776

10.10 Systems with a Prefilter 778

10.11 Design for Deadbeat Response 781

10.12 Design Examples 783

10.13 System Design Using Control Design Software 796

10.14 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 802

10.15 Summary 804

Skills Check 806

Exercises 810

Problems 814

Advanced Problems 823

Design Problems 826

Computer Problems 831

Terms and Concepts 833


CHAPTER 11 The Design of State Variable Feedback

Systems 834

11.1 Introduction 835

11.2 Controllability and Observability 835

11.3 Full-State Feedback Control Design 841

11.4 Observer Design 847

11.5 Integrated Full-State Feedback and Observer 851

11.6 Reference Inputs 857

11.7 Optimal Control Systems 859

11.8 Internal Model Design 869

11.9 Design Examples 873

11.10 State Variable Design Using Control Design Software 882

11.11 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 888

11.12 Summary 890

Skills Check 890

Exercises 894

Problems 896

Advanced Problems 900

Design Problems 903

Computer Problems 906

Terms and Concepts 908


CHAPTER 12 Robust Control Systems 910

12.1 Introduction 911

12.2 Robust Control Systems and System Sensitivity 912

12.3 Analysis of Robustness 916

12.4 Systems with Uncertain Parameters 918

12.5 The Design of Robust Control Systems 920

12.6 The Design of Robust PID-Controlled Systems 926

12.7 The Robust Internal Model Control System 932

12.8 Design Examples 935

12.9 The Pseudo-Quantitative Feedback System 952

12.10 Robust Control Systems Using Control Design Software 953

12.11 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 958

12.12 Summary 960

Skills Check 961

Exercises 965

Problems 967

Advanced Problems 971

Design Problems 974

Computer Problems 980

Terms and Concepts 982


CHAPTER 13 Digital Control Systems 984

13.1 Introduction 985

13.2 Digital Computer Control System Applications 985

13.3 Sampled-Data Systems 987

13.4 The z-Transform 990

13.5 Closed-Loop Feedback Sampled-Data Systems 995

13.6 Performance of a Sampled-Data, Second-Order System 999

13.7 Closed-Loop Systems with Digital Computer Compensation 1001

13.8 The Root Locus of Digital Control Systems 1004

13.9 Implementation of Digital Controllers 1008

13.10 Design Examples 1009

13.11 Digital Control Systems Using Control Design Software 1018

13.12 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 1023

13.13 Summary 1025

Skills Check 1025

Exercises 1029

Problems 1031

Advanced Problems 1033

Design Problems 1034

Computer Problems 1036

Terms and Concepts 1037



References 1056

Index 1071


APPENDIX B MathScript RT Module Basics

APPENDIX C Symbols, Units, and Conversion Factors

APPENDIX D Laplace Transform Pairs

APPENDIX E An Introduction to Matrix Algebra

APPENDIX F Decibel Conversion

APPENDIX G Complex Numbers

APPENDIX H z-Transform Pairs Preface

APPENDIX I Discrete-Time Evaluation of the Time Response

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