This volume intends to contribute to translational medicine and biology. By this, we mean a bi-directional process whose aim is to develop knowledge from basic science towards diagnostic and therapeutic applications and reciprocally to raise new questions for basic scientists. One general requirement for translational research is to establish a multidisciplinary knowledge base shared by the actors of various specialties. This is precisely the aim of the 12 chapters of this book. It will be useful for scientists, including PhD students, who want to become more familiar with the main concepts of NPC pathology, medical imaging and current therapeutics. Conversely, medical doctors who want to update their knowledge of NPC biology will benefit from chapters on viral and cellular oncogenesis and various aspects of host-tumor interactions.