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Nonverbal Behavior in Interpersonal Relations



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  • Nonverbal Behavior in Interpersonal Relations
    Nonverbal Behavior in Interpersonal Relations
  • Nonverbal Behaviour in Interpersonal Relations
    Nonverbal Behaviour in Interpersonal Relations
  • Nonverbal Behavior in Interpersonal Relations
    Nonverbal Behavior in Interpersonal Relations


Nonverbal Behavior in Interpersonal Relationsoffers a complete and precise explanation of the principles of nonverbal communication and their application in everyday life. #xA0; The authors draw from a wide variety of disciplines and upon their vast experience as instructors, consultants, and corporate trainers to offer a unique blend of social scientific and humanistic approaches to the study of nonverbal behavior. This well-researched book offers conclusions about the research in an easy-to-read style. Each chapter includes exercises, activities, self-tests, or questionnaires that help readers explore and understand the actual and potential impact of nonverbal behaviors on communication. The text also helps readers build the skills they will need to become competent nonverbal communicators in today's global community.

Table of Contents

Preface        xvii


            1          Communication and Nonverbal Behavior      1

                                                                                   Myths about Nonverbal Communication  1

           Nonverbal versus Verbal Messages    3

The Linguistic Distinction  3

The Continuity Distinction  4

The Processing Distinction               4

The Outcome Distinction   5

The Absolute Distinction    5

           Intentionality and Nonverbal Communication             5

           Culture and Nonverbal Communication          7

           Functions of Nonverbal Messages      7

Complementing  8

Contradicting        8

Accenting              9

Repeating             9

Regulating            10

Substituting          10

           Categories of Nonverbal Messages    11

Physical Appearance          12

Gesture and Movement      12

Face and Eye Behavior      12

Vocal Behavior     12

Space    13

Touch     13

Environment         13

Time       13

                Glossary of Terminology            14


            2          Physical Appearance  15

           Attractiveness       15

Types of Attractiveness      16

What Is Attractive Today May Be Out Tomorrow            17

Image Fixation     20

Judgments Generated       22

Attractiveness: A Double-Edged Sword?        22

Effects of Attractiveness     23

           Personal Body Concept        26

           Nonverbal Messages of Body Shape and Size  27

Nonverbal Messages of Height, Weight, and Skin Color            32

Nonverbal Messages of Hair            34

           Appearance and Dress         35

Why Do People Dress the Way They Do?      36

Generalizations about Dress            43

           Artifacts and Accessories     44

           Glossary of Terminology     46


            3          Gesture and Movement         47

           A Theoretical Look at Gesture and Movement                49

Structural Approach to Kinesics       49

External Variable Approach to Kinesics          51

           Types of Gesture and Movement        51

Emblems              52

Illustrators             53

Regulators            55

Affect Displays     57

Adaptors                57

           Deception cues      59

                 Posture             60

How Does Posture Communicate?                61

Communicative Potential of Posture               62

           Movement and COMMUNICATOR STYLE     63

The Dramatic Style              63

The Dominant Style            63

The Animated Style             64

The Relaxed Style               64

The Attentive Style               64

The Open Style    64

The Friendly Style                65

The Contentious Style        65

The Impression-Leaving Style          65

           General Communicator Styles          65

           Effects of Body Movements and Gestures         66

Communicator Style           66

Simplifying Encoding and Decoding               67

Role of Illustrators in Decoding        67

Positive and Negative Perceptions  67

Research on Immediacy   67

           Glossary of Terminology     68


            4          Facial Behavior           69

           Importance of Facial Expressions       69

           Perspectives on Acquisition and Development 70

Perspective 1: Evolution and Natural Selection            70

Perspective 2: External Factors        71

Perspective 3: Innate and Learned  71

           Facial Management and Expression of Emotion              74

Styles of Facial Expressions             76

           Primary Affect Displays and Communication  78

           Variations of Facial Expressions        82

           Glossary of Terminology     84


            5          Eye Behavior  85

           Properties and Functions of Eye Behavior        85

Properties of Eye Behavior                85

Functions of Eye Behavior 86

           Types of Eye Behaviors        88

CLEMs   89

                                                                               Eye Behavior and Individual Differences      93

Nature of Relationships     93

Cultural Differences            94

Contextual Differences       94

Personality Differences      94

Gender Differences            95

           Glossary of Terminology     96


            6          Vocal Behavior           97

           Categories of Vocal Behavior             98

Voice Set               98

Voice Qualities and Vocalizations    99

Voice Printing       100

Silence and Pauses           101

Uses of Silence in Communication                102

           Vocal Behavior and Turn-Interaction Management        103

Turn-Maintaining 103

Turn-Yielding        103

Turn-Requesting 104

Turn-Denying       104

Interruptions         105

Accent and Dialect              105

           Effects of Vocal Behavior     107

Vocal Behavior and Emotions          107

Vocal Behavior and Personality        109

Vocal Behavior and Learning            111

Vocal Behavior and Persuasion       112

Vocal Behavior and Attractiveness   113

Vocal Behavior and Confidence       113

Vocal Characteristics of Good Delivery           114

           Glossary of Terminology     115


            7          Space and Territoriality          117

           Phenomenon of Territoriality            118

Categories of Territory        119

Territorial Defense and Encroachment          120

Types of Negative Encroachment    123

Encroachment Reactions  124

Factors Influencing Territorial Defense          126

           Personal Space     127

Interpersonal Distance      127

Gender Differences            128

Cultural Differences            128

Age Differences   129

Personality Differences      130

Stigmas 130

Psychiatric and Deviant Groups       130

           Crowding and Density         131

The Impact of High Density               132

           Glossary of Terminology     133


            8          Touch and Communication     135

           Life-Span Development and Touch   136

Touch in Animals                136

Human Development         138

           Categories of Touch             140

Professional-Functional Touch        142

Social-Polite Touch             143

Friendship-Warmth Touch                143

Love-Intimacy Touch           143

Sexual-Arousal Touch        144

           Touch Norms and Communication    145

Cultural Differences            146

Gender Differences            147

Touch Apprehension          148

           What Does Touch Communicate?     150

Touch and Emotion            150

Touch and Status                150

Touch and Self-Intimacy    151

           Effects of Touch Deprivation              151

           Glossary of Terminology     152


            9          Environment and Physical Surroundings       153

           Perceptual Characteristics of Environment      154

Perception of Formality      154

Perception of Warmth         155

Perception of Privacy          156

Perception of Familiarity    156

Perception of Constraint    157

Perception of Distance       157

           Architecture and Environment           158

           Spatial Arrangement           160

The Shapes of Tables        161

Seating Arrangement         162

           Arrangement of Office Space             165

           Other Environmental Factors             166

Environmental Attractiveness           166

Color in the Environment   167

Lighting in the Environment              169

Temperature and the Environment  169

Scent and Smell  170

           Importance of Scents           170

           Glossary of Terminology     176


            10        Time    177

           Time Orientations               177

Psychological Time Orientation       178

Biological Time Orientation               179

Cultural Time Orientation  183

Punctuality            185

Monochronic and Polychronic Time                186

           Effects of the Use of Time   187

           Glossary of Terminology     189


            11        Immediacy and Communication         190

           Immediacy             190

Verbal Immediacy               191

Nonverbal Behaviors          193

           Nonverbal Immediacy          195

Physical Appearance          195

Gesture and Body Movements         197

Facial Expression and Eye Behavior               199

Vocal Behavior     200

Spatial Behavior  201

Tactile Behavior   202

Environmental Factors       203

Scent and Smell  205

Temporal Factors                205

           Outcomes of Immediacy      205

Increased Liking, Affiliation, and Affect            206

More Approachable Communication Style     206

More Responsiveness, Understanding, and Assertiveness     206

Increased Solidarity between Participants     207

Decreased Anxiety              207

Decreased Status Differences         207

Increased Perceptions of Communication Competence           207

           Drawbacks of Immediacy     208

           Glossary of Terminology     210


            12        Female-Male Nonverbal Communication      211

           Definition Issues: Sex and Gender    211

           Development of Nonverbal Behavior in Females and Males          212

           Distinctive and Similar Characteristics: The Dilemma 213

Appearance and Attractiveness        215

Gesture and Movement      216

Face and Eye Behavior      217

Vocal Behavior     221

Space    223

Touch     224

           Liking and Courtship of the American Female and Male              226

Avoiding Problems              228

Nonverbal Sensitivity          228

           Advantages of Immediacy    229

           Disadvantages of Immediacy               230

           The Androgynous Person    230

           Glossary of Terminology     232


            13        Supervisor and Employee Relationships       233

           Distinctive Characteristics 234

           Role of Nonverbal Messages               235

Physical Appearance          236

Gesture and Movement      240

Face and Eye Behavior      241

Vocal Behavior     242

Space    242

Touch     243

Environment         244

Time       246

           Conclusions about Supervisor-Employee Relationships                247

           Immediacy in the Workplace              249

Advantages of Immediacy 249

Disadvantages of Immediacy           249

           Glossary of Terminology     250


            14        Teacher-Student Nonverbal Relationships    251

           Teacher Roles       251

The Teacher as Speaker   251

The Teacher as Moderator                253

The Teacher as Trainer     255

The Teacher as Manager  256

The Teacher as a Coordinator         258

The Teacher as Controller, Supervisor, and Helper    258

           Role of Nonverbal Communication   259

Instructor Appearance        261

Student Appearance           262

Gesture and Movement      263

Facial Behavior    264

Eye Behavior        266

Vocal Behavior     266

Space    267

Touch     268

Environment         269

           Time       275

           Outcomes of Teacher Immediacy       275

Potential Drawbacks of Teacher Immediacy 276

           Glossary of Terminology     277


            15        The Influence of Nonverbal Communication in the Courtroom        278

           Legal Settings       278

           Non-Jury Pretrial Practice  279

           Jury and Non-Jury Trials   280

Non-Jury Proceedings       280

Jury Trials             282

Jury Selection       283

Direct Examination              290

Cross-Examination             293

Opening Statements          294

Closing Arguments or Summation  295

           Nonverbal Communication by Judges               298

And No One Objected–For the Record          298

The Art of Judicial Misconduct          298

Judges’ Instructions to Juries: Vocalics         299

           The Changing Legal Context             300

           Glossary of Terminology     300


            16        Intercultural Relationships    302

           Defining Intercultural Communication           303

Characteristics of Culture  306

Foundations of Culture      306

           Nonverbal Behavior             308

Appearance and Attractiveness        309

Gesture and Movement      310

Face and Eye Behavior      316

Vocal Behavior     318

Space    319

Touch     320

Environment         322

Scent      323

Time       323

           Goals to Seek        324

           Glossary of Terminology     327

References and Selected Readings     328

Index            351

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