9780387989679

Observational Studies

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780387989679

  • ISBN10:

    0387989676

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2002-01-01
  • Publisher: Springer Verlag
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Summary

An Observational study is an empiric investigation of the effects caused by a treatment, policy, or intervention in which it is not possible to assign subjects at random to treatment or control, as would be done in a controlled experiment. Observational studies are common in most fields that study the effects of treatments on people. The second edition of Observational Studies is about 50 percent longer than the first edition, with many new examples and methods. There are new chapters on nonadditive models for treatment effects (Chapter 5) and planning observational studies (Chapter 11) and Chapter 9, on coherence, has been extensively rewritten. Paul R. Rosenbaum is Robert G. Putzel Professor, Department of Statistics, The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He is a fellow of the American Statistical Association.

Author Biography

Paul R. Rosenbaum is Robert G. Putzel Professor, Department of Statistics, The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He is a fellow of the American Statistical Association

Table of Contents

Observational Studies
1(18)
What Are Observational Studies?
1(1)
Some Observational Studies
2(8)
Purpose of This Book
10(1)
Bibliographic Notes
11(5)
References
16(3)
Randomized Experiments
19(52)
Introduction and Example: A Randomized Clinical Trial
19(2)
The Lady Tasting Tea
21(2)
Randomized Experiments
23(4)
Testing the Hypothesis of No Treatment Effect
27(13)
Simple Models for Treatment Effects
40(4)
Confidence Intervals
44(2)
Point Estimates
46(4)
*More Complex Outcomes
50(4)
*Appendix: Effect Increasing Tests Under Alternatives
54(1)
*Appendix: The Set of Treatment Assignments
55(8)
Bibliographic Notes
63(1)
Problems
64(2)
References
66(5)
Overt Bias in Observational Studies
71(34)
Introduction: An Example and Planning Adjustments
71(6)
Adjustments by Exact Stratification and Matching
77(6)
Case-Referent Studies
83(3)
*Small Sample Inference with an Unknown Propensity Score
86(4)
*Large Sample Inference with an Unknown Propensity Score
90(2)
*Inexact Matching Followed by Stratification
92(7)
Bibliographic Notes
99(1)
Problems
100(1)
References
100(5)
Sensitivity to Hidden Bias
105(66)
What is a Sensitivity Analysis?
105(1)
A Model for Sensitivity Analysis
106(4)
Matched Pairs
110(9)
Sensitivity Analysis for Sign-Score Statistics
119(16)
Multiple Controls and Continuous Responses
135(5)
Sensitivity Analysis for Two Unmatched Groups
140(11)
Appendix: Technical Results and Proofs
151(7)
Bibliographic Notes
158(1)
Problems
158(5)
References
163(8)
Models for Treatment Effects
171(34)
Effects That Vary from Person to Person
171(2)
Order Statistics
173(1)
Dilated Effects
173(7)
Instrumental Variables
180(8)
Attributable Effects: Binary Responses
188(4)
Attributable Effects: Displacements
192(3)
Inference About a Quantile
195(3)
Bibliographic Notes
198(1)
Problems
198(1)
Appendix: Minimum Wage Data
199(2)
References
201(4)
Known Effects
205(26)
Detecting Hidden Bias Using Known Effects
205(9)
An Outcome Known to be Unaffected by the Treatment
214(7)
An Outcome with Known Direction of Effect
221(1)
*The Behavior of T* with Nonnegative Effects
222(1)
Bias of Known Direction
223(3)
Bibliographic Notes
226(1)
Problems
226(1)
References
227(4)
Multiple Reference Groups in Case-Referent Studies
231(22)
Multiple Reference Groups
231(6)
Matched Studies with Two Referent Groups
237(7)
*Appendix: Selection and Hidden Bias
244(2)
*Appendix: Derivation of Bounds for Sensitivity Analysis
246(2)
Bibliographic Notes
248(1)
Problems
249(1)
References
250(3)
Multiple Control Groups
253(24)
The Role of a Second Control Group
253(10)
Selecting Control Groups
263(2)
Comparing Outcomes in Two Control Groups
265(4)
Bibliographic Notes
269(1)
Problems
270(2)
References
272(5)
Coherence and Focused Hypotheses
277(18)
Coherent Associations
277(2)
Signed Rank Statistics for Coherent Predictions
279(3)
Example: Do Anesthetic Gases Cause Mutations?
282(3)
*Properties of the Coherent Signed Rank Test
285(1)
Some Other Forms of Coherence
285(1)
Strengths and Limitations of Coherence
286(2)
*Appendix: Arrangement-Increasing Functions of Matrices
288(1)
Bibliographic Notes
289(1)
Problems
290(1)
References
290(5)
Constructing Matched Sets and Strata
295(38)
Introduction: Propensity Scores, Structures, Algorithms
295(1)
The Propensity Score
296(6)
Optimal Strata
302(9)
Optimal Matching
311(11)
Bibliographic Notes
322(1)
Software
322(1)
Problems
323(5)
References
328(5)
Planning an Observational Study
333(34)
Introduction and Some Ground Rules
333(3)
Three Observational Studies
336(3)
Choice of Research Hypothesis
339(3)
A Control Group
342(2)
Defining Treated and Control Groups
344(3)
Competing Theories
347(4)
Internal Replication
351(1)
Nondose Nonresponse: An Absent Association
352(1)
Stability Analyses
353(2)
Abrupt, Short-Lived Treatments
355(2)
Natural Blocks
357(1)
Refute Several Alternative Explanations
358(1)
Bibliographic Notes
358(1)
Problems
358(2)
References
360(7)
Some Strategic Issues
367(3)
What Are Strategic Issues?
367(1)
Some Specific Suggestions
368(1)
References
369(1)
Index 370

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