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Occupational Safety and Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers,9780131137646
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Occupational Safety and Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780131137646

ISBN10:
0131137646
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL
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Summary

With an eye on the future and a finger on the pulse of today's rapid changes due to global competition, this straightforward, state-of-the-art guide addresses the key issues, concerns, and factors relating specifically to modern workplace environments in the safety and health professions. Highly functional in content and approach, it draws immediate connections between principles and their practices in real-world settings, includes the latest OSHA standards, and approaches safety and health issues from the perspective of Total Quality Management (TQM) and global competitiveness. The author examines accidents and their effects, theories of accident causation, the OSHA Act, standards, and liability, workers' compensation, ergonomic hazards, mechanical hazards and machine safeguarding, falling, impact, acceleration, industrial hygiene, safety analysis and prevention, accident investigation and reporting, ethics and safety, safety, health, and competition in the global marketplace and violence in the workplace. For safety directors and managers.

Table of Contents

Safety and Health Movement, Then and Now
1(18)
Developments Before the Industrial Revolution
2(1)
Milestones in the Safety Movement
3(2)
Tragedies That Have Changed the Safety Movement
5(3)
Role of Organized Labor
8(1)
Role of Specific Health Problems
9(2)
Development of Accident Prevention Programs
11(1)
Development of Safety Organizations
12(2)
Safety and Health Movement Today
14(1)
Integrated Approach to Safety and Health
14(1)
New Materials, New Processes, and New Problems
15(1)
Rapid Growth in the Profession
16(3)
Accidents and Their Effects
19(17)
Costs of Accidents
20(1)
Accidental Deaths in the United States
21(1)
Accidents versus Other Causes of Death
22(1)
Work Accident Costs and Rates
22(1)
Time Lost Because of Work Injuries
23(1)
Deaths in Work Accidents
24(1)
Work Injuries by Type of Accident
24(1)
Death Rates by Industry
25(1)
Parts of the Body Injured on the Job
26(1)
Chemical Burn Injuries
26(1)
Heat Burn Injuries
27(1)
Repetitive Strain/Soft-Tissue Injuries
28(1)
Estimating the Cost of Accidents
29(7)
Theories of Accident Causation
36(25)
Domino Theory of Accident Causation
37(2)
Human Factors Theory of Accident Causation
39(3)
Accident/Incident Theory of Accident Causation
42(3)
Epidemiological Theory of Accident Causation
45(2)
Systems Theory of Causation
47(3)
Combination Theory of Accident Causation
50(2)
Behavioral Theory of Accident Causation
52(1)
Drugs and Accident Causation
53(1)
Depression and Accident Causation
54(1)
Management Failures and Accident Causation
55(6)
The OSH Act, Standards, and Liability
61(62)
Rationale for the OSH Act
62(1)
OSHA's Mission and Purpose
62(1)
OSH Act Coverage
63(1)
OSHA Standards
64(6)
OSHA's Record Keeping and Reporting
70(7)
Keeping Employees Informed
77(1)
Workplace Inspections and Enforcement
78(1)
OSHA's Enhanced Enforcement Policy
79(1)
Citations and Penalties
80(2)
Appeals Process
82(1)
State-Level OSHA Programs
83(3)
Services Available from OSHA
86(3)
Employer Rights and Responsibilities
89
Employee Rights and Responsibilities
80(12)
Keeping Up to Date on OSHA
92(1)
Problems with OSHA
92(1)
Other Agencies and Organizations
93(6)
OSHA's General Industry Standards
99(9)
OSHA's Maritime Standards
108(3)
OSHA's Construction Standards
111(1)
Standards and Codes
112(1)
Laws and Liability
112(11)
Workers' Compensation
123(36)
Overview of Workers' Compensation
123(3)
Historical Perspective
126(2)
Workers' Compensation Legislation
128(1)
Modern Workers' Compensation
129(3)
Workers' Compensation Insurance
132(2)
Resolution of Workers' Compensation Disputes
134(1)
Injuries and Workers' Compensation
134(2)
Disabilities and Workers' Compensation
136(5)
Monetary Benefits of Workers' Compensation
141(2)
Medical Treatment and Rehabilitation
143(1)
Medical Management of Workplace Injuries
144(1)
Administration and Case Management
145(1)
Cost Allocation
146(1)
Problems with Workers' Compensation
147(1)
Spotting Workers' Compensation Fraud and Abuse
148(1)
Future of Workers' Compensation
149(2)
Cost-Reduction Strategies
151(8)
Ergonomic Hazards: Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) and Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs)
159(40)
Ergonomics Defined
160(1)
Human Factors and Ergonomic Hazards
161(1)
Factors Associated with Physical Stress
162(2)
Ergonomics: A Political Football
164(1)
OSHA's Voluntary Ergonomics Guidelines
165(5)
Worksite Analysis Program for Ergonomics
170(4)
Hazard Prevention and Control
174(1)
Medical Management Program
175(4)
Training and Education
179(1)
Common Indicators of Problems
180(1)
Identifying Specific Ergonomic Problems
181(2)
Ergonomic Problem-Solving Strategies
183(6)
Economics of Ergonomics
189(2)
Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs)
191(8)
Stress and Safety
199(14)
Workplace Stress Defined
199(1)
Sources of Workplace Stress
200(3)
Human Reactions to Workplace Stress
203(1)
Measurement of Workplace Stress
204(1)
Shift Work, Stress, and Safety
205(1)
Improving Safety by Reducing Workplace Stress
206(2)
Stress in Safety Managers
208(1)
Stress and Workers' Compensation
209(4)
Mechanical Hazards and Machine Safeguarding
213(26)
Common Mechanical Injuries
214(3)
Safeguarding Defined
217(1)
OSHA's Requirements for Machine Guarding
218(1)
Risk Assessment in Machine Operation
218(2)
Requirements for All Safeguards
220(1)
Point-of-Operation Guards
221(1)
Point-of-Operation Devices
222(2)
Machine Guarding Self-Assessment
224(4)
Feeding and Ejection Systems
228(1)
Robot Safeguards
228(1)
Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout Systems)
229(6)
General Precautions
235(1)
Basic Program Content
235(1)
Taking Corrective Action
236(3)
Falling, Impact, Acceleration, Lifting, and Vision Hazards
239(38)
Causes of Falls
240(1)
Kinds of Falls
240(1)
Walking and Slipping
241(2)
Slip and Fall Prevention Programs
243(2)
OSHA Fall Protection Standards
245(3)
Ladder Safety
248(3)
Impact and Acceleration Hazards
251(8)
Lifting Hazards
259(3)
Standing Hazards
262(3)
Hand Protection
265(2)
Personal Protective Equipment
267(2)
Forklift Safety (Powered Industrial Trucks)
269(8)
Hazards of Temperature Extremes
277(17)
Thermal Comfort
277(1)
Heat Stress and Strain
278(4)
Cold Stress
282(4)
Burns and Their Effects
286(2)
Chemical Burns
288(6)
Pressure Hazards
294(17)
Pressure Hazards Defined
294(2)
Sources of Pressure Hazards
296(1)
Boilers and Pressure Hazards
297(1)
High-Temperature Water Hazards
297(1)
Hazards of Unfired Pressure Vessels
298(1)
Hazards of High-Pressure Systems
299(1)
Cracking Hazards in Pressure Vessels
299(2)
Nondestructive Testing of Pressure Vessels
301(1)
Pressure Dangers to Humans
302(1)
Decompression Procedures
303(1)
Measurement of Pressure Hazards
304(2)
Reducing Pressure Hazards
306(5)
Electrical Hazards
311(22)
Electrical Hazards Defined
312(3)
Sources of Electrical Hazards
315(4)
Electrical Hazards to Humans
319(1)
Detection of Electrical Hazards
320(1)
Reducing Electrical Hazards
321(4)
OSHA's Electrical Standards
325(1)
Electrical Safety Program
326(1)
Electrical Hazards Self-Assessment
327(6)
Fire Hazards and Life Safety
333(33)
Fire Hazards Defined
334(4)
Sources of Fire Hazards
338(4)
Fire Dangers to Humans
342(1)
Detection of Fire Hazards
342(1)
Reducing Fire Hazards
343(6)
Development of Fire Safety Standards
349(1)
OSHA Fire Standards
350(1)
Life Safety
350(4)
Flame-Resistant Clothing
354(1)
Fire Safety Programs
355(2)
Explosive Hazards
357(2)
OSHA's Firefighting Options
359(1)
Self-Assessment in Fire Protection
360(6)
Industrial Hygiene: Toxic Substances and Confined Spaces
366(57)
Overview of Industrial Hygiene
367(1)
Industrial Hygiene Standards
368(1)
OSH Act and Industrial Hygiene
368(4)
Hazards in the Workplace
372(3)
Toxic Substances Defined
375(1)
Entry Points for Toxic Agents
375(2)
Effects of Toxic Substances
377(1)
Relationship of Doses and Responses
378(2)
Airborne Contaminants
380(1)
Effects of Airborne Toxics
381(2)
Effects of Carcinogens
383(1)
Asbestos Hazards
383(4)
Indoor Air Quality and the ``Sick-Building'' Syndrome
387(2)
Toxic Mold and Indoor Air Quality
389(1)
Threshold Limit Values
390(3)
Hazard Recognition and Evaluation
393(1)
Prevention and Control
394(5)
NIOSH and Industrial Hygiene
399(1)
NIOSH Guidelines for Respirators
399(3)
Standards and Regulations
402(4)
General Safety Precautions
406(1)
Confined Spaces Hazards
406(3)
OSHA Confined Space Standard
409(5)
OSHA Standards for Toxic and Hazardous Materials
414(1)
OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard
415(8)
Radiation Hazards
423(22)
Ionizing Radiation: Terms and Concepts
424(1)
Exposure of Employees to Radiation
425(1)
Precautions and Personal Monitoring
426(1)
Caution Signs and Labels
427(1)
Evacuation Warning Signal
427(1)
Instructing and Informing Personnel
428(1)
Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Material
429(1)
Notification of Incidents
429(1)
Reports and Records of Overexposure
430(1)
Notice to Employees
431(3)
Nonionizing Radiation
434(3)
Electromagnetic Fields in the Workplace
437(3)
OSHA Standards for Health and Environmental Controls
440(5)
Noise and Vibration Hazards
445(33)
Hearing Loss Prevention Terms
446(1)
Characteristics of Sound
447(2)
Hazard Levels and Risks
449(1)
Standards and Regulations
450(7)
Workers' Compensation and Noise Hazards
457(1)
Identifying and Assessing Hazardous Noise Conditions
457(2)
Noise Control Strategies
459(5)
Vibration Hazards
464(3)
Other Effects of Noise Hazards
467(1)
Corporate Policy
468(2)
Evaluating Hearing Loss Prevention Programs
470(8)
Preparing for Emergencies and Terrorism
478(30)
Rationale for Emergency Preparation
479(1)
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
480(1)
Organization and Coordination
481(1)
OSHA Standards
482(1)
First Aid in Emergencies
483(3)
How to Plan for Emergencies
486(3)
Evacuation Planning
489(4)
Customizing Plans to Meet Local Needs
493(1)
Emergency Response
493(1)
Computers and Emergency Response
494(2)
Dealing with the Psychological Trauma of Emergencies
496(2)
Recovering from Disasters
498(2)
Terrorism in the Workplace
500(8)
Computers, Automation, and Robots
508(23)
Impact of Automation on the Workplace
508(1)
VDTs in Offices and Factories
509(3)
Human-Robot Interaction
512(1)
Safety and Health Problems Associated with Robots
513(2)
Safety and Health in Office Automation
515(4)
Industrial Medicine and Robots
519(2)
Technological Alienation in the Automated Workplace
521(1)
Minimizing the Problems of Automation
522(2)
Challenge for the Future
524(7)
Ethics and Safety
531(18)
An Ethical Dilemma
532(1)
Ethics Defined
533(2)
Ethical Behavior in Organizations
535(1)
Safety and Health Professionals' Role in Ethics
535(2)
Company's Role in Ethics
537(3)
Handling Ethical Dilemmas
540(1)
Questions to Ask When Making Decisions
541(1)
Ethics and Whistle-Blowing
542(7)
Bloodborne Pathogens in the Workplace
549(28)
Facts about AIDS
550(1)
Symptoms of AIDS
550(2)
AIDS in the Workplace
552(2)
Legal Concerns
554(4)
AIDS Education
558(1)
Counseling Infected Employees
559(2)
Easing Employees' Fears about AIDS
561(1)
Protecting Employees from AIDS
562(2)
Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) in the Workplace
564(4)
OSHA's Standard on Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens
568(4)
Preventing and Responding to Needlestick Injuries
572(5)
Safety Analysis, Prevention, and Management
577(29)
Overview of Hazard Analysis
578(1)
Preliminary Hazard Analysis
579(1)
Detailed Hazard Analysis
580(10)
Hazard Prevention and Deterrence
590(2)
OSHA Process Safety Standard
592(3)
Risk Assessment
595(2)
Safety Management Concerns
597(3)
Best Practices in Safety Management
600(6)
Accident Investigation and Reporting
606(20)
Types of Accident Investigations
607(1)
When to Investigate
607(1)
What to Investigate
608(3)
Who Should Investigate
611(1)
Conducting the Investigation
611(3)
Interviewing Witnesses
614(3)
Reporting Accidents
617(9)
Promoting Safety
626(21)
Company Safety Policy
627(1)
Safety Rules and Regulations
628(1)
Employee Participation in Promoting Safety
629(1)
Safety Training
629(1)
Suggestion Programs
630(1)
Visual Awareness
630(3)
Safety Committees
633(2)
Gaining a Personal Commitment
635(1)
Employee-Management Participation
636(1)
Incentives
637(1)
Competition
638(1)
Company-Sponsored Wellness Programs
639(1)
Teamwork Approach to Promoting Safety
640(7)
Safety and Health Training
647(41)
Rationale for Safety and Health Training
648(4)
Education and Training Requirements
652(4)
Safety and Health Professionals as Trainers
656(2)
Preparing Safety and Health Instruction
658(3)
Presenting Safety and Health Instruction
661
Applying Safety and Health Instruction
658(10)
Evaluating Safety and Health Instruction
668(1)
Training Supervisors
669(1)
Training New and Transferred Employees
670(3)
Job Safety Analysis as a Training Technique
673(3)
Training Opportunities Available
676(2)
Illiteracy and Safety
678(3)
English as a Second Language Training Issues
681(2)
OSHA Standards and Training
683(5)
Environmental Safety and ISO 14000 (Environmental Management)
688(46)
Safety, Health, and the Environment
689(1)
Legislation and Regulation
690(3)
Types of Environments
693(1)
Role of Safety and Health Professionals
694(1)
Hazards of the Environment
695(4)
Hazardous Waste Reduction
699(8)
Environmental Management System (EMS)
707(6)
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
713(1)
ISO 14000
714(1)
ISO 14000 Series of Standards
714(2)
ISO 14001 Standard
716(12)
ISO 14000 Success Story
728(6)
Product Safety and Liability
734(19)
Product Liability and the Law
735(5)
Developing a Product Safety Program
740(2)
Evaluating the Product Safety Program
742(1)
Role of the Safety and Health Professional
743(1)
Quality Management and Product Safety
744(2)
Product Safety Program Record Keeping
746(1)
User Feedback Collection and Analysis
747(1)
Product Literature and Safety
748(5)
Roles and Professional Certifications for Safety and Health Personnel
753(32)
Modern Safety and Health Teams
754(1)
Safety and Health Manager
754(8)
Engineers and Safety
762(10)
Health Physicist
772(1)
Occupational Physician
772(2)
Occupational Health Nurse and Nurse Practitioner
774(2)
Risk Manager
776(1)
Certification of Safety and Health Professionals
776(9)
TSM: Safety Management in a Quality Management Setting
785(17)
What Is QM?
786(1)
How Does QM Relate to Safety?
787(2)
Safety Management in a QM Setting
789(1)
What Is TSM?
789(2)
Translating TSM into Action
791(1)
Fundamental Elements of TSM
792(6)
Rationale for TSM
798(1)
Implementing TSM: The Model
798(4)
Safety, Health, and Competition in the Global Marketplace
802(12)
Competitiveness Defined
803(1)
Productivity and Competitiveness
804(3)
Quality and Competitiveness
807(1)
How Safety and Health Can Improve Competitiveness
808(6)
Violence in the Workplace
814(29)
Occupational Safety and Workplace Violence: The Relationship
815(1)
Workplace Violence: Definitions
815(1)
Workplace Violence: Cases
816(2)
Size of the Problem
818(1)
Legal Considerations
819(3)
Risk-Reduction Strategies
822(2)
Contributing Social and Cultural Factors
824(2)
OSHA's Voluntary Guidelines
826(8)
Conflict Resolution and Workplace Violence
834(5)
Do's and Don'ts for Supervisors
839(1)
Emergency Preparedness Plan
839(4)
Glossary 843(22)
Index 865

Excerpts

BACKGROUND The field of occupational safety and health has undergone significant change over the past two decades. There are many reasons for this. Some of the more prominent include the following: technological changes that have introduced new hazards in the workplace; proliferation of health and safety legislation and corresponding regulations: increased pressure from regulatory agencies; realization by executives that workers in a safe and healthy workplace are typically more productive: health care and workers' compensation costs: increased pressure from environmental groups and the public; a growing interest in ethics and corporate responsibility; professionalization of health and safety occupations; increased pressure from labor organizations and employees in general: rapidly mounting costs associated with product safety and other types of litigation: and increasing incidents of workplace violence. All of these factors, when taken together, have made the job of the modem safety and health professional more challenging and more important than it has ever been. These factors have also created a need for an up-to-date book on workplace safety and health that contains the latest information needed by people who will practice this profession in the age of global competition and rapid technological change. WHY WAS THIS BOOK WRITTEN AND FOR WHOM? This book was written to fulfill the need for an up-to-date practical teaching resource that focuses on the needs of modern safety and health professionals practicing in the workplace. It is intended for use in universities, colleges, community colleges, and corporate training settings that offer programs, courses, workshops, and/or seminars in occupational safety and health. Educators in such disciplines as industrial technology, manufacturing technology, industrial engineering, engineering technology, occupational safety, management, and supervision may find this book both valuable and easy to use. The direct, straightforward presentation of material focuses on making the theories and principles of occupational safety and health practical and useful in a real-world setting. Up-to-date research has been integrated throughout in a down-to-earth manner. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK The text contains thirty chapters, each focusing on a major area of concern for modern safety and health professionals. The chapters are presented in an order that is compatible with the typical organization of a college-level safety and health course. a standard chapter format is used throughout the book. Each chapter begins with a list of major topics and ends with a comprehensive summary. Following the summary. each chapter contains end material including review questions, key terms and concepts, and endnotes. Within each chapter are case studies to promote classroom discussion, as well as at least one safety fact or myth. These materials are provided to encourage review, stimulate additional thought, and provide opportunities for applying what has been learned. HOW THIS BOOK DIFFERS FROM OTHERS This book was written because in the age of global competition. safety and health in the workplace has changed drastically. Many issues, concerns, and factors relating specifically to modem workplace environments have been given more attention, greater depth of coverage, and more illumination than other textbooks. Some of the areas receiving more attention and specific occupational examples are the following: The OSHAct and OSHA Standards and codes Laws and liability Stress-related problems Life safety Evolving roles of health and safety professionals Health and safety training Human factors in safety Environmental issues and ISO 14000 standards Computers, robots, and automation Ethics and safety Bloodborne pathogens in the workplace Product safety and lia


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