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Organic and Biochemistry for Today,9780534395827
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Organic and Biochemistry for Today

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780534395827

ISBN10:
0534395821
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/14/2004
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole

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Summary

1. Organic Compounds: Alkanes. 2. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons. 3. Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers. 4. Aldehydes and Ketones. 5. Carboxylic Acids and Esters. 6. Amines and Amides. 7. Carbohydrates. 8. Lipids. 9. Proteins. 10. Enzymes. 11. Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis. 12. Nutrition and Energy for Life. 13. Carbohydrate Metabolism. 14. Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism. 15. Body Fluids. Appendix A. The International System of Measurements. Appendix B. Answers to Even-Numbered End-of-Chapter Exercises. Appendix C. Solutions to Learning Checks. Glossary. Index.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Organic Compounds: Alkanes 1(38)
1.1 Carbon: The Element of Organic Compounds
2(1)
1.2 Organic and Inorganic Compounds Compared
3(2)
Study Skills 1.1 Changing Gears for Organic Chemistry
4(1)
1.3 Bonding Characteristics and Isomerism
5(2)
1.4 Functional Groups: The Organization of Organic Chemistry
7(4)
Chemistry and Your Health 1.1 Are Organic Foods Better for You?
10(1)
1.5 Alkane Structures
11(2)
1.6 Conformations of Alkanes
13(2)
1.7 Alkane Nomenclature
15(6)
1.8 Cycloalkanes
21(2)
1.9 The Shape of Cycloalkanes
23(2)
1.10 Physical Properties of Alkanes
25(3)
Chemistry Around Us 1.1 Petroleum
27(1)
Over the Counter 1.1 Hydrating the Skin
28(1)
1.11 Alkane Reactions
28(2)
Chemistry Around Us 1.2 Carbon Monoxide: Silent and Deadly
29(1)
For Future Reference Medicines Removed from the Market
30(1)
Concept Summary
30(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
31(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
31(1)
Key Reactions
31(1)
Exercises
32(5)
Chemistry for Thought
37(2)
Chapter 2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 39(34)
2.1 The Nomenclature of Alkenes
40(3)
Chemistry Around Us 2.1 Seeing the Light
42(1)
2.2 The Geometry of Alkenes
43(4)
Chemistry Around Us 2.2 Watermelon: A Source of Lycopene
44(3)
2.3 Properties of Alkenes
47(6)
Study Skills 2.1 Keeping a Reaction Card File
50(3)
2.4 Addition Polymers
53(3)
Study Skills 2.2 A Reaction Map for Alkenes
53(1)
How Reactions Occur The Hydration of Alkenes: An Addition Reaction
54(2)
2.5 Alkynes
56(2)
2.6 Aromatic Compounds and the Benzene Structure
58(1)
2.7 The Nomenclature of Benzene Derivatives
59(3)
Chemistry and Your Health 2.1 How to Lower Your Cancer Risk
61(1)
2.8 Properties and Uses of Aromatic Compounds
62(9)
Over the Counter 2.1 Smoking: It's Quitting Time
63(2)
For Future Reference Drugs That May Cause Photosensitivity from Sun Exposure
65(1)
Concept Summary
66(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
66(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
66(1)
Key Reactions
67(1)
Exercises
67(4)
Chemistry for Thought
71(2)
Chapter 3 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers 73(32)
3.1 The Nomenclature of Alcohols and Phenols
75(2)
3.2 Classification of Alcohols
77(1)
3.3 Physical Properties of Alcohols
78(2)
3.4 Reactions of Alcohols
80(6)
How Reactions Occur The Dehydration of an Alcohol
81(4)
Study Skills 3.1 A Reaction Map for Alcohols
85(1)
3.5 Important Alcohols
86(2)
Chemistry Around Us 3.1 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
87(1)
3.6 Characteristics and Uses of Phenols
88(2)
Over the Counter 3.1 Outsmarting Poison Ivy
89(1)
3.7 Ethers
90(3)
Chemistry and Your Health 3.1 Vitamin E: As Good As It Seems?
91(2)
Chemistry Around Us 3.2 General Anesthetics
93(1)
3.8 Properties of Ethers
93(1)
3.9 Thiols
94(2)
3.10 Polyfunctional Compounds
96(2)
For Future Reference Good Food Sources of Vitamin E
97(1)
Concept Summary
98(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
98(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
99(1)
Key Reactions
99(1)
Exercises
100(4)
Chemistry for Thought
104(1)
Chapter 4 Aldehydes and Ketones 105(28)
4.1 The Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones
106(4)
Chemistry Around Us 4.1 Faking a Tan
108(2)
4.2 Physical Properties
110(1)
4.3 Chemical Properties
111(11)
Over the Counter 4.1 Birth Control: Progesterone Substitutes
113(4)
How Reactions Occur Hemiacetal Formation
117(2)
Study Skills 4.1 A Reaction Map for Aldehydes and Ketones
119(3)
Chemistry and Your Health 4.1 Vitamin A and Birth Defects
122(1)
4.4 Important Aldehydes and Ketones
122(10)
Chemistry Around Us 4.2 Vanilloids: Hot Relief from Pain
124(1)
For Future Reference Food Sources of Vitamin A
125(1)
Concept Summary
126(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
126(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
126(1)
Key Reactions
126(1)
Exercises
127(5)
Chemistry for Thought
132(1)
Chapter 5 Carboxylic Acids and Esters 133(28)
5.1 The Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids
134(2)
5.2 Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
136(3)
Over the Counter 5.1 Alpha Hydroxy Acids in Cosmetics
138(1)
5.3 The Acidity of Carboxylic Acids
139(1)
5.4 Salts of Carboxylic Acids
140(2)
5.5 Carboxylic Esters
142(4)
5.6 The Nomenclature of Esters
146(2)
Chemistry and Your Health 5.1 Aspirin: Should You Take a Daily Dose?
147(1)
5.7 Reactions of Esters
148(2)
Study Skills 5.1 A Reaction Map for Carboxylic Acids
149(1)
5.8 Esters of Inorganic Acids
150(10)
How Reactions Occur Ester Saponification
151(1)
Chemistry Around Us 5.1 Nitroglycerin in Dynamite and in Medicine
152(1)
For Future Reference Foods Rich in Vitamin C
153(1)
Concept Summary
154(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
154(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
155(1)
Key Reactions
155(1)
Exercises
156(4)
Chemistry for Thought
160(1)
Chapter 6 Amines and Amides 161(30)
6.1 Classification of Amines
162(1)
6.2 The Nomenclature of Amines
162(3)
Over the Counter 6.1 The Right Stuff for Stuffy Noses
164(1)
6.3 Physical Properties of Amines
165(1)
6.4 Chemical Properties of Amines
166(7)
Chemistry Around Us 6.1 Aspirin Substitutes
171(2)
6.5 Amines as Neurotransmitters
173(3)
Study Skills 6.1 A Reaction Map for Amines
173(3)
6.6 Other Biologically Important Amines
176(3)
Chemistry and Your Health 6.1 Caffeine: A User's Guide
176(3)
6.7 The Nomenclature of Amides
179(1)
6.8 Physical Properties of Amides
180(1)
6.9 Chemical Properties of Amides
181(9)
For Future Reference Vitamin B6
184(1)
Concept Summary
184(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
185(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
185(1)
Key Reactions
185(1)
Exercises
185(5)
Chemistry for Thought
190(1)
Chapter 7 Carbohydrates 191(34)
7.1 Classes of Carbohydrates
192(1)
7.2 The Stereochemistry of Carbohydrates
193(5)
7.3 Fischer Projections
198(3)
7.4 Monosaccharides
201(1)
7.5 Properties of Monosaccharides
202(6)
Chemistry Around Us 7.1 Sugar-Free Foods and Diabetes
205(3)
7.6 Important Monosaccharides
208(2)
7.7 Disaccharides
210(3)
Study Skills 7.1 Biomolecules: A New Focus
210(2)
Chemistry and Your Health 7.1 Carbohydrates: To Eat or Not to Eat
212(1)
7.8 Polysaccharides
213(11)
Over the Counter 7.1 Dietary Fiber
217(2)
For Future Reference The Glycemic Index
219(1)
Concept Summary
219(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
220(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
220(1)
Key Reactions
220(1)
Exercises
221(3)
Chemistry for Thought
224(1)
Chapter 8 Lipids 225(28)
8.1 Classification of Lipids
226(1)
8.2 Fatty Acids
226(4)
8.3 The Structure of Fats and Oils
230(2)
8.4 Chemical Properties of Fats and Oils
232(2)
8.5 Waxes
234(1)
Study Skills 8.1 A Reaction Map for Triglycerides
235(1)
8.6 Phosphoglycerides
235(3)
Chemistry and Your Health 8.1 Watch Out for Trans Fatty Acids
236(2)
8.7 Sphingolipids
238(1)
8.8 Biological Membranes
239(2)
8.9 Steroids
241(11)
Chemistry Around Us 8.1 Fish Facts
242(1)
8.10 Steroid Hormones
243(3)
Over the Counter 8.1 Melatonin and DHEA: Hormones at Your Own Risk
244(2)
Chemistry Around Us 8.2 Infants and Respiratory Distress Syndrome
246(1)
8.11 Prostaglandins
246(2)
For Future Reference Cholesterol Content of Selected Foods
247(1)
Concept Summary
248(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
249(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
249(1)
Key Reactions
249(1)
Exercises
250(2)
Chemistry for Thought
252(1)
Chapter 9 Proteins 253(30)
9.1 The Amino Acids
254(2)
9.2 Zwitterions
256(2)
9.3 Reactions of Amino Acids
258(3)
Over the Counter 9.1 Medicines and Nursing Mothers
259(2)
9.4 Important Peptides
261(2)
Chemistry and Your Health 9.1 C-Reactive Protein: A Message from the Heart
262(1)
9.5 Characteristics of Proteins
263(4)
Chemistry Around Us 9.1 Alzheimer's Disease
266(1)
9.6 The Primary Structure of Proteins
267(1)
9.7 The Secondary Structure of Proteins
268(2)
9.8 The Tertiary Structure of Proteins
270(3)
Chemistry Around Us 9.2 Sickle-Cell Disease
271
Study Skills 9.1 Visualizing Protein Structure 2
73(200)
9.9 The Quaternary Structure of Proteins
273(1)
9.10 Protein Hydrolysis and Denaturation
274(3)
For Future Reference The Iron Content of Selected Foods
277(1)
Concept Summary
277(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
278(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
278(1)
Key Reactions
279(1)
Exercises
279(3)
Chemistry for Thought
282(1)
Chapter 10 Enzymes 283(26)
10.1 General Characteristics of Enzymes
284(1)
10.2 Enzyme Nomenclature and Classification
285(2)
Chemistry and Your Health 10.1 Enzymes and Disease
286(1)
10.3 Enzyme Cofactors
287(1)
10.4 The Mechanism of Enzyme Action
288(2)
10.5 Enzyme Activity
290(1)
10.6 Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
291(1)
10.7 Enzyme Inhibition
292(6)
Chemistry Around Us 10.1 Enzyme Discovery Heats Up
293(4)
Over the Counter 10.1 Herbal Supplements
297(1)
Chemistry Around Us 10.2 Antifreeze Poisoning and Competitive Inhibition
298(1)
10.8 The Regulation of Enzyme Activity
298(3)
Study Skills 10.1 A Summary Chart of Enzyme Inhibitors
300(1)
10.9 Medical Application of Enzymes
301(3)
For Future Reference Sources of Folic Acid
304(1)
Concept Summary
304(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
305(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
305(1)
Key Reactions
305(1)
Exercises
306(2)
Chemistry for Thought
308(1)
Chapter 11 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis 309(34)
11.1 Components of Nucleic Acids
310(2)
11.2 The Structure of DNA
312(4)
Over the Counter 11.1 Nucleic Acid Supplements
316(1)
11.3 DNA Replication
316(5)
11.4 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
321(3)
Chemistry Around Us 11.1 Cloning Animals
322(2)
11.5 The Flow of Genetic Information
324(1)
11.6 Transcription: RNA Synthesis
325(3)
Chemistry Around Us 11.2 Is AIDS Forever?
326(2)
11.7 The Genetic Code
328(2)
Study Skills 11.1 Remembering Key Words
329(1)
11.8 Translation and Protein Synthesis
330(3)
11.9 Mutations
333(1)
11.10 Recombinant DNA
333(5)
Chemistry Around Us 11.3 DNA and the Law
335(2)
Chemistry and Your Health 11.1 Genetically Modified Foods
337(1)
For Future Reference Drugs That May Adversely Affect the Fetus and Newborn Infant
338(1)
Concept Summary
338(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
339(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
339(1)
Exercises
340(1)
Chemistry for Thought
341(2)
Chapter 12 Nutrition and Energy for Life 343(28)
12.1 Nutritional Requirements
344(1)
12.2 The Macronutrients
345(4)
Chemistry Around Us 12.1 Vegetarian Diets
349(1)
12.3 Micronutrients I: Vitamins
349(2)
Chemistry and Your Health 12.1 Waistlines Can Be Dangerous
351(1)
12.4 Micronutrients II: Minerals
351(1)
12.5 The Flow of Energy in the Biosphere
352(3)
12.6 Metabolism and an Overview of Energy Production
355(1)
12.7 ATP: The Primary Energy Carrier
356(4)
Study Skills 12.1 Bioprocesses
357(3)
12.8 Important Coenzymes in the Common Catabolic Pathway
360(7)
Over the Counter 12.1 Creatine Supplements: The Jury Is Still Out
361(4)
For Future Reference Food Label Terms
365(2)
Concept Summary
367(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
367(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
368(1)
Key Reactions
368(1)
Exercises
368(2)
Chemistry for Thought
370(1)
Chapter 13 Carbohydrate Metabolism 371(26)
13.1 The Digestion of Carbohydrates
372(1)
13.2 Blood Glucose
372(1)
13.3 Glycolysis
373(3)
Over the Counter 13.1 Lactose Intolerance
374(2)
13.4 The Fates of Pyruvate
376(2)
13.5 The Citric Acid Cycle
378(2)
Chemistry Around Us 13.1 Lactate Accumulation
380(1)
13.6 The Electron Transport Chain
380(2)
13.7 Oxidative Phosphorylation
382(2)
13.8 The Complete Oxidation of Glucose
384(1)
13.9 Glycogen Metabolism
385(11)
Study Skills 13.1 Key Numbers for ATP Calculations
386(1)
Chemistry Around Us 13.2 Carbohydrate Loading and Athletic Endurance
387(1)
13.10 Gluconeogenesis
387(1)
13.11 The Hormonal Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism
388(4)
Chemistry and Your Health 13.1 Diabetes Mellitus
389(2)
For Future Reference Drugs That Deplete Vitamins
391(1)
Concept Summary
392(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
392(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
393(1)
Key Reactions
393(1)
Exercises
394(2)
Chemistry for Thought
396(1)
Chapter 14 Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism 397(29)
14.1 Blood Lipids
398(1)
14.2 Fat Mobilization
399(3)
Over the Counter 14.1 Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs
401(1)
14.3 Glycerol Metabolism
402(1)
14.4 The Oxidation of Fatty Acids
402(2)
14.5 The Energy from Fatty Acids
404(1)
14.6 Ketone Bodies
405(2)
Study Skills 14.1 Key Numbers for ATP Calculations
406(1)
14.7 Fatty Acid Synthesis
407(2)
14.8 Amino Acid Metabolism
409(1)
14.9 Amino Acid Catabolism: The Fate of the Nitrogen Atoms
410(14)
Chemistry and Your Health 14.1 Vegetarian Diets and Protein Requirements
412(2)
Chemistry Around Us 14.1 Phenylketonuria (PKU)
414(1)
14.10 Amino Acid Catabolism: The Fate of the Carbon Skeleton
415(1)
Chemistry Around Us 14.2 Protein Power
416(1)
14.11 Amino Acid Biosynthesis
416(3)
For Future Reference Dietary Sources of Riboflavin
419(1)
Concept Summary
419(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
420(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
420(1)
Key Reactions
420(1)
Exercises
421(3)
Chemistry for Thought
424(2)
Chapter 15 Body Fluids 42s
15.1 A Comparison of Body Fluids
426(1)
15.2 Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport
426(5)
Over the Counter 15.1 Avoiding Food-Drug Interactions
429(2)
Chemistry and Your Health 15.1 Life-Saving Bandages
431(1)
15.3 Chemical Transport to the Cells
431(1)
15.4 The Constituents of Urine
432(1)
15.5 Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
432(2)
15.6 Acid-Base Balance
434(1)
15.7 Buffer Control of Blood pH
434(2)
Chemistry Around Us 15.1 Blood Donation
435(1)
15.8 Respiratory Control of Blood pH
436(1)
15.9 Urinary Control of Blood pH
436(1)
15.10 Acidosis and Alkalosis
437(5)
For Future Reference Drugs That May Affect the Heart
441(1)
Concept Summary
442(1)
Learning Objectives Assessment
442(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
442(1)
Key Reactions
443(1)
Exercises
443(1)
Chemistry for Thought
444
Appendix A The International System of Measurements A-1
Appendix B Answers to Even-Numbered End-of-Chapter Exercises B-1
Appendix C Solutions to Learning Checks C-1
Glossary G-1
Index I-1


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