9781412916875

Organizational Learning : Improving Learning, Teaching, and Leading in School Systems

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781412916875

  • ISBN10:

    1412916879

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-10-05
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc

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Supplemental Materials

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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.
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Summary

This innovative book about organizational learning in K'12 settings reshapes the way teachers and administrators think about people, practices, and policies while providing a compelling roadmap for transformation from within today's school systems.

Table of Contents

List of Tables, Figures and Illustrations
xii
Foreword xiii
Michael Fullan
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xix
PART I: WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING?
1(42)
New Ways of Thinking: New Ways of Learning
3(12)
Moving From an Industrial to a Knowledge Society
3(3)
The Need for Systemic Thinking
5(1)
Theory and Practice
6(1)
A Working Definition of Organizational Learning
7(2)
Deliberate Use
8(1)
Learning
9(1)
Embedding
9(1)
Renewal
9(1)
Case Study
9(2)
Changing Schools: An Opportunity for Growth
10(1)
Looking Ahead
11(1)
Reflective Journal
12(3)
Organizational Learning: Original Sources and Perspectives
15(16)
Why Start With Theory?
16(1)
How Will Understanding Theory Help an Organization Learn?
16(1)
Origins of Perspectives on Organizational Learning
17(9)
Argyris and Schon
17(2)
Example of Single-Loop Learning
19(1)
Example of Double-Loop Learning
20(1)
Daft and Weick
21(2)
Example of a Discovering Organization
23(1)
Fiol and Lyles
23(1)
Comparison of Organizational Adaptation and Organizational Learning
24(1)
Levitt and March
24(1)
Example of Superstitious Learning
25(1)
An Application of Organizational Learning Concepts
26(2)
Example of Organizational Learning by Math Teachers
26(2)
Reflective Journal
28(3)
Core Assumptions of Organizational Learning Perspectives
31(12)
Core Assumptions
32(4)
Multilevel Learning
32(1)
Example of Multilevel Learning
32(1)
Inquiry
33(1)
Shared Understandings
33(1)
Example of Building Shared Understandings
34(1)
Behavioral and Cognitive Change
34(1)
Embedding New Knowledge
35(1)
Example of Embedding Knowledge
35(1)
A Framework for Understanding and Practicing Organizational Learning
36(4)
Sensemaking
36(1)
An Example of the Unbelievable
37(1)
Act-Then-Think
38(1)
Interpretation
38(1)
Example of How Language Frames Issues
39(1)
Reflective Journal
40(3)
PART II: WHY IS ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING IMPORTANT FOR SCHOOLS AND SCHOOL SYSTEMS?
43(22)
Ensuring a Cycle of Continuous Learning
45(8)
From Individual to Organizational Learning
45(1)
From Insights to Institutionalized Learning
46(2)
The Apple Story: Illustrating Four Learning Processes
47(1)
Example of Learning Processes in a Middle School
48(1)
Feed Forward and Feedback
48(1)
Example of Learning Processes: Change in Routines
49(1)
A Cyclical Process of Learning
49(2)
Example of Error Detection as a Source of Learning
50(1)
Reflective Journal
51(2)
Organizational Learning as Renewal
53(12)
Renewal for Sustainability
53(2)
Challenges in Balancing Continuity and Change
54(1)
Deutero Learning
55(2)
Example of an Organizational Defensive Routine
56(1)
Defensive Routines in School Contexts
57(3)
An Analysis of Defensive Routines in Context
58(1)
Defensive Routines in Context
58(2)
From Theory to Practice
60(3)
Conditions for Learning
60(3)
Reflective Journal
63(2)
PART III: HOW DO SCHOOLS AND SCHOOL SYSTEMS FOSTER ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING?
65(132)
Prioritizing Learning for All Members: The Primary Condition
67(22)
Why Is Prioritizing Learning Important?
67(1)
Learning Case Study
68(3)
Learning: A Way of Thinking
71(1)
Changing Thinking, Changing Vocabulary
72(1)
Learning: The Primary Condition
72(11)
Tapping Two Kinds of Knowledge
73(2)
The Individual, the Organization, and the Environment
75(1)
Learning Environments in School Systems
76(1)
Resistance to Change
77(1)
The Importance of Language for Learning
78(1)
Learning as Error Detection and Correction
79(1)
Noticing Errors
80(1)
Openness to Error Detection
81(1)
Example of Openness to Error Detection
81(1)
Errors as Opportunities for Learning
82(1)
Essential Questions
83(1)
Getting Started Activities and Ideas
83(4)
Activity 1--Getting Started: Creating an Inventory
84(1)
Activity 2--Getting Started: Brainstorming Strengths and Suggestions
84(1)
Activity 3--What Does Learning Really Mean?
85(1)
Activity 4--Linking Learning and Practice
86(1)
Further Reading
86(1)
Reflective Journal
87(2)
Fostering Inquiry and Its Collateral Learning
89(20)
Why Is Inquiry Important for Organizational Learning?
89(1)
Inquiry: A Specific Kind of Learning
89(2)
Inquiry Case Study
91(2)
Inquiry: A Way of Thinking
93(1)
Inquiry and Attitudes
93(2)
Inquiry and Attitudes: A Reciprocal Process
94(1)
Direct Inquiry
95(5)
The Importance of Questions
95(1)
Inquiry and Change
96(1)
The Importance of Collective Inquiry
96(2)
Example of Collective Inquiry and Openness to New Ideas
98(1)
Inquiry and Renewal/Continuous Improvement
98(1)
Example of Inquiry as Continuous Improvement
99(1)
Indirect Inquiry
100(2)
Inquiry and Sensemaking
101(1)
``D'' is for Discovery and Direct Inquiry
101(1)
``I'' is for Invention and Indirect Inquiry
102(1)
Essential Questions
102(1)
Getting Started Activities and Ideas
103(4)
Activity 1--What's Working? What Isn't Working?
103(1)
Activity 2--Force-Field Analysis
104(2)
Idea 3--Institutionalizing School Inquiry
106(1)
Further Reading
106(1)
Reflective Journal
107(2)
Facilitating the Dissemination of Learning
109(20)
Why Is Dissemination Important for Organizational Learning?
109(1)
Dissemination Case Study
110(2)
Dissemination: A Way of Thinking
112(1)
Dissemination: Sharing Learning
112(11)
Dissemination for Shared Understandings
113(1)
The Necessity of Dialogue
114(1)
Dialogue: More Than Storytelling
115(1)
Dialogue and New Understandings
116(1)
Examples of Dissemination as Dialogue
117(1)
Factors Enabling and Constraining Dissemination
117(1)
Example of a Mismatch Affecting Dissemination
118(1)
Time for Learning and Sharing
119(1)
School Norms and Teachers' Perspectives
120(1)
Knowing How to Share
121(1)
Teacher Suggestions for Enabling Dissemination
121(1)
Hopeful Signs of Systemic Dissemination
122(1)
Essential Questions
123(1)
Getting Started Activities and Ideas
123(3)
Idea 1--Easy Strategies That Principals Can Facilitate
124(1)
Idea 2--Additional Strategies That Principals Can Try
124(1)
Activity 3--Working Toward Dialogue
125(1)
Idea 4--Group Cultural Norms
125(1)
Further Reading
126(1)
Reflective Journal
126(3)
Practicing Democratic Principles
129(20)
Why Are Democratic Principles Important for Organizational Learning?
129(1)
Democratic Principles Case Study
130(2)
Democratic Principles: A Way of Thinking
132(1)
Democratic Principles: A Way of Living
132(2)
Open Systems and Democratic Principles
134(2)
A Contradiction: Democratic Life and the Bureaucratic Model
136(3)
Free Flows of Communication
136(1)
Equality and Participation Instead of Control ``Over''
137(1)
Checks and Balances: Protecting the Minority
138(1)
Example of a Minority as a Catalyst for Good
138(1)
Roles and Responsibilities in Democratic Organizations
139(3)
Example of Dependency and Low Responsibility
139(1)
Responsibilities of Leaders
139(2)
Summary: Leader as Model
141(1)
Responsibilities of Members
141(1)
Example of Linkages Between Learning and Professional Control
141(1)
Democratic Principles and Organizational Learning
142(1)
Long-Term Threats to Democratic Principles in Organizations
143(1)
Summary of Threats to Democratic Principles
144(1)
Essential Questions
144(1)
Getting Started Activities and Ideas
145(2)
Activity 1--Examining Overt Rules
145(1)
Activity 2--Working Toward Consensus
145(1)
Further Reading
146(1)
Reflective Journal
147(2)
Attending to Human Relationships
149(26)
Why Are Human Relationships Important?
149(1)
Human Relationships Case Study
150(2)
Human Relationships: A Way of Thinking
152(1)
Human Relationships: A Social Infrastructure
153(13)
The Importance of Dialogue, Questioning, and Argument for Human Relationships
153(1)
Dialogue
154(1)
Questioning
155(1)
Argument
156(1)
Trust: The Cornerstone of Community Orientation
157(1)
Schools With Strong Relational Trust
158(1)
Collaboration: Seeking to Satisfy Community and Individual Interests
158(2)
Independence and Interdependence
160(1)
Potential Outcomes of Independence and Interdependence
161(1)
Avoiding Pitfalls of Collaborative Relationships
162(1)
Conflict: When Members' Interests Collide
162(1)
Conflict as a Source of Learning
163(1)
Example of Conflict as Learning
164(1)
Conflict Management
164(2)
Essential Questions
166(1)
Getting Started Activities and Ideas
167(5)
Activity 1--Getting To Know You
168(1)
Activity 2--Striking Gold
168(1)
Idea 3--Continuum of Interpersonal Skills
168(2)
Activity 4--Conflict Resolution and the Dialogue Process
170(1)
Idea 5--Faculty Meetings
171(1)
Further Reading
172(1)
Reflective Journal
172(3)
Providing for Members' Self-Fulfillment
175(22)
Why Is Providing for Members' Self-Fulfillment Important?
175(1)
Members' Self-Fulfillment Case Study
176(3)
Providing for Members' Self-Fulfillment: A Way of Thinking
179(1)
Historical Communities of Learners
179(1)
Nurturing Members' Quest for Meaningful Values and Goals
179(5)
Seeking Shared Values and Aims
181(1)
Values and Practices of High-Performing Teachers/Leaders
181(1)
Expectation: All Members Contribute Knowledge
182(1)
Ways to Solicit Knowledge From All Members
182(1)
Expectation: Learning Is Rewarding
182(1)
Expectation: Innovation Is a Responsibility of All Members
183(1)
Example of Government Influence on Innovation
184(1)
Nurturing Members' Commitment and Connections
184(3)
Commitment
185(1)
Connections
185(1)
Providing Opportunities to Communicate and Connect
186(1)
Nurturing Members' Aspirations for Growth
187(3)
Hiring and Promotion Practices: Balancing Renewal From Within and Without
188(1)
Hiring to Enhance Renewal
189(1)
Essential Questions
190(1)
Getting Started Activities and Ideas
191(4)
Idea 1--How Would You Like to Contribute?
191(1)
Activity 2--Hiring Teams
192(1)
Activity 3--The Role of the System
193(1)
Further Reading
194(1)
Reflective Journal
195(2)
PART IV: LOOKING BACK, LOOKING AHEAD
197(22)
Organizational Learning: A Balancing Act
199(12)
Creating a Culture That Rewards Learning
200(2)
Values and Attitudes
200(1)
Responsibilities of Leaders and Members
201(1)
The Role of Feedback and Feed Forward for Learning
202(3)
Feedback as a Form of Error Correction
204(1)
Example of Influences Affecting Accuracy of Interpretations
204(1)
Ways to Encourage Argument and Feedback
205(1)
Organizational Memory: A Double-Edged Sword
205(3)
Organizational Learning: Improving Learning, Teaching, and Leading
208(3)
Organization Development: Building Schools' Capacity to Develop and Extend Organizational Learning
210(1)
How Research Can Help Schools and Systems Move Forward
211(8)
Examining Assumptions
212(1)
Questions for Researchers and Practitioners
212(2)
Wanting to Learn
214(1)
Attending to All Members' Growth
215(1)
Pinehurst Revisited: Practitioners Modeling Research For and With Students
216(3)
Glossary 219(4)
References 223(10)
Index 233(6)
About the Authors 239

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