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Organizations : Structures, Processes, and Outcomes,9780131849709

Organizations : Structures, Processes, and Outcomes

by ;
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780131849709

ISBN10:
0131849700
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $78.00

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Summary

Based upon classical and contemporary theory and empirical research, this book forms a sociological analysis of organizations, focusing on the impacts that organizations have upon individuals and society.Chapter topics include the nature of organizations, organizational structure, power and power outcomes, leadership, decision making, communication, change, organizational environments and interorganizational relationships, organizational theory, and organizational effectiveness.For individuals and industry professionals interested in the sociology of organizations and organizational behavior.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Part I The Nature of Organizations
Chapter 1 The Nature of Organizations
1(26)
Overview
1(1)
Why Study Organizations?
1(3)
Why Do We Have Organizations?
4(1)
The Definition of Organizations
4(1)
Organizations and Individuals
5(3)
Categories of Individuals
8(1)
Organizations and the Community
9(2)
Societal Outcomes
11(6)
Some Specific Organizational Impacts
11(4)
General Societal Outcomes
15(2)
Organizations and Social Change
17(6)
Internal Change and the Social Structure
17(1)
The Organization as a Change Agent
17(4)
Organizations as Resisters of Change
21(2)
Multinational Organizations
23(2)
The Voluntary Organization
25(1)
Why Study Organizations?
25(1)
Summary and Conclusions
26(1)
Exercises
26(1)
Part II Organizational Structure
Chapter 2 Organizational Structure: Forms and Outcomes
27(36)
Overview
27(2)
Defining Organizational Structure
29(2)
Multiple Structures
30(1)
Structural Forms
31(1)
Complexity
31(6)
Variance of Complexity Elements
37(7)
Coordination and Control
39(3)
Some Additional Correlates of Complexity
42(2)
Formalization
44(5)
Formalization and Other Organizational Properties
46(3)
Formalization and Outcomes for Individuals
49(5)
Reactions to Formalization
51(3)
Centralization
54(8)
What Is Centralized or Decentralized?
55(1)
Centralization and Other Organizational Properties
55(4)
Centralization and Macropolitical Considerations
59(2)
Centralization and Micropolitical Considerations
61(1)
The Outcomes of Centralization
62(1)
Summary and Conclusions
62(1)
Exercises
62(1)
Chapter 3 Organizational Structure: Explanations
63(23)
Overview
63(2)
Contextual Explanations
65(12)
Size
65(3)
Technology
68(4)
Internal Culture
72(1)
The Environment
73(1)
National Culture
74(3)
Organizational Design
77(6)
Strategic Choice
78(3)
The Institutional Explanation
81(2)
Explaining Organizational Structure
83(1)
Summary and Conclusions
84(1)
Exercises
85(1)
Part III Organizational Processes
Chapter 4 Power and Power Outcomes
86(21)
Overview
86(1)
The Nature of Power in Organizations
87(1)
Authority and Power
87(2)
Other Types of Power
89(6)
Access to Resources
90(1)
Resources and Strategic Contingencies
91(3)
Social Definitions and Strategic Contingencies
94(1)
Shifts in Power
95(1)
Power Outcomes: Compliance and Involvement
96(1)
Power Outcomes: Conflict
97(4)
Bases of Conflict
97(2)
Professional-Organizational Relationships
99(2)
The Components of Conflict Situations
101(2)
The Outcomes of Conflict
103(1)
Summary and Conclusions
104(2)
Exercises
106(1)
Chapter 5 Leadership
107(20)
Overview
107(1)
What Is Leadership?
108(6)
Functions of Leadership
109(1)
Components of Leadership
110(4)
The Outcomes of Leadership for Organizations
114(11)
Satisfaction and Productivity
114(3)
Leadership Succession
117(8)
Leadership in the Voluntary Organization
125(1)
Summary and Conclusions
126(1)
Exercises
126(1)
Chapter 6 Decision Making
127(10)
Overview
127(1)
Organizations as Systems of Decisions
128(3)
Bounded Rationality and Organizations as Hierarchies of Decisions
128(1)
Organizational Structure and Decision Making
129(1)
Politics, Conflict, and Decision Making
130(1)
Strategic Decision Making
131(3)
Uncertainty and Strategic Decisions
131(1)
Constraints on Decision Making
132(2)
Strategies of Power and Decision Making
134(2)
Agenda Setting
134(1)
Controlling Information
135(1)
Forming Coalitions
136(1)
Summary and Conclusions
136(1)
Exercises
136(1)
Chapter 7 Communication
137(17)
Overview
137(1)
The Importance of Communication
138(2)
Individual Factors
140(2)
Organizational Factors
142(1)
Vertical Communication
142(4)
Dysfunctions of Hierarchy and Some Positive Outcomes
144(2)
Horizontal Communication
146(3)
Communication Networks
148(1)
Communication Problems
149(2)
Omission
149(1)
Distortion
150(1)
Overload
150(1)
Communication to and from Outside the Organization
151(1)
Possible Solutions
151(2)
Summary and Conclusions
153(1)
Exercises
153(1)
Chapter 8 Change
154(19)
Overview
154(1)
The Nature of Organizational Change
155(2)
The Potential for Change
156(1)
The Change Process
157(10)
Organizational Change Cycles
158(9)
Innovation in Organizations
167(5)
Summary and Conclusions
172(1)
Exercises
172(1)
Part IV Organizational Environments
Chapter 9 Organizational Environments and Interorganizational Relationships
173(34)
Overview
173(1)
The Environment and the Formation of Organizations
174(2)
Environmental Dimensions
176(7)
Technological Conditions
176(1)
Legal Conditions
177(1)
Political Conditions
178(1)
Economic Conditions
179(2)
Demographic Conditions
181(1)
Ecological Conditions
182(1)
Cultural Conditions
182(1)
Analytical Dimensions
183(3)
Environmental Capacity
183(1)
Environmental Homogeneity-Heterogeneity
184(1)
Environmental Stability-Instability
184(1)
Environmental Concentration-Dispersion
184(1)
Domain Consensus-Dissensus
185(1)
Environmental Turbulence
185(1)
The Perception of the Environment
186(1)
The Impact of the Environment on the Organization
187(2)
Interorganizational Relationships
189(4)
IOR: Forms and Levels
189(4)
A Framework for IOR Analysis
193(9)
General Environmental Characteristics
193(1)
Situational Factors
194(3)
Reasons for Interaction
197(3)
Resource Flows
200(1)
Transaction Forms
201(1)
Interlocking Boards of Directors
202(3)
Outcomes of IOR
205(1)
Summary and Conclusions
206(1)
Exercises
206(1)
Part V Organizational Theory and Organizational Effectiveness
Chapter 10 Organizational Theory
207(15)
Overview
207(1)
The Population-Ecology Model
208(3)
The Resource-Dependence Model
211(4)
The Rational-Contingency Model
215(2)
The Institutional Model
217(4)
Combining the Perspectives
221(1)
Summary and Conclusions
221(1)
Exercises
221(1)
Chapter 11 Organizational Effectiveness
222(23)
Overview
222(1)
Toward a Contradiction Model of Effectiveness
223(2)
Models of Organizational Effectiveness
225(14)
The Goal Model
226(3)
Goals and Effectiveness
229(3)
Participant-Satisfaction Models
232(3)
Constraints, Goals, and Participants
235(2)
Effectiveness for Whom?
237(2)
The Contradiction Model
239(5)
Some Applications
241(3)
Summary and Conclusions
244(1)
Exercises
244(1)
References 245(30)
Name Index 275(10)
Subject Index 285

Excerpts

This ninth edition ofOrganizations: Structures, Processes, and Outcomeshas undergone a major revision. Pamela S. Tolbert is now a coauthor and has rewritten three of the chapters. A large number of out-of-date references have been removed. We have tried to make each chapter reflect the cutting edge of the field of sociology of organizations, while retaining the insights that previous research has revealed. Many contemporary organizations are coping with an array of major crises, ranging from terrorism to financial collapse. In the face of these changing conditions, the way in which many organizations continue to function, providing the stability our society needs to persist on its course, is remarkable. This book is intended to help readers understand the sources of both change and stability in modern organizations. We have retained the overviews at the beginning of each chapter and the exercises at the end of each chapter. These appear to be useful resources for students. We have made strong efforts to make this edition more accessible to beginning students of organizations, while still indicating nuances of theories and research that may be of particular interest to those with a stronger background in the field.


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