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Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict : A History with Documents

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9781457613487

ISBN10:
1457613484
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
9/5/2012
Publisher(s):
Bedford/St. Martin's
List Price: $61.33

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Summary

Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict provides a comprehensive, balanced, and accessible narrative of a complex historical topic. The narrative is supported by more than 40 primary documents that highlight perspectives from all sides of the struggle. Throughout the book, the author examines how underlying issues, group motives, religious and cross-cultural clashes, diplomacy and imperialism, and the arrival of the modern era shaped this volatile region. Map, photographs, chronologies, and discussion questions help facilitate student understanding. And a fully updated final chapter makes this the most current history of the topic.

Table of Contents

Preface

List of Photos and Maps

PROLOGUE. The Arab-Israeli Conflict in Historical Perspective: The Middle East and Palestine to 1517

Ancient Israel and Palestine to the Coming of Islam

Political Fragmentation and Rebellion to the Roman Period

Palestine under Roman and Byzantine Rule

The Arabs and the Spread of Islam

Islam and Its Relationship to Judaism and Christianity

Palestine under Muslim Rule to 1517

Chronology

1. OTTOMAN SOCIETY, PALESTINE, AND THE ORIGINS OF ZIONISM, 1516–1914

Commercial Relations and Military Decline, 1500–1800

Regional Strife, Imperial Interventions, and Ottoman Retraction, 1800–1914

Ottoman Society and European Inroads: Communal Tensions in an Age of Reform

Palestine in the Nineteenth Century

Changing Patterns: Trade, Land, Agriculture, and Population

Zionism: Its Origins and Development to 1914

The Jews of Western Europe

Eastern European Jewry and the Rise of Zionism

Theodor Herzl and the Zionist Movement to 1914

The Arab Response to Zionism

Ottoman Policies and Jewish Land Purchases

Growing Apprehension: Palestine and the Arab World

Conclusion

Questions for Consideration

Chronology 0

DOCUMENT 1.1  The Islahat Fermani [Hatti Humayoun] of February 1856

DOCUMENT 1.2 Theodor Herzl, Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State), 1896

DOCUMENT 1.3 Naguib Azoury, The Awakening of the Arab Nation, 1905

2. WORLD WAR I, GREAT BRITAIN, AND THE PEACE SETTLEMENTS: DECIDING PALESTINE’S FATE, 1914–1921

World War I: The Ottoman Empire and the European Powers

British Imperial Objectives

Britain, the Arabs, and the Husayn-McMahon Correspondence, 1915–1916

The Lure of an Arab Revolt

The Husayn-McMahon Correspondence: Defining the Terms

McMahon’s Deception: The Roots of Arab Bitterness

Anglo-French Interests and the Sykes-Picot Agreement

Spheres of Control and Influence

British Evaluation of Their Commitments

Britain, Palestine, and the Balfour Declaration

Chaim Weizmann and British Politics

British War Aims and Palestine

Negotiating the Text

Goals versus Promises: The European Powers, Zionism, and the Arabs, 1917–1918

Reassuring Sharif Husayn

Syria and "Self-Determination"

Zionist-Arab Fears: The Faysal-Weizmann Agreement

The Peace Settlements and the Mandate System

Faysal and the British-French Struggle for Syria

Wilson, the League of Nations, and the Mandate System

Postwar Crises and the Creation of Transjordan

Conclusion

Questions for Consideration

Chronology

DOCUMENT 2.1 The Husayn-McMahon Correspondence, July 1915–January 1916

DOCUMENT 2.2 Drafts and Final Text of the Balfour Declaration

DOCUMENT 2.3 The Faysal-Weizmann Agreement, January 3, 1919

DOCUMENT 2.4 Resolutions of the General Syrian Congress, July 2, 1919

DOCUMENT 2.5 Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, January 1920

DOCUMENT 2.6 The Mandate for Palestine, July 24, 1922

3. PALESTINE BETWEEN THE WARS: Zionism, the Palestinian Arabs, and the British Mandate, 1920–1939

The First Phase: Hopes Fulfilled and Dashed, 1918–1920

Political Leadership in Palestinian Arab and Zionist Communities

Palestinian Arabs and British Policies

Zionist Leadership in Palestine and Abroad

Jews and Arabs under the Mandate: The Clash of Conflicting Aspirations

The Land Question

The Conflict over the Western Wall, 1928–1929

Investigations and Retractions: The Passfield White Paper

European Crises and Their Repercussions: Yishuv Expansion and Arab Rebellion

The Arab Revolt: Its Roots and Impact on Palestine

Britain Rethinks Its Obligations: The 1939 White Paper

Palestine in British Strategy

Partition Foiled: The Woodhead Commission

The St. James Conference

The 1939 White Paper

Great Britain and Palestine on the Eve of World War II

Conclusion

Questions for Consideration

Chronology

DOCUMENT 3.1 The Churchill White Paper, July 1, 1922

DOCUMENT 3.2 Palestine Royal (Peel) Commission Report, July 1937

DOCUMENT 3.3 The 1939 White Paper 000

4. WORLD WAR II AND THE CREATION OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL, 1939–1949

Palestine, Zionism, and the War Effort, 1939–1945

World War II and the Middle East

Palestine: Jewish Immigration and the British Response

The Jewish Division and the Question of Jewish Military Capabilities

The Biltmore Conference and Its Consequences

The White Paper, Partition, and Britain’s Place in the Middle East, 1942–1945

Jewish Terrorism, the Hagana, and the British, 1940–1945

Palestinian Arab Leadership and the Question of Arab Unity, 1939–1945

The End of the Mandate and the Creation of Israel, 1945–1949

The Middle East and Postwar Tensions: Origins of the Cold War

Anglo-American Perspectives on Palestine

Great Britain, the United States, and Zionism, July 1945–February 1947

UNSCOP and United Nations’ Ratification of Partition, February–November 1947

The Battle for Palestine/Israel, December 1947–May 1948

The Arab-Israeli Wars and the Armistices, 1948–1949

Conclusion

Questions for Consideration

Chronology

DOCUMENT 4.1 The "Final Solution": Nazi Extermination of European Jewry

DOCUMENT 4.2 UNSCOP’s Plan of Partition with Economic Union

DOCUMENT 4.3 Jamal al-Husayni, Testimony on Palestinian Arab Reaction to the UNSCOP Proposals, September 29, 1947

DOCUMENT 4.4 Rabbi Hillel Silver, Testimony on Zionist Reaction to the UNSCOP Proposals, October 2, 1947

DOCUMENT 4.5 Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948

5. THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT AND THE QUESTION OF REFUGEES IN THE CONTEXTS OF REGIONAL STRIFE AND COLD WAR RIVALRIES, 1949–1957

Israel, the Arab States, and the Palestinian/Israeli Arabs, 1949–1954 223

Israel: Government, Citizenship, and the Law

Israeli Arabs: Dispossession and Isolation

The Palestinian Refugees

The Western Allies, Israel, and the Arab-Israeli Conflict

Israeli Views of Arabs and the World

The Arab States: Domestic Turmoil and Regional Rivalries

The Cold War and the Middle East: Looking for Allies, 1953–1955 235

Containment and the Northern Tier Concept

The Baghdad Pact

Israel, the Lavon Affair, and the Gaza Raid

The Gaza Raid and the Czech Arms Deal

Israel and France Draw Closer

Border Clashes and Blockade of the Straits of Tiran

Countdown to Suez: Failed Diplomacy and Dreams of Empire, January–November 1956

Carrots and Sticks: Projects and Peace Proposals

Nasser Nationalizes the Canal

Invasion Plans Take Shape

The Attacks and Their Aftermath

Conclusion

Questions for Consideration

Chronology

DOCUMENT 5.1 United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 [Palestinian Refugee Question]—Progress Report of the United National Mediator, December 11, 1948

DOCUMENT 5.2 Letter on the Position of the Palestinian Refugees, November 17, 1949

DOCUMENT 5.3 Gamal Abd al-Nasser, Speech Justifying Nationalization of the Suez Canal Company, July 28, 1956

DOCUMENT 5.4 Golda Meir, Speech to the United Nations General Assembly, March 1, 1957

6. FROM SUEZ TO THE SIX-DAY WAR, 1957–1967

The Struggle for Syria and the Creation of the United Arab Republic, 1957–1958

The United States, Syria, and the Cold War

The United Arab Republic: Context and Significance

Lebanon: Political Strife, Civil War, and Regional Crisis, 1957–1958

Maronite Catholics and Lebanese Political Alignments

Lebanon’s Civil War and the Iraqi Revolution

The Arab World in American Perspective: The Cold War Context

Inter-Arab and Arab-Israeli Tensions, 1958–1964

Nasser Strives to Dominate Arab Politics

Water Wars: Israeli-Syrian Clashes and the Arab Response

The Palestine Question in Arab Politics: The Palestine Liberation Organization and al-Fatah

Israeli Politics to 1967

Great Power Rivalries in the Middle East to 1967

The United States between Israel and the Arabs

Lyndon Johnson and Israel

The Soviet Union and the Arab World

The Crisis Escalates: Military Clashes, Misleading Assurances, and Failed Diplomacy

Syrian-Israeli Tensions and Threats

The Egyptian Blockade of the Tiran Straits

Israeli Debates: Eshkol and the Generals

Israel Attacks: U.S. Assurances and the Pending Egyptian Peace Initiative

The Six-Day War: Israel’s Conquests and American Expectations

Conclusion

Questions for Consideration

Chronology

DOCUMENT 6.1 Communiqué No. 1 from Headquarters of Asifa Forces (Fatah), January 6, 1965

DOCUMENT 6.2 Gamal Abd al-Nasser, Speech to Members of the Egyptian National Assembly, May 29, 1967

DOCUMENT 6.3 Abba Eban, Speech to the U.N. Security Council on Israel’s Reasons for Going to War, June 6, 1967

7. LAND, WAR, AND DIPLOMACY: SHIFTING CALCULATIONS IN A COLD WAR CONTEXT, 1967–1976

The Search for Negotiating Leverage, 1967–1971

The Khartoum Conference

Deliberate Ambiguity: Security Council Resolution 242

Palestinian Agendas and Their Regional Repercussions

Jordan and the Palestinians

Palestinian Factions and the PLO

Lebanon, the Palestinians, and Israel

Wars of Attrition and Cold War Diplomacy: The Rogers Plan

Competing Agendas: Nixon Administration Rivalries and Middle East Policy

Globalism vs. Regionalism under Nixon: Analysis

Jordan and the Palestinians, August–September 1970

The Jordanian Crisis: Regional and International Repercussions

The 1973 War and Its Consequences

The Arabs: Seeking Responses to Signals

Israel and the Politics of Expansion: The Galili Document

The 1973 War: The Chance for Diplomacy

Tactics and Ultimate Intentions: The PLO and Israel, 1973–1977

Conclusion

Questions for Consideration

Chronology

DOCUMENT 7.1 U.N. Security Council Resolution 242, November 22, 1967

DOCUMENT 7.2 The Palestinian National Charter: Resolutions of the Palestine National Council, July 1–17, 1968; PLO Resolution on Security Council Resolution 242, June 1974

DOCUMENT 7.3 U.N. Security Council Resolution 338, October 22, 1973

DOCUMENT 7.4 Yasir Arafat, Address to the U.N. General Assembly, November 13, 1974

DOCUMENT 7.5 Yosef Tekoah, Response to Arafat’s Address, November 13, 1974

8. LEBANON, THE WEST BANK, AND THE CAMP DAVID ACCORDS: The Palestinian Equation in the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1977–1984

The Lebanese Civil War and Its Aftermath, 1975–1978

Roots of the Lebanese Conflict

Arab Factions and Alignments vis-à-vis Syria and Israel

U.S. Diplomacy amid Regional Strife

The Carter Administration and Camp David, January 1977–September 1978

Carter’s Failed Attempts to Restructure Negotiating Parameters

The Road to Camp David, November 1977–September 1978

Camp David Exchanges: The West Bank and the Gaza Strip

The Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty: The Carter Legacy

The Reagan Administration and the Arab-Israeli Conflict

The Anticommunist Crusade: The Middle East in Global Perspective

West Bank and Israeli Arabs between Jordan and Israel, 1948–1977

Sharon’s Vision: Israel, Israeli Arabs, and the West Bank, 1977–1982

Begin and the West Bank after Camp David

Lebanon: The Struggle for Hegemony

The Phalange-Likud Alliance

American Diplomacy and Its Impact

The Israeli Invasion of Lebanon, August 1981–September 1982

America’s Lebanon Policy, September 1982–February 1984

Lebanon Postscript, 1984–1991: The Taif Accord and Hizbollah

Conclusion

Questions for Consideration

Chronology

DOCUMENT 8.1 Platform of the Likud Coalition, March 1977

DOCUMENT 8.2 Anwar al-Sadat, Speech to the Israeli Knesset, November 20, 1977

DOCUMENT 8.3 Menachem Begin, Reply to President Sadat, November 20, 1977

DOCUMENT 8.4 A Framework for Peace in the Middle East Agreed at Camp David, September 17, 1978

9. FROM PARIAH TO PARTNER: The PLO and the Quest for Peace in Global and Regional Contexts, 1984–1993

Peace Gambits, Terrorism, and Political Strife, 1984–1987

Competing Agendas and Coalition Politics: Israel and the Jordanian Option

Temporary Allies: The Husayn-Arafat Accord

The United States and Israel: Cold War Calculations

The Intifada

Roots of the Intifada

The Gaza Strip

Intifada: The First Two Years, December 1987–December 1989

The Intifada and Islamic Resistance

The Intifada and International Politics, 1988–1991

The First Gulf Crisis

The United States: Motives and Opportunities

Arab and Israeli Reactions to the Gulf Crisis

The Intifada, the Gulf Crisis, and the Negotiating Process

Diplomacy and Conflict: The Madrid Talks, October 1991–Summer 1993

Conclusion

Questions for Consideration

Chronology

DOCUMENT 9.1 Communiqué No. 1 of the Intifada Issued by the Unified National Leadership, January 8, 1988

DOCUMENT 9.2 Leaflet No. 1 of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas), January 1988

DOCUMENT 9.3 Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, Peace Initiative of the National Unity Government, May 14, 1989

10. ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN/ARAB NEGOTIATIONS AND AGREEMENTS, 1993–1999

The 1993 Oslo Accord

The Terms

Analysis of the Accord

East Jerusalem and the Settlements

The Politics and Economics of Violence

Economic and Diplomatic Inequalities

Prelude to Oslo 2

Oslo 2 and the Rabin Assassination

Terms of the Agreement

The Rabin Assassination

From Rabin to Netanyahu: The Peres Government and Likud’s Victory, November 1995–May 1996

The Netanyahu Government, June 1996–July 1999

Reciprocity and Confrontation

The Hebron Agreement, January 1997

Palestinian Communal Tensions and Charges of Corruption

The Mashal Affair

The Wye Memorandum and the Collapse of the Netanyahu Coalition

Jewish Communal Strife: The Culture War Intensifies

Domestic and Regional Realignments, December 1998–July 1999

Conclusion

Questions for Consideration

Chronology

DOCUMENT 10.1 The Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles, Washington, D.C., September 13, 1993

DOCUMENT 10.2 The Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement (Oslo 2) on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, September 28, 1995

DOCUMENT 10.3 Yitzhak Rabin’s Last Speech at Tel Aviv Peace Rally, November 4, 1995

11. THE OSLO PROCESS UNDONE Camp David 2000, Palestinian Rebellion/Factionalism, and Israeli Unilateralism, 1999–2012

Prelude to Camp David, July 1999–July 2000

The Camp David Talks: Background and Context

What Happened at Camp David? July 2000

Initial Negotiating Positions

Barak’s Proposal and Clinton’s Role

Conflicting Interpretations

Subsequent Diplomacy

The Clinton Parameters

The Taba Discussions, January 2001

The Second Intifada

The Initial Stage, September 2000–March 2001

The Political Context of the Intifada: Bush, Sharon, and Arafat

Intensified Conflict and Suicide Bombings: The Israeli Barrier

Iraq and the Neoconservative Vision of a U.S.-Israeli Strategic Alliance

Official and Unofficial Reports and Peace Efforts, 2001–2005

The Sharm al-Sheikh Fact-Finding (Mitchell) Committee

The Rose Garden Address, June 2002

The Road Map vs. the Rose Garden Address

The Aqaba Summit, June 2003

The Geneva Initiative, October 2003

The Israeli Disengagement Plan

The Disengagement Plan and Israeli Politics

The Palestinian Elections: Hamas, Fatah, and the Peace Process

Israel, Gaza, and Lebanon: Rockets, Hostages, and Political Ambitions, 2006–2009

Fanfare and Capitulation: The Obama Administration’s Peace Efforts, 2009–2012

U.S. Peace Efforts, 2009–2012

The Regional and Domestic Contexts to Palestinian-Israeli Tensions: Arab Spring and Iranian Nuclear Development

Conclusion

Questions for Consideration

Chronology

DOCUMENT 11.1 "You’ll Miss Me Yet": Interview with Marwan Barghouti, November 9, 2001

DOCUMENT 11.2 "The Urgent Thing, It Is to Unconditionally Disengage Ourselves from the Territories": Interview with Ami Ayalon, December 22, 2001

DOCUMENT 11.3 Ariel Sharon’s Disengagement Plan: Key Principles, April 2004

DOCUMENT 11.4 Arab Peace Plan Proposed by Saudi Arabia and Adopted at Arab League Summit, Beirut, March 27, 2002

DOCUMENT 11.5 President Obama’s Cairo Speech on a New Beginning to America’s Relations with the Islamic World, June 11, 2009

DOCUMENT 11.6 Remarks by President Obama in Address to the United Nations General Assembly, September 21, 2011

EPILOGUE

Glossary

Selected Bibliography

Index

Chronology

PHOTOS AND MAPS

Photos

1.1 Arab Farmers in the Jezreel Plain, circa 1900

1.2 A Zionist Settler with a Manufactured Reaper Imported from Europe

1.3 Theodor Herzl, circa 1895

1.4 The Western (Wailing) Wall in Jerusalem, circa 1900

1.5 Turkish Troops Marching in Jerusalem, 1898

2.1 The Sharif Husayn of Mecca at Jidda, December 12, 1916

2.2 Ottoman Kankaleh Stretchers near the Suez Canal, February 1915

2.3 British Proclamation of Martial Law in Jerusalem, December 11, 1917

2.4 Emir Faysal with His Aides and Advisers at the 1919 Peace Conference

3.1 Zionist Immigration Camp near Tel Aviv, circa 1919–1923

3.2 Laying the Cornerstone of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, April 1925

3.3 Palestinian Delegation Protesting British Policy following the Western Wall Riots, 1929

3.4 Arabs Protesting Zionist Immigration, Jerusalem, 1933

3.5 Palestinian Christian Women Wear Keffiyeh as the Arab Revolt Erupts, August 1937

3.6 Organized Zionist Protest to 1939 White Paper

4.1 The Jewish Agency Executive Building, May 1942

4.2 Hajj Amin al-Husayni and Adolf Hitler Meeting in Germany, circa November 1941

4.3 The Irgun Bombing of the King David Hotel, June 1946

4.4 The Refugee Ship Exodus, July 1947

4.5 David Ben-Gurion, Israel’s First Prime Minister, Reads the Israeli Declaration of Independence, May 14, 1948

4.6 Palestinian Peasants Fleeing an Unidentified Village, October 1948

5.1 Palestinian Refugee Camp at Nahr al-Barid in Northern Lebanon, Winter 1948–1949

5.2 Gamal Abd al-Nasser after Nationalizing the Suez Canal, September 1956

6.1 Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban Calls on U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson, May 26, 1967

6.2 Israeli Bulldozers Destroy the Maghrebi Quarter Facing the Western Wall in East Jerusalem, June 1967

7.1 Moshe Dayan Confers with Golda Meir, circa 1973

7.2 Kilometer 101, the Cease-Fire Line

7.3 PLO Head Yasir Arafat Clasps His Hands over His Head as He Addresses the United Nations General Assembly, November 13, 1974

8.1 Maronite Militia Leaders Dany Chamoun and Bashir Gemayel, April 12, 1978, Press Conference

8.2 Sadat, Carter, and Begin Clasp Hands on the North Lawn of the White House after Signing the Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel on March 26, 1979

8.3 Ariel Sharon Shows Map of Plans for New Settlements in the West Bank to Visiting Members of the Likud Party, 1984

8.4 The U.S. Embassy in Beirut after the Terrorist Attack on April 18, 1983

9.1 Jabalya Palestinian Refugee Camp, Gaza

9.2 Palestinian Christian Women Support the Intifada, 1988

9.3 Palestinian Muslim Women Attend a Hamas Rally at Bir Zeit University, West Bank, circa 1992

10.1 The Handshake: Yitzhak Rabin and Yasir Arafat Shake Hands with President Bill Clinton as Onlooker Following the Signing of the Declaration of Principles, September 13, 1993

10.2 A Right-Wing Israeli Demonstration against the 1995 Interim Agreement (Oslo 2), October 5, 1995

10.3 Jordan’s King Husayn at Yitzhak Rabin’s Funeral, November 1995

11.1 Israel’s Security Barrier

11.2 Palestinian Rocket Fire from Gaza, 2008

11.3 Israeli Mobile Artillery Firing into Gaza

Maps

The Middle East Inside front cover

1.1 Ottoman Palestine and Syria, 1910

2.1 Entente Partition Plans, 1915–1917

2.2 Arab Middle East after Mandate Allocation at San Remo, 1920

3.1 Peel Commission Partition Plan, 1937

4.1 The 1947 United Nations’ Partition Plan as a Reflection of Patterns of Land Ownership in Palestine by Subdistrict, 1944

4.2 The 1948 War and Israeli Expansion beyond the Partition Lines to 1949

4.3 The State of Israel, 1949–1967

5.1 The Suez Crisis, 1956

6.1 Israeli-Syrian Demilitarized Zones and Water Issues

6.2 Territory Acquired by Israel in the 1967 War

7.1 The Results of the 1973 War, October 6–24

8.1 Lebanon: Regional Topography Indicating Population Distribution by Religious Affiliation and Refugee Camps, 1985

9.1 The West Bank: Israeli Settlements, 1967–1987

9.2 The Gaza Strip, 1988

10.1 Israel and the Territories Subject to Negotiation, 1993–2000

10.2 The West Bank and Jerusalem in Light of the Oslo 2 Accord, Showing Areas A, B, C, and Likely Areas of Israeli Retention According to Settlement Patterns around Jerusalem

11.1 West Bank Final Status Map Presented by Israel, May 2000

11.2 Final Status Map Presented by Israel, Taba, January 2001

11.3 Israel’s West Bank Separation Barrier, 2007

11.4 West Bank Aquifers

 



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