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Paragraphs and Essays : A Worktext with Readings,9780618421060
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Paragraphs and Essays : A Worktext with Readings

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780618421060

ISBN10:
0618421068
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/10/2004
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $121.33
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Summary

A mid-level worktext with readings and a handbook, Paragraphs and Essays provides an integrated approach to the writing process and the rhetorical modes typically covered in freshman composition classes. The Ninth Edition retains Brandon's friendly, informal tone, engaging exercises, and offbeat readings that encourage developmental students to persevere and become confident, competent writers. Since writing is not a one-step process or linear, Brandon compares it to the ebb and flow of tides. He uses this visual analogy to convey the recursive nature of writing, comparing the movement of advancing and retreating waves to rethinking, reordering, and rewriting. Icons stress the flow of writing and the critical importance of revision, showing rolling waves proceeding by degrees to students' main goal: a well-written essay. These waves appear at the beginning of each chapter to indicate which steps of the process are covered, and next to writing guidelines and the Writing Process Worksheet where students practice applying what they have learned. A three-step approach to writing asks students to explore, experiment, and gather information in step one; write the controlling idea and organize the supporting details in step two; and draft, revise, and edit their work in step three. Detailed student examples illustrate each stage of the process to reinforce key principles and model good writing. New! Forty-five percent of the reading selections are new. In addition, updated grammar exercises maintain student interest, motivating them to practice their skills. New! The chapter on reading-related writing (previously Chapter 6) now appears at the beginning of the text to stress how reading other texts forms the basis for most college writing. Students learn about underlining, annotating, outlining and summarizing outside sources. A chapter on research guides students through the process of finding and analyzing sources, creating an outline, and writing an essay. Students can model their work on the annotated sample outline, essay, and bibliography included in this chapter. Paired readings in several chapters promote critical thinking and inspire students to respond in writing. A complete handbook at the end of the text gives students a convenient place to turn for help on grammar and bibliographic citations.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
Student Overview 1(1)
The Flow of Writing: Icon and Theme
2(1)
Practice with Principles
2(1)
Strategies for Self-Improvement
3(3)
Writing Process Worksheet
6(1)
Part I: Linking Reading and Writing
7(20)
Reading-Related Writing
9(18)
Reading for Writing
10(4)
Underlining
10(1)
Annotating
11(1)
Outlining
12(2)
Types of Reading-Related Writing
14(4)
Writing a Summary
15(1)
Writing a Reaction
16(1)
Writing a Two-Part Response
17(1)
Journal Writing
18(1)
Cross-Curricular and Career-Related Writing
18(1)
Supporting Ideas with Quotations and References
18(1)
Basic Documentation
19(1)
Documentation in Action
20(1)
Essays and Applications
20(5)
``The Struggle to Be an All-American Girl''
20(3)
Elizabeth Wong
``Native American Core Values and Cooperative Learning''
23(2)
Lee Little Soldier
Writer's Guidelines
25(2)
Part II: The Writing Process
27(72)
The Writing Process: Stage One Exploring / Experimenting / Gathering Information
29(10)
The Writing Process Defined
30(1)
The Writing Process Worksheet
30(1)
The Assignment
30(1)
Your Audience
31(1)
Stage One Strategies
31(6)
Freewriting
31(3)
Brainstorming
34(2)
Clustering
36(1)
Gathering Information
37(1)
Writer's Guidelines
37(2)
The Writing Process: Stage Two Writing the Controlling Idea / Organizing and Developing Support
39(13)
Defining the Controlling Idea
40(1)
Writing the Controlling Idea as a Topic Sentence or Thesis
40(4)
Organizing Support
44(6)
Listing
45(1)
Clustering
45(1)
Outlining
45(5)
Writer's Guidelines
50(2)
The Writing Process: Stage Three Writing / Revising / Editing
52(19)
Writing the First Draft
53(1)
Revising
54(9)
Coherence
54(2)
Language
56(2)
Unity
58(1)
Emphasis
59(1)
Support
60(1)
Sentences
61(2)
Editing
63(1)
Student Demonstration of All Stages of the Writing Process
64(6)
Writing Process Worksheet
64(6)
Writer's Guidelines
70(1)
Writing the Paragraph
71(11)
The Paragraph Defined
72(1)
Basic Paragraph Patterns
72(3)
The Writing Process and the Paragraph
75(1)
Student Demonstration of All Stages of the Writing Process
76(4)
Writing Process Worksheet
76(4)
Writer's Guidelines
80(2)
Writing the Essay
82(17)
The Essay Defined in Relation to the Developmental Paragraph
83(2)
Special Paragraphs Within the Essay
85(3)
Introductions
85(2)
Conclusions
87(1)
Student Demonstration of All Stages of the Writing Process
88(8)
Writing Process Worksheet
89(7)
Writer's Guidelines
96(3)
Part III: Writing Paragraphs and Essays: Instruction, with Reading Selections
99(278)
Narration: Moving Through Time
101(24)
Writing Narration
102(3)
The Narrative Defined
102(1)
Basic Patterns
102(1)
Verb Tense
103(1)
Point of View
103(1)
Description
104(1)
Dialogue
104(1)
Practicing Narrative Patterns
105(2)
Connecting Reading and Writing
107(14)
Professional Writers
107(1)
``W-A-T-E-R''
107(1)
Helen Keller
``B. B. King Live!''
108(1)
Andrea Lee
``No Tears for Frankie''
109(2)
Gina Greenlee
``Assembly Line Adventure''
111(4)
Lesley Hazelton
Student Writers
115(2)
``A Moment in the Sun'' (demonstration with stages)
117(1)
Karen Bradley
``From Survival to Living''
118(3)
Jeanne Sewell
Topics for Writing Narration
121(2)
Reading-Related Topics
121(1)
General Topics
122(1)
Cross-Curricular Topics
123(1)
Career-Related Topics
123(1)
Writer's Guidelines
123(2)
Description: Moving Through Space
125(24)
Writing Description
126(4)
Types of Description
126(1)
Techniques of Descriptive Writing
127(3)
Practicing Descriptive Patterns
130(4)
Connecting Reading and Writing
134(12)
Professional Writers
134(1)
``The Mousetrap''
134(1)
Craig Finley
``The Alley''
135(1)
Amy Tan
``More''
136(2)
Judith Ortiz Cofer
``In the Land of `Coke Cola'''
138(3)
William Least Heat-Moon
Student Writers
141(2)
``The Drag'' (demonstration with stages)
143(1)
Mike Kavanagh
``My Aircraft Carrier `Bedroom'''
144(2)
Chanya Werner
Topics for Writing Description
146(2)
Reading-Related Topics
146(1)
General Topics
147(1)
Cross-Curricular Topics
147(1)
Career-Related Topics
148(1)
Writer's Guidelines
148(1)
Exemplification: Writing with Examples
149(18)
Surveying Exposition
150(1)
Writing Paragraphs and Essays of Exemplification
150(2)
Characteristics of Good Examples
150(1)
Techniques for Finding Examples: Listing and Clustering
151(1)
Number and Order of Examples
152(1)
Practicing Patterns of Exemplification
152(1)
Connecting Reading and Writing
153(11)
Professional Writers
153(1)
``Novelty Sells''
153(1)
Wayne D. Hoyer
Deborah J. MacInnis
``Colorado Springs---Every Which Way''
154(1)
Eric Schlosser
``Working in a Chicken-Processing Plant''
155(2)
Gregory Moorhead
Ricky W. Griffin
``Spanglish Creeps into Mainstream''
157(2)
Deborah Kong
Student Writers
159(2)
``Cheating Is Not Worth the Bother'' (demonstration with stages)
161(1)
Lara Olivas
``Traveling the World at Home''
162(2)
Garabed Yegavian
Topics for Writing Exemplification
164(2)
Reading-Related Topics
164(1)
General Topics
165(1)
Cross-Curricular Topics
165(1)
Career-Related Topics
166(1)
Writer's Guidelines
166(1)
Analysis by Division: Examining the Parts
167(23)
Writing Instruction
168(1)
Procedure
168(1)
Organization
168(1)
Sequence of Parts
168(1)
Practicing Patterns of Analysis by Division
169(1)
Connecting Reading and Writing
170(16)
Professional Writers
170(1)
``The Family and Its Parts''
170(1)
Ian Robertson
``The Zones of the Sea''
171(1)
Leonard Engel
``Low Wages, High Skills''
172(5)
Katherine S. Newman
``Growing Up Asian in America''
177(5)
Kesaya E. Noda
Student Writers
182(2)
``Skin'' (demonstration with stages)
184(1)
Selin Simon
``Ben Franklin, Renaissance Man''
185(1)
Allison Udell
Topics for Writing Analysis by Division
186(2)
Reading-Related Topics
186(1)
General Topics
187(1)
Cross-Curricular Topics
188(1)
Career-Related Topics
188(1)
Writer's Guidelines
188(2)
Process Analysis: Writing About Doing
190(22)
Writing Process Analysis
191(2)
Two Types of Process Analysis: Directive and Informative
191(1)
Working with Stages
191(1)
Basic Forms
192(1)
Combined Forms
193(1)
Useful Prewriting Procedure
193(1)
Practicing Patterns of Process Analysis
193(3)
Connecting Reading and Writing
196(13)
Professional Writers
196(1)
``The Birth of an Island''
196(1)
Rachel Carson
``Zen and the Art of Pomegranate Eating''
197(2)
Will Brock
Saul M. Kassin, and Steven Fein, ``How Low-Balling Works on Your Mind''
199(2)
Sharon S. Brehm
``Fast, Sleek, and Shiny: Using the Internet to Help Buy New Cars''
201(2)
Preston Gralla
Student Writers
203(3)
``Sabzi Polo Mahi'' (demonstration with stages)
206(1)
Maysim Mondegaran
``What's Behind a Brilliant Smile''
207(2)
Chanya Werner
Topics for Writing Process Analysis
209(1)
Reading-Related Topics
209(1)
General Topics
209(1)
Cross-Curricular Topics
210(1)
Career-Related Topics
210(1)
Writer's Guidelines
210(2)
Cause and Effect: Determining Reasons and Outcomes
212(24)
Writing Cause and Effect
213(3)
Exploring and Organizing
213(1)
Composing a Topic Sentence or a Thesis
213(1)
Writing an Outline
214(1)
Considering Kinds of Causes and Effects
214(1)
Evaluating the Importance of Sequence
215(1)
Introducing Ideas and Working with Patterns
215(1)
Practicing Patterns of Cause and Effect
216(2)
Connecting Reading and Writing
218(14)
Professional Writers
218(1)
``What Happens to Steroid Studs?''
218(1)
Anastasia Toufexis
``Family Heroes and Role Models''
219(1)
Marian Wright Edelman
``The Purposes of Shopping''
220(1)
Phyllis Rose
``Living in Sin''
221(5)
Dayana Yochim
``The Seven Sustainable Wonders of the World''
226(2)
Alan Thein Durning
Student Writers
228(2)
``More Than the Classroom'' (demonstration with stages)
230(1)
Richard Blaylock
``Getting High and Living Low''
230(2)
Sergio Ramos
Topics for Writing Cause and Effect
232(2)
Reading-Related Topics
232(1)
General Topics
233(1)
Cross-Curricular Topics
234(1)
Career-Related Topics
234(1)
Writer's Guidelines
234(2)
Classification: Establishing Groups
236(29)
Writing Classification
237(4)
Selecting a Subject
237(1)
Using a Principle to Avoid Overlapping
237(1)
Establishing Classes
237(1)
Using Simple and Complex Forms
238(3)
Practicing Patterns of Classification
241(1)
Connecting Reading and Writing
242(19)
Professional Writers
242(1)
``Styles of Leadership''
242(2)
William M. Pride
Robert J. Hughes
Jack R. Kapoor
``Nobles, Peasants, and Clergy''
244(1)
T. Walter Wallbank
``Which Stooge Are You?''
245(4)
Ron Geraci
``The Different Ways of Being Smart''
249(4)
Sara Gilbert
``How to Deal with a Difficult Boss''
253(4)
Donna Brown Hogarty
Student Writers
257(2)
``Doctors Have Their Symptoms, Too'' (demonstration with stages)
259(1)
Boris Belinsky
``Types of Hepatitis''
260(1)
Annie Chen
Topics for Writing Classification
261(3)
Reading-Related Topics
261(2)
General Topics
263(1)
Cross-Curricular Topics
263(1)
Career-Related Topics
263(1)
Writer's Guidelines
264(1)
Comparison and Contrast: Showing Similarities and Differences
265(31)
Comparison and Contrast Defined
266(1)
Generating Topics and Working with the 4 Ps
266(5)
Purpose
266(1)
Points
267(1)
Patterns
268(1)
Presentation
269(2)
Analogy
271(1)
Practicing Patterns of Comparison and Contrast
271(3)
Connecting Reading and Writing
274(17)
Professional Writers
274(1)
``Business Battle Tactics''
274(2)
Robert McGarvey
``Pink Kittens and Blue Spaceships''
276(1)
Alison Lurie
``The Small Town and the Big City''
277(1)
Craig Calhoun
``Los Chinos Discover el Barrio''
278(3)
Luis Torres
Paired Essays on Orderly and Disorderly People
281(1)
``Neat People vs. Sloppy People''
282(2)
Suzanne Britt
``The Messy Are in Denial''
284(3)
Joyce Gallagher
Student Writers
287(2)
``Disneyland or Magic Mountain: Fantasy or Thrills?'' (demonstration with stages)
289(1)
Omar Zayas
``The Piper Cherokee and the Cessna 172''
290(1)
Brittany Markovic
Topics for Writing Comparison and Contrast
291(3)
Reading-Related Topics
291(2)
General Topics
293(1)
Cross-Curricular Topics
294(1)
Career-Related Topics
294(1)
Writer's Guidelines
294(2)
Definition: Clarifying Terms
296(28)
Writing Definition
297(5)
Techniques for Writing Simple Definitions
297(3)
Techniques for Writing Extended Definitions
300(2)
Practicing Patterns of Definition
302(3)
Connecting Reading and Writing
305(14)
Professional Writers
305(1)
``Burnout''
305(1)
Gregory Moorhead
Ricky W. Griffin
``Georgia on My Mind''
306(1)
Ray Jenkins
``Tortillas''
307(1)
Jose Antonio Burciaga
``A Working Community''
308(3)
Ellen Goodman
``Is It Sexual Harassment?''
311(4)
Ellen Bravo
Ellen Cassedy
Student Writers
315(2)
``Going Too Far'' (demonstration with stages)
317(1)
Linda Wong
``Prison Slang''
318(1)
Louise Rubec
Topics for Writing Definition
319(3)
Reading-Related Topics
319(2)
General Topics
321(1)
Cross-Curricular Topics
321(1)
Career-Related Topics
321(1)
Writer's Guidelines
322(2)
Literary Analysis: Reacting to Stories
324(28)
Why We Read Stories
325(1)
Interpreting Narrative Literature
325(1)
Writing About Literature
325(2)
Setting
325(1)
Conflict
326(1)
Characters
326(1)
Plot
326(1)
Theme
326(1)
Point of View
326(1)
Analysis
327(1)
Connecting Reading and Writing
327(1)
Reading Selections on the Theme of Love
327(20)
Professional Writers
327(1)
``How Do I Love Thee?''
328(2)
Robert J. Trotter
``The Girls in Their Summer Dresses''
330(4)
Irwin Shaw
``The Story of an Hour''
334(3)
Kate Chopin
``Frankie and Johnny''
337(2)
Anonymous
``My Last Duchess''
339(3)
Robert Browning
Student Writers
342(3)
``More Than Just a House Call'' (demonstration with stages)
345(1)
Ajax Mylonas
``The Use of Self-Analysis''
346(1)
Gloria Mendez
Finding Topics for Literary Analysis
347(1)
Analytical Writing
347(1)
Speculative Writing
348(1)
Topics for Writing About Stories
348(2)
Reading-Related Topics
348(2)
Career-Related Topics
350(1)
General Topic
350(1)
Writer's Guidelines
350(2)
Argument: Writing to Persuade
352(25)
Writing Paragraphs and Essays of Argument
353(5)
Techniques for Developing Argument
353(1)
Your Audience
354(1)
Kinds of Evidence
354(1)
Logical Fallacies
355(3)
Practicing Patterns of Argument
358(2)
Connecting Reading and Writing
360(13)
Professional Writers
360(1)
``Get a Knife, Get a Dog, But Get Rid of Guns''
360(2)
Molly Ivins
``I Surrender, Dear''
362(3)
Tamala M. Edwards
``Graffiti: Taking a Closer Look''
365(4)
Christopher Grant
Student Writers
369(1)
``My Life to Live---or Not'' (demonstration with stages)
370(1)
Angela DeSarro
``Teaching Our Kids to Shoot `Em Up''
371(2)
Tina Sergio
Topics for Writing Argument
373(3)
Reading-Related Topics
373(1)
General Topics
374(1)
Cross-Curricular Topics
375(1)
Career-Related Topics
375(1)
Writer's Guidelines
376(1)
Part IV: Using Sources
377(26)
Writing the Research Paper
379(24)
The Research Paper Defined
380(1)
Ten Steps to Writing a Research Paper
380(14)
Step 1: Select a Topic
380(1)
Step 2: Find Sources
381(2)
Step 3: List Sources
383(6)
Step 4: Take Notes
389(1)
Step 5: Refine Your Thesis and Outline
390(1)
Step 6: Write Your First Draft
390(3)
Step 7: Revise Your First Draft
393(1)
Step 8: Prepare Your Works Cited Section
393(1)
Step 9: Write Your Final Draft
393(1)
Step 10: Submit Required Materials
394(1)
Student Writer: ``Zoos---An Endangered Species?''
394(8)
Writer's Guidelines
402(1)
Part V: Handbook
403(2)
Handbook: Writing Effective Sentences
405(120)
Subjects and Verbs
406(7)
Subjects
406(1)
Nouns
406(1)
Pronouns
406(1)
Compound Subjects
407(1)
Implied Subjects
407(1)
Trouble Spot: Prepositional Phrases
407(1)
Trouble Spot: The Words Here and There
408(1)
Verbs
408(1)
Types of Verbs
408(1)
Verb Phrases
408(1)
Trouble Spot: Words Such as Never, Not, and Hardly
408(1)
Compound Verbs
409(1)
Trouble Spot: Verbals
409(1)
Location of Subjects and Verbs
409(4)
Kinds of Sentences
413(9)
Clauses
413(1)
Independent Clauses
413(1)
Dependent Clauses
413(1)
Relative Clauses
413(1)
Trouble Spot: Phrases
414(1)
Types of Sentences
414(1)
Simple Sentences
414(1)
Compound Sentences
415(2)
Complex Sentences
417(1)
Compound-Complex Sentences
418(4)
Combining Sentences
422(9)
Coordination: The Compound Sentence
422(1)
Punctuation with Coordinating Conjunctions
423(1)
Semicolons and Conjunctive Adverbs
423(1)
Punctuation with Semicolons and Conjunctive Adverbs
424(1)
Subordination: The Complex Sentence
424(1)
Subordinating Conjunctions
425(1)
Punctuation with Subordinating Conjunctions
426(1)
Punctuation and Relative Pronouns
426(1)
Coordination and Subordination: The Compound-Complex Sentence
426(1)
Punctuation of Complicated Compound or Compound-Complex Sentences
427(1)
Other Ways to Combine Ideas
427(4)
Omissions
431(1)
Variety in Sentence Types, Order, Length, Beginnings
432(2)
Type
432(1)
Order
433(1)
Length
433(1)
Beginnings
433(1)
Correcting Fragments, Comma Splices, and Run-Ons
434(10)
Fragments
434(1)
Acceptable Fragments
434(1)
Dependent Clauses as Fragments: Clauses with Subordinating Conjunctions
435(1)
Dependent Clauses as Fragments: Clauses with Relative Pronouns
435(1)
Phrases as Fragments
435(1)
Fragments as Word Groups Without Subjects or Without Verbs
436(1)
Comma Splices and Run-Ons
437(1)
Four Ways to Correct Comma Splices and Run-Ons
437(1)
Techniques for Spotting Problem Sentences
438(6)
Verbs
444(23)
Regular and Irregular Verbs
444(1)
Regular Verbs
444(2)
Irregular Verbs
446(3)
``Problem'' Verbs
449(3)
The Twelve Verb Tenses
452(1)
Simple Tenses
452(1)
Perfect Tenses
452(1)
Progressive Tenses
452(1)
Perfect Progressive Tenses
452(3)
Subject-Verb Agreement
455(5)
Consistency in Tense
460(3)
Active and Passive Voice
463(2)
Strong Verbs
465(1)
Subjunctive Mood
466(1)
Pronouns
467(14)
Pronoun Case
467(1)
Subjective Case
467(1)
Objective Case
468(1)
Techniques for Determining Case
469(3)
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
472(1)
Agreement in Person
472(2)
Agreement in Number
474(1)
Agreement in Gender
475(3)
Pronoun Reference
478(3)
Adjectives and Adverbs
481(10)
Selecting Adjectives and Adverbs
481(2)
Comparative and Superlative Forms
483(1)
Adjectives
483(1)
Adverbs
484(1)
Using Adjectives and Adverbs Correctly
485(3)
Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers
488(3)
Balancing Sentence Parts
491(5)
Basic Principles of Parallelism
491(1)
Signal Words
492(1)
Combination Signal Words
492(4)
Punctuation and Capitalization
496(18)
End Punctuation
496(1)
Periods
496(1)
Question Marks
497(1)
Exclamation Points
497(1)
Commas
497(1)
Commas to Separate
497(1)
Commas to Set Off
498(4)
Semicolons
502(3)
Quotation Marks
505(1)
Punctuation with Quotation Marks
506(1)
Italics
507(1)
Dashes
507(1)
Colons
508(1)
Parentheses
508(1)
Brackets
509(1)
Apostrophes
509(1)
Hyphens
510(1)
Capitalization
510(4)
Spelling
514(7)
Spelling Tips
514(2)
Frequently Misspelled Words
516(1)
Confused Spelling and Confusing Words
517(2)
Your Spell Checker
519(1)
Wordy Phrases
519(2)
Brief Guide for ESL Students
521(4)
Using Articles in Relation to Nouns
521(1)
Articles
521(1)
Nouns
521(1)
Rules
521(1)
Sentence Patterns
522(1)
Verb Endings
522(1)
Idioms
523(1)
More Suggestions for ESL Writers
523(2)
Appendixes
525(15)
Appendix A: Parts of Speech
526(9)
Appendix B: Taking Tests
535(2)
Appendix C: Writing a Job Application Letter and a Resume
537(3)
Answer Key 540(8)
Text Credits 548(1)
Author and Title Index 549(4)
Subject Index 553


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