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The Past in Perspective An Introduction to Human Prehistory,9780195394306
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The Past in Perspective An Introduction to Human Prehistory

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780195394306

ISBN10:
0195394305
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/17/2009
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
List Price: $85.28

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Summary

Ideal for Introduction to Archaeology and World Prehistory courses, and geared toward students with little-to-no previous coursework in the subject area, The Past in Perspective, Fourth Edition is an engaging, up-to-date, chronological introduction to human prehistory. Written in a conversational, appealing tone, Kenneth L. Feder introduces students to "the big picture"--the grand sweep of human evolutionary history, presenting the human past within the context of a series of fundamental themes of cultural evolution. His is a captivatingly written narrative of the trajectories of human development--and of the fascinating processes employed to reveal those trajectories. The Past in Perspective distinguishes itself with a series of common headings across its chapters that help students to master the complex story of the human past. Each chapter includes the following headings: Prelude, Chronicle, Issues and Debates, Case Study Close-up, Visiting the Past, Summary, and To Learn More. These sections work together to paint a picture of human antiquity in vivid detail. Each chapter also includes a timeline of events and a listing of archaeological sites mentioned in the text. This text is supplemented by a companion website (www.oup.com/us/feder), which includes student resources (chapter summaries, multiple choice quizzes, glossaries, and flashcards), as well as instructor resources (PowerPoint slides and links to professional resources). The latter is also available on an Instructor's CD, along with an Instructor's Manual, which includes a Word-based test bank.

Table of Contents

Preface
Encountering the Past
Chapter Overview
Prelude
A foreign country
An anthropological perspective
An ancient world
The Age of the Earth
A wreck of a world
Noah's Flood
Equable and steady change
Ancient humans?
The Implications of Frere's Discovery
More Stone Tools . . . and Bones
The slow agency of existing causes
Ancient humans revisited
Cultures Ancient and Changing
Charles Darwin and the antiquity of life
An evolutionary philosophy
The Mutability of Species
The origin of species
Human Evolution
The Human Factor
Cultures evolving
Our modern view
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
Probing the Past
Chapter Overview
Prelude
Epistemology: how we know what we know
The ""Science"" in the Study of the Past
Paleoanthropological and archaeological sites
How Sites Are Formed
How Sites Are Preserved
How Sites Are Found
How Information Is Recovered
Analyzing archaeological data
How Artifacts Are Analyzed
How Ecofacts Are Analyzed
How Human and Prehuman Skeletal Remains Are Analyzed
Determining the age of a site or specimen
Dating Techniques Based on Radioactive Decay
Dating Techniques Based on Biology
Dating Techniques Based on Radiation Damage
Dating by Measuring Chemical Processes
Dating by Measuring Paleomagnetism
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
African Roots
Chapter Overview
Prelude
Chronicle
Miocene preface
Fossil Apes of the Miocene
Why the Study of Apes Is Relevant to the Study of Humanity
What Happened to the Apes at the End of the Miocene?
The Irony of Extinction
The first hominids
Late Miocene Hominids
The Genus Australopithecus
Australopithecus afarensis
A fork in the hominid road
A forest of hominids
A different path--homo habilis
The Ability to Make Stone Tools
Oldowan Technology
The Fate of Homo habilis
Issues and debates
What were the first steps in hominid evolution?
How do we know the hominids were upright?
Is there other evidence for bipedality?
Why bipedalism?
The Upright Provider
The Upright Scavenger
The Efficient Walker
The Endurance Runner
Were the early hominids hunters?
Where did the idea for stone tools come from?
What do we know about the early hominid brain?
What caused the proliferation of hominid species?
Rates of change in evolution
Case study close-up
Visiting the past
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
The Human Lineage
Chapter Overview
Prelude
Chronicle
Homo erectus
The Evolutionary Position of Homo erectus
Hominids conquer the world
East Asia
Who Was the Hobbit?
Homo erectus: Ocean Explorer?
China
Europe
The age of ice
The Oxygen Isotope Curve
Homo erectus: the toolmaker
Subsistence
Issues and debates
Did the pleistocene cause the evolution of homo erectus?
What enabled the geographic expansion of homo erectus?
Intelligence
Control of Fire
The ""art"" of making tools
The mystery of the missing handaxes
Raising homo erectus
When did homo erectus become extinct?
Stability or change?
Case study close-up
Visiting the past
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
The First Humans: The Evolution of Homo sapiens
Chapter Overview
Prelude
Chronicle
Premodern humans: Fossil evidence
Africa
Asia
Europe
Premodern humans: Cultural evidence
The neandertals
Morphological Evidence
Fossil Evidence
Neandertal culture
Stone Tools
Subsistence
Compassion
Symbolic Expression
Burial of the Dead
Anatomically modern homo sapiens
An African Source
Explaining the evolution of us
The replacement model
The multiregional model
A middle ground
Issues and debates
Replacement or continuity?
What We Would Expect on the Basis of the Replacement Model
What We Would Expect on the Basis of the Multiregional Model
What We Would Expect on the Basis of the Middle Ground
Testing the Implications of Replacement and Continuity
Replacement or Continuity?
Why were the neandertals replaced?
Neandertal nation
Could Neandertals Talk?
Did Neandertals Worship Cave Bears?
Case study close-up
Visiting the past
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
Expanding Intellectual Horizons: Art and Ideas in the Upper Paleolithic
Chapter Overview
Prelude
Chronicle
An intellectual great leap forward: The late stone age and upper paleolithic
Blade Technology
Broadening the Subsistence Base
Larger Sites of Aggregation
Branching Out in Raw Materials
Abundance of Nonutilitarian Objects
Use of Exotic Raw Materials
More Elaborate Burials
Production of Art
A revolution of intellect: The meaning of upper paleolithic art
The Earliest Art: Australia and Africa
Upper Paleolithic Art in Europe
Figurines
Issues and debates
Is there a gap between the evolution of anatomically modern humans and the development of modern intelligence?
What does the art of the upper paleolithic mean?
Was the paleolithic ""a man's world""?
The importance of living long: The grandmother effect
Case study close-up
Visiting the past
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
Expanding Geographical Horizons: New Worlds
Chapter Overview
Prelude
Chronicle
The settlement of greater australia
Paleogeography in the Western Pacific
The Road to Sahul
The Discovery of Greater Australia
The earliest occupation of greater Australia
The Archaeology of Sahul
Willandra Lakes
The spread through Australia
The Australian Interior
Tasmania
Greater Australia: A broad range of adaptations
East into the pacific
A Pacific Islander ""Age of Exploration""
Pacific Geography
Pacific Archaeology
Why the Pacific Islands Were Settled
Coming to America
The source of los indios
When did the first migrants arrive?
When Was Beringia Exposed and Open for Travel?
When Was Eastern Siberia First Inhabited?
What Is the Age of the Earliest New World Sites?
The first human settlement of america
One If by Land
Two If by Sea
Alaska
Denali and Nenana
Clovis 290
Clovis Technology
The Clovis Advantage
Clovis Subsistence
First Skeletons
Issues and debates
What other kinds of data can contribute to solving the riddle of the first americans?
Linguistic Diversity
Genetic Diversity
Could native americans really have come from europe instead of asia?
Who--or what--killed the American and Australian megafauna?
Case study close-up
Visiting the past
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
After the Ice: Cultural Change in the Post-Pleistocene
Chapter Overview
Prelude
Chronicle
Europe
Mesolithic Subsistence Patterns
Diversity and Regionalization
Trade in the European Mesolithic
Innovation in the Mesolithic
North america
Regionalism in the New World Archaic
Koster: Emblem of the Archaic
A Diverse Set of Adaptations
Asia
Australia
South america
Africa
Issues and debates
Was the mesolithic only a ""prelude""?
Case study close-up
Visiting the past
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
The Food Producing Revolution
Chapter Overview
Prelude
Chronicle
Humans taking the place of nature: artificial selection
Why agriculture?
Environmental Change
Cultural Evolution
Population Growth
An Accident
A Multitude of Reasons
Archaeological evidence of human control of plant and animal species
Geography
Size
Seed Morphology
Osteological Changes
Population Characteristics
The Near East
LatePleistocene Foragers in the Near East
The Origins of a Sedentary Life: The Natufian
The First Agriculturalists
A Model of the Shift to a Food-Producing Way of Life in Southwest Asia
Mesoamerica
The First Agriculturalists in the New World
The Tehuacan Valley
The Cultural Sequence at Tehuacan
Primitive Maize-But Not the First Maize
The Shift to Domesticated Foods Among the People of Tehuacan
A Model of the Shift to a Food-Producing Way of Life in Mesoamerica
Africa
Neolithic Culture Complexes in Africa
A Chronology of Food Production
Neolithic Cultures South of the Sahara
East Asia
Chronology of Food Production in China
Food Production in Southeast and Northeast Asia
Europe
The Shift to Agriculture in Southeast Europe
The Shift to Agriculture in Southern Europe
The Shift to Agriculture in Western Europe
North America
Indigenous Domestication North of Mexico
The Appearance of Maize in the Eastern Woodlands
The American Southwest
South America
Three Regional Neolithics
Animal Domestication in South America
Cotton
Issues and debates
How was domestication accomplished?
The Domestication of Wheat
From Teosinte to Maize
Beans
The Nature of Artificial Selection
The remarkably modern cuisine of the ancient world
Neolithic nutrition
Was agriculture the ""worst mistake in the history of the human race""?
Implications of the neolithic: The roots of social complexity
Case study close-up
Visiting the past
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
The Roots of Complexity: The Origins of Civilization
Chapter Overview
Prelude
The construction of stonehenge
Imagining stonehenge
Chronicle
Simplicity and complexity
The Origins of Complexity
Why Complexity?
A revolution in subsistence, A revolution in society
A Neolithic Base for Big Men
From Big Men to Chiefs
Complexity's earliest traces in the old world
Jericho
Catalhoyuk
Mesopotamia: Land Between the Rivers
The Roots of Complexity in Southwest Asia
Complexity's earliest traces in the new world
The Olmec
South America
Issues and debates
Is complexity inevitable?
Case study close-up
Visiting the past
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
The Flowering of Civilization in the Old World: Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Pakistan
Chapter Overview
Prelude
Chronicle
The evolution of the state
The character of civilization
Food Surplus
Large, Dense Populations
Social Stratification
A Formal Government
Labor Specialization
Record Keeping
Monumental Works
The geography of civilizations
Mesopotamia
AcceleratingChange: The Ubaid
The Role of Irrigation
Power Invested in the Temple
Mesopotamia's First Cities: The Uruk Period
The Beginning of the Written Record
Egypt of the pharaohs
The Egyptian Neolithic
Hierakonpolis
First Writing
First Pharaoh
The Flowering of Egypt
The Pyramid Age
Oher Arican civilizations
The Indus Valley civilization
Neolithic Cultures
Flood Control and Civilization in the Indus Valley
Cultural Convergence
Cities of the Indus
The Indus Script
""A Peaceful Realm""
Issues and debates
Why did state societies develop?
Conflict Models
Integration Models
Many Paths to Civilization
Case study close-up
Visiting the past
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
The Flowering of Civilization in the Old World: China, Southeast Asia, and Crete
Chapter Overview
Prelude
Chronicle
The civilization of ancient China
The Lung-shan Culture
Acceleration Toward Civilization
The Shang Civilization
Minoan Crete
The Rediscovery of Minoan Crete
Who Were the Minoans?
The Temple at Knossos
The Eruption on Thera
The Khmer kingdom
The Roots of Angkor
Funan
Chenla
The Khmer
Angkor Wat
Issues and debates
Why were the elites of state societies so conspicuous in their consumption?
Was Minoan Crete Atlantis?
Case study close-up
The terra-cotta army of the first emperor of the Qin dynasty
Visiting the past
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
An Explosion of Complexity: New World: Mesoamerica
Chapter Overview
Prelude
Chronicle
The maya
Maya Writings
Peak of the Maya
Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan History
A Monumental City
Residences of Teotihuacan's Citizens
The Reach of Teotihuacan
The Aztecs
Issues and debates
Why did the Maya collapse?
Case study close-up
Visiting the past
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
An Explosion of Complexity: New World: South America
Chapter Overview
Prelude
Chronicle
Moche
Empires: Tiwanaku
Empires: Wari
Empires: Sican and Chimu
Empires: The Inca
The Inca Military Empire
A State Without Writing?
The End of the Inca State
Issues and debates
Why do civilizations collapse?
Causes of Collapse
The Role of Environment in Collapse
Collapse: A Multiplicity of Causes
Case study close-up
Visiting the past
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
The Diversity of Complexity: Ranked Societies in the Old and New Worlds
Chapter Overview
Prelude
Chronicle
Complexity in prehistoric America north of Mexico
The Development of Complexity
The Mississippian Temple Mound Builders
Cahokia
The American southwest
Hohokam
Mogollon
Ancestral Puebloan
Northwest coast of North America
Great Zimbabwe
The Glory of Zimbabwe
Issues and debates
Is the state inevitable?
The myth of the mound builders
What happened to the ancestral puebloans?
Case study close-up
Visiting the past
Summary
To Learn More
Key Terms
Evolutionary Epilogue
Chapter Overview
Past perspectives, future directions
The Human Adaptation
From Stone Tools to Star Trek
Many Pathways
Key Terms
Glossary
References
Index
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