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Challenge your students to ENGAGE in the conversation and process; THINK about the ideas, history, structure, and function; and DEBATE the merits of American government and politics in the 21st century.
In a storytelling approach that weaves contemporary examples together with historical context, By the People: Debating American Government, Brief Edition, explores the themes and ideas that drive the great debates in American government and politics. It introduces students to big questions like Who governs? How does our system of government work? What does government do? and Who are we? By challenging students with these questions, the text gets them to think about, engage with, and debate the merits of U.S. government and politics.
Ideal for professors who prefer a shorter text, By the People, Brief Edition, condenses the content of the comprehensive edition while also preserving its essential insights, organization, and approach. Approximately 20% shorter and less expensive than its parent text, the full-color Brief Edition features a more streamlined narrative, deletes the "Comparing Nations" boxes, and is enhanced by the same extensive support package as the longer edition.
* "By the Numbers" boxes containing fun facts help frame the quizzical reality of American politics and government
* "See For Yourself" features enable students to connect with the click of a smart phone to videos and other interactive online content
* Chapter One introduces students to seven key American ideas, which are revisited throughout the text
* "The Bottom Line" summaries conclude each chapter section, underscoring the most important aspects of the discussion
* "What Do You Think?" boxes encourage students to use their critical-thinking skills and debate and/or take a stand on important issues
* Four major themes, in the form of questions to spark debate, are presented to students in Chapter One and appear throughout the text
James Morone (B.A., Middlebury College, and M.A. and PhD, University of Chicago) is Professor of Political Science at Brown University and five-time winner of the Hazeltine Citation for outstanding teacher of the year. A renowned scholar of American Political Science, Dr. Morone, an award-winning author, has published eight books including The Heart of Power (2009), Hellfire Nation (2003), and The Democratic Wish (1990). He served as President of the Politics and History Section of the American Political Science Association from 1999-2000 and the New England Political Science Association from 2002-03. He has been on the board of editors for eight scholarly journals and comments on politics in The New York Times, The London Review of Books, and The American Prospect.
Rogan Kersh (M.A. and PhD, Yale) is Provost and Professor of Political Science at Wake Forest University. A leading scholar in American Political Science, Dr. Kersh is best known for his work on health reform, obesity politics, and interest groups/lobbying. From 2006-12 he served as Associate Dean of the Wagner School of Public Service at New York University, where he built an undergraduate program, helped conceive and create NYU's new campus in Abu Dhabi, and was integral in the launch of a new Global Institute of Public Health. Dr. Kersh has published two books and more than fifty academic articles and has provided commentary on U.S politics for dozens of different media outlets including CNN, Newsweek, and The New York Times. He was President of the American Political Science Association's organized section on Health Politics and Policy in 2011-12, and is an elected Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration.
Table of Contents
Each chapter ends with a Summary and Study Questions. About the Authors Preface PART I. IDEAS AND RIGHTS Chapter 1: Ideas that Shape American Politics The Spirit of American Politics Who Governs How Does American Politics Work? What Does Government Do? Who Are We? A Nation of Ideas Liberty "The Land of the Free" The Two Sides of Liberty The Idea of Freedom is Always Changing What Do You Think: Negative Versus Positive Liberty Self-Rule Power from the People One Side of Self-Rule: Democracy Another Side of Self-Rule: A Republic A Mixed System Limited Government The Origins of Limited Government And Yet . . . The United States Has a Big Government Limits on Government Action When Ideas Clash: Self-Rule and Limited Government What Do You Think: Self-Rule versus Limited Government Individualism Community Versus Individualism The Roots of American Individualism: Opportunity and Discord Who Are We: Individualism and Solidarity? The American Dream Spreading the Dream What Do You Think: Individualism versus Solidarity Challenging the Dream Equality Three Kinds of Equality How Much Economic Inequality Is Too Much? Opportunity or Outcome? Religion Still Religious: A Religious Country So Many Religions The Politics of Religion How Do Ideas Affect Politics Ideas in American Culture The Ideas in Political Institutions Culture of Institutions Chapter 2: The Constitution The Colonial Roots of the Constitution Why the Colonists Revolted The Colonial Complaint: Representation The Conflict Begins with Blood on the Frontier The Stamp Tax and the First Hints of Independence The Townshend Acts Worsen the Conflict The Boston Tea Party Revolution! The Declaration of Independence The Principle: "We Hold These Truths . . . " Grievances The First American Government: The Articles of Confederation The National Government Some Success . . . . . . And Some Problems Winner and Losers The First Step: Annapolis Convention What Do You Think: Your Advice is Needed Secrecy The Constitutional Convention What Do You Think: Was Delegate Secrecy Warranted? 1. How Much Power to the People? 2. National Government versus State Government 3. Big States versus Small States 4. The President 5. Separation of Powers 6. Principle of Which We Were Ashamed An Overview of the Constitution Preamble Article 1: Congress What Do You Think: Have We Achieve the Constitution's Goals Today? Article 2: The President What Do You Think: Detention of Terrorism Suspects Article 3: The Courts Article 4: Relations between the States Article 5: Amendments Article 6: The Law of the Land Article 7: Ratification The Missing Articles Ratification The Anti-Federalists The Federalists Two Strong Arguments A Very Close Vote A Popular Surge Propels People into Politics Changing the Constitution The Bill of Rights The Seventeen Amendments The Constitution Today What Do You Think: How Strictly Should We Interpret the Constitution? Chapter 3: Federalism and Nationalism Why Federalism? Choosing Federalism Federalism's Advantages The Disadvantages The Stakes What Do You Think: Preserving Local Values or Continuing a Terrible Injustice? How Federalism Works The Constitution Sets the Ground Rules Dual Federalism Cooperative Federalism New Federalism Battles over Federalism Today Federalism and the Parties What Do You Think: Intergovernmental Lobbying, American Style Federalism in the Courts Nationalism, American Style The Imagined Community America's Weak National Government The Hidden State Chapter 4: Civil Liberties The Rise of Civil Liberties Civil Rights and Civil Liberties The Slow Rise of Rights Privacy Penumbras and Emanations What Do You Think: Is There a Right to Privacy? Roe v. Wade Sexuality between Consenting Adults Freedom of Religion The Establishment Clause Free Exercise of Religion What Do You Think: May the Christian Youth Club Meet in School? Freedom of Speech A Preferred Position What Do You Think: David's Law Political Speech Symbolic Speech Limits to Free Speech: Fighting Words Limited Protection: Student Speech Freedom of the Press Prior Restraint Obscenity Libel The Right to Bear Arms A Relic of the Revolution? The Rights of the Accused Americans Behind Bars The Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure The Fifth Amendment: Rights at Trials The Sixth Amendment: The Right to Counsel The Eighth Amendment: The Death Penalty What Do You Think: End the Death Penalty? Fighting Terrorism and Protecting Liberty Chapter 5: The Struggle for Civil Rights Winning Rights: The Political Process Seven Steps to Political Equality How the Courts Review Cases Race and Civil Rights: Revolt against Slavery The Clash over Slavery Dred Scott v. Sandford The Second American Founding: A New Birth of Freedom? Freedom Fails The Fight for Racial Equality Two Kinds of Discrimination The Civil Rights Campaign Begins The Courts The Civil Rights Movement What Do You Think: Would You Have Been a Sixties Protester? Congress and the Civil Rights Act The End of the Civil Rights Era Affirmative Action in the Workplace Affirmative Action in Education Where Are We Now? What Do You Think: Higher Education and Affirmative Action Gender Suffrage The Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Courts Progress-- But How Much? Reproductive Politics Hispanics Challenging Discrimination The Politics of Immigration The Controversy over Language Political Mobilization Asian Americans The Asian Stereotypes What Do You Think: Simple Decency? Or Political Correctness Run Amuck? Native Americans The Lost Way of Life Indians and the Federal Government Social Problems and Politics Groups without Special Protection People with Disabilities Sexual Orientation PART II. POLITICAL BEHAVIOR Chapter 6: Public Opinion and Political Participation Measuring Public Opinion Polling 101 Do Opinion Surveys Influence Us? Sources of Public Opinion What Do You Think: Calling the Election Early? Self-Interest: Voting Our Pocketbooks Demographic Effects: From Region to Religion Partisan Effects Elite Influence Wars and Other Focusing Events Public Opinion in a Democracy What Do You Think: How Do You Participate? Do the People Know What They Want? How Do the People Communicate Their Desires? Do Leaders Respond to the Public? Getting Involved: Electoral, Voluntary, and Political Voice Electoral Activities Civic Voluntarism Political Voice What Do You Think: Volunteer Globally? What Inspires Political Participation? Spurs to Individual Participation What Discourages Political Participation? Age, Wealth, and Education Alienation Institutional Barriers Complacency Shifting Mobilization Patterns Generation Y and Political Participation The Internet, Social Media, and Participation Chapter 7: The Media American Media Today: Traditional Formats Are Declining Where People Go for News Newspaper Decline Radio Holds Steady Television: From News to Infotainment What Do You Think: Movies That Take a Stand The Rise of the New Media Scenario 1: Rebooting Democracy Scenario 2: More Hype and Danger than Democratic Renaissance Is the Media Biased? Reporters Are Democrats Profits Drive the News Industry Drama Delivers Audiences Sex and Scandal The Skeptical Media How Governments Shape the Media The First Amendment Protects Print Media from Government Regulation Regulating Broadcasters Protecting Competition How the Media Shapes Politics News Stories Reinforce Existing Beliefs The Political Agenda Priming the Public Framing the Issue The Media's Electoral Connection The Campaign as Drama Candidate Profiles What Do You Think: Does the Media Enhance Democracy? Chapter 8: Campaigns and Elections How Democratic are American Elections? Frequent and Fixed Elections Number of Elected Officials What Do You Think: Too Many Elected Positions? Financing Campaigns: The New Inequality? Presidential Campaigns and Elections Who Runs for President? Presidential Campaigns Have Three Phases Winning the Nomination What Do You Think: Why Iowa and New Hampshire? Organizing the Convention The General Election Winning Presidential Elections Congressional Campaigns and Elections Candidates: Who Runs for Congress? The Power of Incumbency Congressional Election Results Redrawing the Lines: The Art of the Gerrymander Nonpartisan Districting and Minority Representation How to Run for Congress Chapter 9: Interest Groups and Political Parties What Interest Groups Do Public Advocacy Groups Private Interest Groups Interest Groups, Representation, and Power Interest Groups and Representation Interest Groups and Power Lobbyist Spending Regulating Interest Groups What Do You Think: Assessing the Influence of Lobbyists Lobbying the Federal Branches of Government Rise of the Issue Network Intergovernmental and Reverse Lobbying Lobbying the Courts Political Parties and US Government What the Parties Do Two-Party America Third Parties in American Politics How Parties Are Organized Party-in-Government Party Organization Party in the Electorate The Big Party Tents America's Party Systems: Origins and Change Beginnings: First Party System (1789-1828) Rise: Second Party System (ca. 1828-1860) War and Reconstruction: Third Party System (1860-1896) Business and Reform: Fourth Party System (1896-1932) Depression and New Deal: Fifth Party System (1933-1972) The Sixth Party System: The Parties at Equal Strength (1972-Present) What Do You Think: Does the 2012 Election Suggest a New Party Period? Party Identification . . . and Ideas Building Party Identification The Power of Party Attachment What Do You Think: Personality and Party Party Competitionand Partisanship Parties Rise Again Competition Intensifies Partisanship and Its Discontents What Do You Think: Winner Take All What Do You Think: Third Parties What Do You Think: Partisanship PART III. POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS Chapter 10: Congress Introducing Congress Two Houses, Different Styles What Do You Think: Senate Filibusters The House and the Senate Have Some Unique Roles Congressional Representation What Do You Think: Who Really Represents You? Trustees and Delegates What Do You Think: Two Views of Representation Elections: Getting to Congress--and Staying There Congressional Elections Congress at Work The City on the Hill Minnows and Whales: Congressional Leadership Committees: Workhorses of Congress Legislative Policy Making The Importance of the Legislative Process Drafting a Bill Submitting the Bill Committee Action Floor Action Conference Committee Presidential Action: Separated Powers, Once More Why Is Congress So Unpopular? Partisan Polarization in Congress Divided Government What Do You Think: Is a Partisan Congress a Good Thing? Chapter 11: The Presidency Defining the Presidency The President's Powers An Imperial Presidency? A Weak Office? What Presidents Do Commander in Chief Top Diplomat The First Legislator Chief Bureaucrat Economist in Chief The Head of State Party Leader The Bully Pulpit: Introducing Ideas The Impossible Job Presidential Leadership: Success and Failure in the Oval Office Managing the Public Approval Ratings The President's Team: A Tour of the White House The Political Solar System: Presidential Appointments The Vice President The Cabinet The Executive Office of the President The Heart of Power: The White House Office (WHO) The First Spouse Chapter 12: Bureaucracy Bureaucracies in an American Democracy How the Bureaucracy Grew The Bureaucratic Model Bureaucratic Pathologies The Democratic Dilemma What Bureaucracies Do Rule Making Implementation How the Bureaucracy Is Organized The Cabinet Departments Other Agencies Who Controls the Federal Bureaucracy? The People The President Congress Interest Groups Bureaucratic Autonomy Democracy Revisited Reforming the Bureaucracy Open Up the System Reinventing Government Privatization What Do You Think: Should We Privatize More Government Functions? Chapter 13: The Judicial Branch Who Are We? A Nation of Lawsand Lawyers Embracing the Law-- and Lawsuits Declining trust Courts in American Culture Organizing the Judicial Branch Divided We Rule State and Local Courts Judicial Selection What Do You Think: How Should States Select Their Judges? Federal Courts Specialized Courts What Do You Think: Identity on the Bench Diversity in the Federal Judiciary The Court's Role Judicial Review Activism Versus Restraint The Judicial Process Too Much Power . . . or Still the "Least Dangerous" Branch? The Supreme Court and How It Operates Hearing Cases Selecting Cases: Formal Requirements Conference Sessions and Written Decisions Confirmation Battles Judicial Decision Making and Reform The Role of Law Ideology and Partisanship Collegiality and Peer Pressure Institutional Concerns Nineteen Cases You Should Know 1. Marbury v. Madison (1803) 2. McCullogh v. Maryland (1819) 3. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) 4. Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857: discussed in Chapter 4) 5. Santa Clara Co. v. Southern Pacific Railroad (1886) 6. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896: see Chapter 5) 7. Lochner v. New York (1905) 8. Muller v. Oregon (1908) 9. Schenck v. United States (1919: discussed in Chapter 5) 10. National Labor Relations Board v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation (1937) 11. Korematsu v. US (1944) 12. Everson v. Board of Education (1947) 13. Brown v. Board of Education (1954: discussed in Chapter 2 and Chapter 5) 14. Mapp v. Ohio (1961: discussed in Chapter 4) 15. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963: see Chapter 5) 16. Roe v. Wade (1973: discussed in Chapter 4) 17. US v. Nixon (1974) 18. Bush v. Gore (2000) 19. National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (2012) What Do You Think: Name another Landmark Case Reforming the Judiciary Ideas for Reform: More Resources Term Limits PART IV. POLICYMAKING Chapter 14: Domestic and Foreign Policy Public Policymaking in Five (Not-So-Easy) Stages 1. Agenda Setting 2. Framing 3. Policy Formation 4. Policy Implementation 5. Policy Evaluation and Feedback US Social Policy Wars and Social Policy Old-Age Insurance: Social Security Unemployment Benefits Health and Disability: Medicare/Medicaid What Do You Think: Should We Reform Social Security and Medicare? The Federal Budget Process President's Budget Proposal Congressional Budget Resolution American Foreign Policy Goals Goal No. 1: Security Goal No. 2: Prosperity Goal No. 3: Spreading American Ideals What Do You Think: Is America Exceptional? Foreign Policy Strategies over Time Strategy 1: Standing Alone (1918-1939) Strategy 2: The Cold War (1945-1991) Strategy 3: The New World Order (1989-2003) Strategy 4: The War on Terror (began 2001) What Do You Think: Terrorists and the Rule of Law APPENDIX I: The Declaration of Independence APPENDIX II: The Constitution of the United States of America APPENDIX III: Federalist Papers 1, 10, and 51 Glossary Notes Credits Index