9781559633246

In a Perfect Ocean : The State of Fisheries and Ecosystems in the North Atlantic Ocean

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781559633246

  • ISBN10:

    1559633247

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-03-01
  • Publisher: Island Pr
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Summary

Recent decades have been marked by the decline or collapse of one fishery after another around the world, from swordfish in the North Atlantic to orange roughy in the South Pacific. While the effects of a collapse on local economies and fishing-dependent communities have generated much discussion, little attention has been paid to its impacts on the overall health of the ocean's ecosystems.In a Perfect Ocean: The State of Fisheries and Ecosystems in the North Atlantic Oceanpresents the first empirical assessment of the status of ecosystems in the North Atlantic ocean. Drawing on a wide range of studies including original research conducted for this volume, the authors analyze 14 large marine ecosystems to provide an indisputable picture of an ocean whose ecology has been dramatically altered, resulting in a phenomenon described by the authors as "fishing down the food web." The book:provides a snapshot of the past health of the North Atlantic and compares it to its present statuspresents a rigorous scientific assessment based on the key criteria of fisheries catches, biomass, and trophic levelconsiders the factors that have led to the current situationdescribes the policy options available for halting the declineoffers recommendations for restoring the North AtlanticAn original and powerful series of maps and charts illustrate where the effects of overfishing are the most pronounced and highlight the interactions among various factors contributing to the overall decline of the North Atlantic's ecosystems.This is the first in a series of assessments by the world's leading marine scientists, entitled "The State of the World's Oceans." In a Perfect Ocean: The State of Fisheries and Ecosystems in the North Atlantic Oceanis a landmark study, the first of its kind to make a comprehensive, ecosystem-based assessment of the North Atlantic Ocean, and will be essential reading for policymakers at the state, national, and international level concerned with fisheries management, as well for scientists, researchers, and activists concerned with marine issues or fishing and the fisheries industry.

Author Biography

Daniel Pauly is the principal investigator for the Sea Around Us project, sponsored by the Pew Charitable Trusts and based at the Fisheries Centre of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.

Table of Contents

List of Figures and Maps
xiii
Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xix
Introduction xxi
A Brief History of the North Atlantic and Its Resources
1(22)
Past Abundance in the North Atlantic
5(5)
Development of the North Atlantic Fisheries
10(7)
Northeast Atlantic fisheries
11(3)
Northwest Atlantic fisheries
14(3)
Effects of Technology
17(2)
The Importance of Understanding the Past
19(4)
The Decline of North Atlantic Fisheries
23(40)
How Much Fish is Being Caught?
29(4)
Reported catches
29(1)
Discards, illegal, and unreported catches
30(3)
Fishing Effort and Related Indices
33(10)
Fishing intensity
33(3)
Economic efficiency
36(3)
Energy efficiency
39(4)
Impacts on Biomass and Ecosystems
43(18)
Biomass declines
48(1)
Fishing down marine food webs
48(5)
Squashed pyramids and shorter food chains
53(3)
Competition with marine mammals
56(5)
Report Card for an Impoverished Ocean
61(2)
How Did We Get Here?
63(28)
A Conceptual Failure
63(3)
Distorted Economics
66(9)
Small-scale vs. large-scale fisheries
71(2)
Present vs. future generations
73(2)
Ineffective Governance
75(14)
Local and national governance
76(4)
International arrangements
80(3)
Fisheries compliance with international instruments
83(6)
Institutions and Equity
89(2)
What to Do?
91(30)
Reducing Fishing Effort
94(10)
Quotas
95(3)
Vessel buyback and destruction
98(1)
Marine reserves
99(1)
Fishery benefits
100(2)
Using the precautionary approach
102(2)
Transforming the Market
104(6)
Reducing subsidies
104(1)
Energy and/or carbon taxes
105(1)
Educating consumers
106(2)
Nonconsumptive use of the oceans
108(1)
Accounting for future generations
108(2)
Transforming Governance
110(6)
Dealing with illegal catches
112(2)
Reducing the scale of fishing fleets
114(2)
Recommendations: Leaning on the Firewall Between Science and Advocacy
116(5)
Notes 121(32)
References 153(12)
Acronyms 165(2)
Index 167

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