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Personality Theories : An Introduction

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780618496624

ISBN10:
0618496629
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/14/2005
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $179.33

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This is the 7th edition with a publication date of 3/14/2005.
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Summary

The Seventh Edition ofPersonality Theoriescontinues its sound tradition of providing accurate and thorough coverage via an easily accessible text enhanced by pedagogical features and a focus on critical thinking.Personality Theoriesis designed both to explain the major personality theories and to stimulate critical thinking about them. Each chapter focuses on one theory or group of theories and provides brief biographies that shed light on how the theories were formed. Engler also provides criteria for evaluating each theory and cites current research pertaining to that theory, in addition to integrating multicultural and gender-related issues throughout the text. New and Updated!Thinking Critically boxes throughout the text provide students with a clearer context for critical-thinking activities, presenting interesting activities that encourage students to analyze or apply key issues related to the theories discussed. The author has been selective in this edition, streamlining the number to retain the most effective pieces. To Learn Moreprompts in the text direct students to the web site where they will find a discussion of each topic as well as links for further research. The web modules posted at the Student Web Site cover topics such as the status of psychoanalysis today, recent existential theories, and the use of medication to treat depression. Updated!All content has been updated to reflect the status of current research on the theorists. Expanded coverage of research includes Levinson's work, in Chapter 6, and a new section on ethnic identity, encompassing work done by Cross, Parham and Helms, and Phinney. New coverage on Kernberg and social issues in Chapter 7 includes confidentiality, privacy, and his exploration of mature religiosity. New section on Five Factor Theory in Chapter 11 seeks to account for the research findings associated with the Five Factor Model. Chapter 11 also includes an expansion of the implications of the Five Factor Model for the diagnosis and analysis of dysfunctional behavior. A timeline added to the inside front cover provides a contextual reference for theorists' lives within historical events. Philosophical Assumptionboxes have been revised to give students more structure and guidance in analyzing theorists' philosophical views. These sections in each chapter enable students to place a presented theory along several philosophical continuums. Philosophy, Science, and Artsections at the end of each chapter help students examine the mix of philosophy, science, and art that a theory represents. Unique final chapter on Zen Buddhism adds significant cross-cultural understanding of personality theory.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction: Evaluating Personality Theories
1(26)
Your Goals for This Chapter
1(1)
What Is Personality?
2(1)
What Is a Theory?
3(1)
The Role of Personality Theory in Psychology
4(2)
The Evaluation of Personality Theories
6(2)
Philosophical Assumptions
8(5)
Basic Philosophical Assumptions
8(1)
Philosophical Assumptions Versus Scientific Statements
9(1)
Evaluating Philosophical Assumptions
10(1)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Your Own Philosophical Assumptions
11(2)
Scientific Statements
13(5)
The Philosophical Basis of Science
13(1)
Recognizing Scientific Statements
13(2)
Some Basic Scientific Constructs
15(1)
Evaluating Scientific Statements
15(2)
Thinking Critically: Evaluating Personality Theories
17(1)
The Application of Personality Theories
18(6)
Assessment
18(1)
Research
19(2)
Psychotherapy
21(3)
The Complexities of Evaluation
24(3)
Summary
24(2)
Suggestions for Further Reading
26(1)
PART I THE PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH
27(40)
Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud
28(39)
Your Goals for this Chapter
28(1)
Biographical Background
29(2)
The Origins of Psychoanalysis
31(8)
The Discovery of Unconscious Forces
31(3)
The Psychoanalytic Method of Assessment and Research
34(3)
Thinking Critically: Free Association
37(2)
The Dynamics and Development of Personality
39(8)
The Importance of Sexuality
39(2)
The Psychosexual Stages of Development
41(3)
Thinking Critically: Memories: True or False?
44(1)
The Effects of the Psychosexual Stages
45(2)
The Structure of Personality
47(4)
The Id, Ego, and Superego
47(2)
The Relationship of the Id, Ego, and Superego to Consciousness
49(2)
The Ego's Defense Mechanisms
51(2)
Thinking Critically: Identifying Defense Mechanisms
53(1)
Psychoanalysis
53(3)
Transference
54(1)
The Analytic Process
54(2)
Empirical Validation of Psychoanalytic Concepts
56(11)
Thinking Critically: Freud on Women and Women on Freud
57(2)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Freud's Theory
59(2)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Freud
61(2)
Summary
63(2)
Suggestions for Further Reading
65(2)
PART II THE NEOPSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH
67(80)
Analytical Psychology: Carl Jung
68(24)
Your Goals for this Chapter
68(1)
Biographical Background
69(2)
The Nature and Structure of Personality
71(10)
Psychic Energy
71(1)
The Ego
72(1)
The Personal Unconscious
72(2)
The Collective Unconscious
74(4)
Thinking Critically: Archetypes in Cultural Forms
78(1)
Psychological Types
79(2)
Self-Realization
81(2)
Synchronicity
81(1)
Individuation and Transcendence
82(1)
Jungian Psychotherapy
83(1)
Assessment and Research in Jung's Theory
84(8)
Thinking Critically: Active Imagination
85(2)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Jung's Theory
87(1)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Jung
88(1)
Summary
89(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
90(2)
Interpsychic Theories: Alfred Adler, Harry Stack Sullivan
92(29)
Your Goals for this Chapter
92(1)
Alfred Adler (1870--1937)
93(14)
Biographical Background
93(2)
Basic Concepts
95(5)
Thinking Critically: Birth Order and Personality
100(2)
Adlerian Psychotherapy
102(2)
Thinking Critically: A License to Parent?
104(1)
Assessment and Research in Adler's Theory
104(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Adler's Theory
105(2)
Harry Stack Sullivan (1892--1949)
107(14)
Biographical Background
107(2)
Basic Concepts
109(5)
Thinking Critically: Prototaxic, Parataxic, and Syntaxic Experience
114(1)
Psychotherapy, Assessment, and Research
114(2)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Sullivan's Theory
116(1)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Adler and Sullivan
117(1)
Family Therapy
117(2)
Summary
119(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
120(1)
Psychoanalytic Social Psychology: Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
121(26)
Your Goals for This Chapter
121(1)
Karen Horney (1885--1952)
122(13)
Biographical Background
122(2)
Basic Anxiety
124(1)
Neurotic Needs or Trends
125(1)
The Idealized Self
125(2)
Thinking Critically: The Tyranny of the Should
127(1)
Feminine Psychology
128(2)
Assessment and Research in Horney's Theory
130(1)
Attachment and Parenting Research
131(3)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Horney's Theory
134(1)
Erich Fromm (1900--1980)
135(12)
Biographical Background
135(1)
Basic Human Conditions and Needs
136(2)
Character Orientations
138(2)
Assessment and Research in Fromm's Theory
140(3)
Thinking Critically: Terrorism
143(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Fromm's Theory
143(1)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Horney and Fromm
144(1)
Summary
145(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
146(1)
PART III MORE RECENT TRENDS IN PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
147(58)
Ego Analytic Psychology: Anna Freud, Erik Erikson
148(27)
Your Goals for This Chapter
148(1)
Anna Freud (1895--1982)
149(3)
Erik Erikson (1902--1994)
152(23)
Biographical Background
152(2)
An Enhanced Understanding of the Ego
154(1)
The Psychosocial Stages of Development
154(7)
Assessment and Research in Erikson's Theory
161(4)
Thinking Critically: The Life Cycle
165(1)
Empirical Research in Erikson's Theory
166(1)
Applying Erikson's Theory: The Work of Dan McAdams
167(2)
Thinking Critically: How Do You Measure Up?
169(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Erikson's Theory
170(1)
Thinking Critically: Writing Your Own Life Story
171(1)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Erikson
172(1)
Summary
172(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
173(2)
Human Relations: Object Relations Theory, the Stone Center Group
175(30)
Your Goals for this Chapter
175(1)
Object Relations Theory
176(11)
Melanie Klein (1882--1960)
176(2)
Margaret Mahler (1897--1985)
178(1)
Heinz Kohut (1913--1981)
179(3)
Otto Kernberg (1928-- )
182(1)
Nancy Chodorow (1944-- )
183(3)
Thinking Critically: Shared Parenting
186(1)
Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT): The Stone Center Group
187(18)
Shifting the Paradigm
189(2)
Thinking Critically: Reconceiving Maturity
191(4)
Thinking Critically: Disconnections and Connections
195(1)
Psychotherapy
195(2)
Other Applications
197(3)
Thinking Critically: Working with Diversity in Relationships
200(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Human Relations Theories
201(1)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Human Relations Theories
202(1)
Summary
203(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
204(1)
PART IV BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING THEORIES
205(54)
Experimental Analysis of Behavior: John Dollard, Neal Miller, B. F. Skinner
206(26)
Your Goals for this Chapter
206(2)
John Dollard and Neal Miller
208(9)
Biographical Background
208(1)
The Experimental Analysis of Behavior
208(2)
Habits, Drives, and the Learning Process
210(1)
Frustration and Conflict
211(2)
The Integration of Learning Theory and Psychoanalysis
213(1)
Thinking Critically: Personal Conflicts
214(1)
Psychotherapy
215(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Dollard and Miller's Theory
216(1)
B. F. Skinner
217(12)
Biographical Background
217(1)
A Theory of Personality Without Personality
218(1)
The Development of Behavior Through Learning
219(3)
Schedules and Types of Reinforcement
222(1)
Thinking Critically: Classical and Operant Conditioning in Your Life
223(1)
Psychotherapy and Behavioral Change
224(2)
Social Utopias
226(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Skinner's Theory
227(1)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Dollard and Miller and Skinner
228(1)
Conclusions
229(3)
Summary
230(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
231(1)
Social Learning Theories: Albert Bandura, Julian Rotter, Walter Mischel
232(27)
Your Goals for this Chapter
232(1)
Albert Bandura
233(16)
Biographical Background
233(1)
An Agentic Perspective
234(2)
Learning Through Observation
236(5)
Aggression and Inhumane Behavior
241(1)
Thinking Critically: Media Violence
242(2)
Self-Efficacy
244(1)
Psychotherapy and Behavior Modification
245(2)
Thinking Critically: Developing Self-Management
247(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Bandura's Theory
248(1)
Julian Rotter (1916--)
249(4)
Internal Versus External Control of Reinforcement
249(2)
Other Basic Concepts
251(2)
Walter Mischel (1930-- )
253(3)
Behavioral Specificity
253(1)
A Cognitive Affective Personality System
253(2)
Thinking Critically: Situational Contexts
255(1)
Conclusions
256(3)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Bandura, Rotter, and Mischel
256(1)
Summary
257(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
258(1)
PART V DISPOSITIONAL THEORIES
259(84)
Traits and Personology: Gordon Allport, Henry Murray
260(24)
Your Goals for this Chapter
260(1)
Gordon Allport
261(11)
Biographical Background
261(1)
The Nature of Personality
262(1)
Traits
263(2)
Thinking Critically: Central Dispositions
265(1)
The Proprium
266(1)
Functional Autonomy
266(1)
A Definition of Maturity
267(1)
Assessment and Research in Allport's Theory
268(2)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Allport's Theory
270(2)
Henry Murray
272(9)
Biographical Background
272(2)
The Study of Personology
274(1)
Human Needs
275(1)
Thinking Critically: Evaluating Needs
275(2)
Assessment and Research in Murray's Theory
277(1)
Thinking Critically: The Thematic Apperception Test
278(2)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Murray's Theory
280(1)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Allport and Murray
281(1)
Conclusions
281(3)
Summary
282(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
283(1)
Factor Analytic Theories: Raymond Cattell, The Big Five Personality Traits
284(26)
Your Goals for this Chapter
284(1)
Raymond Cattell
285(5)
Biographical Background
285(1)
Cattell's Definition of Personality
286(1)
Surface Traits Versus Source Traits
287(1)
Assessment and Research in Cattell's Theory
287(3)
The Big Five Personality Traits
290(8)
The Study of Language
290(1)
The Study of Personality Questionnaires and Ratings
291(1)
Differences Between the Big Five and the Five Factor Model
292(1)
Five Factor Theory
292(2)
Applications of the Big Five and the Five Factor Model and Theory
294(3)
Thinking Critically: How Abnormal Is Abnormal?
297(1)
Related Developments: Behavioral Genetics and Evolution
298(12)
The Genetic Influence on Traits
298(3)
Applications of Genetic Research
301(1)
Evolutionary Personality Theory
302(1)
Thinking Critically: Using a Genogram to Chart Personality Traits in Your Family Tree
303(2)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Factor Analytic Trait Theories
305(1)
Thinking Critically: Should We Selectively Breed Humans?
306(1)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Cattell and the Big Five Theorists
307(1)
Summary
308(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
309(1)
Biological Traits: Hans Eysenck
310(33)
Your Goals for this Chapter
310(1)
Biographical Background
311(1)
Historical Predecessors
312(2)
Constructing a Model of Personality
314(2)
The Identification of Superfactors
316(6)
The Hierarchical Model of Personality
316(3)
Comparisons with Cattell and the Big Five
319(1)
The Measurement of Traits
320(2)
Looking for Causal Agents of Behavior
322(8)
Thinking Critically: The Lemon Test
325(1)
The Biological Basis of Behavior and Neurosis
326(2)
Intelligence
328(2)
Applications of Eysenck's Theory
330(5)
Education
330(2)
Creativity
332(1)
Thinking Critically: Study Places
332(1)
Personality and Genetics
333(2)
Psychotherapy
335(8)
Thinking Critically: Measuring the Efficacy of Psychotherapy
337(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Eysenck's Theory
337(2)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Eysenck's Theory
339(1)
Summary
340(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
341(2)
PART VI HUMANISTIC AND EXISTENTIAL THEORIES
343(58)
Humanism: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers
344(32)
Your Goals for this Chapter
344(1)
Abraham Maslow
345(9)
Biographical Background
345(2)
Human Motivation: A Hierarchical Theory
347(2)
The Study of Self-Actualized Persons
349(3)
Thinking Critically: Who's Among the Self-Actualized?
352(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Maslow's Theory
352(2)
Carl Rogers
354(17)
Biographical Background
354(2)
Rogers's Theory of Personality
356(5)
Psychotherapy
361(4)
Thinking Critically: Cultivating a More Reflective Response
365(1)
Changes in Rogers's View of Therapy
366(1)
Assessment and Research in Rogers's Theory
366(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Rogers's Theory
367(3)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Maslow and Rogers
370(1)
Related Developments: Positive Psychology and Transpersonal Psychology
371(5)
Summary
372(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
373(3)
Existential Psychoanalysis: Rollo May
376(25)
Your Goals for this Chapter
376(1)
Biographical Background
377(2)
The Existential Attitude
379(2)
Our Predicament
381(3)
Powerlessness
381(1)
Anxiety
382(1)
The Loss of Values
383(1)
Thinking Critically: After 9/11
384(1)
Rediscovering Selfhood
384(2)
Ontological Assumptions Concerning the Person
384(2)
Rediscovering Feelings
386(1)
Four States of Consciousness of Self
386(1)
The Goals of Integration
386(8)
The Daimonic
387(1)
Power
387(1)
Love and Sex
388(1)
Intentionality
389(1)
Freedom and Destiny
389(1)
Courage and Creativity
390(1)
A Cry for Myth
391(1)
Thinking Critically: Your Personal Myth
392(2)
Psychotherapy
394(1)
Assessment and Research in May's Theory
395(6)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: May's Theory
397(1)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining May
398(1)
Summary
399(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
400(1)
PART VII COGNITIVE THEORIES
401(50)
Personal Constructs: George Kelly
402(19)
Your Goals for This Chapter
402(1)
Biographical Background
403(2)
The Person as Scientist
405(1)
Constructive Alternativism
405(1)
Fundamental Postulate and Corollaries
406(3)
Thinking Critically: How We Behave as Scientists
407(2)
The Reconstruction of Old Concepts
409(2)
Assessment and Research in Kelly's Theory
411(4)
Thinking Critically: Assessing Personal Constructs: The Rep Test
413(2)
Psychotherapy
415(6)
Thinking Critically: Role-Playing
416(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Kelly's Theory
417(2)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Kelly
419(1)
Summary
420(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
420(1)
Cognitive-Behavioral Theories: Albert Ellis, Aaron Beck, Arnold Lazarus
421(30)
Your Goals for this Chapter
421(1)
Albert Ellis
422(8)
Biographical Background
422(2)
Philosophical Origins
424(1)
The Theory of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
424(3)
Rational Emotive Behavior Psychotherapy
427(1)
Thinking Critically: A Self-Help Form
428(2)
Aaron Beck
430(8)
Biographical Background
430(2)
Philosophical Origins
432(1)
The Theory Behind Cognitive Therapy
432(3)
Cognitive Psychotherapy
435(1)
Thinking Critically: Automatic Thoughts Diary
436(1)
Assessment and Research
437(1)
Arnold Lazarus
438(13)
Biographical Background
438(2)
The Development of a Theory and the BASIC-ID
440(1)
Theory of Personality
440(2)
Thinking Critically: Using the Basic-ID
442(1)
Multimodal Therapy
443(1)
Technical Eclecticism
444(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Cognitive Behavioral Therapies and Theories
444(1)
Philosophical Assumptions: Examining Ellis, Beck, and Lazarus
445(2)
Summary
447(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
448(3)
PART VIII A NON-WESTERN APPROACH
451(26)
Zen Buddhism
452(25)
Your Goals for this Chapter
452(1)
The Introduction of Zen to the West
453(1)
The Origins of Zen
453(2)
The Teachings of the Buddha
455(4)
The Three Characteristics of Existence
456(3)
Vasubandhu and the Eight Consciousnesses
459(2)
Bodhidharma and the Transmission of Zen to China
461(1)
The Practice of Zen
462(5)
Thinking Critically: Meditation
465(2)
The Five Approaches to Zen Practice
467(1)
Enlightenment
468(2)
Eastern Thought and Psychotherapy
470(7)
Thinking Critically: Mindfulness and the Search for a Higher Synthesis
472(1)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Eastern Theories
473(1)
Summary
474(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
475(2)
CONCLUSION / PERSONALITY THEORY IN PERSPECTIVE
477(12)
Your Goals for This Chapter
477(2)
Philosophy, Science, and Art: Personality Theories
478(1)
Philosophical Issues
479(1)
The Challenge of Contemporary Personality Theorizing
480(9)
Summary
487(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
488(1)
Glossary 489(15)
References 504(28)
Index 532(20)
Credits 552


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