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Petroleum Reservoir Engineering Practice,9780137152834
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Petroleum Reservoir Engineering Practice

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780137152834

ISBN10:
0137152833
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
9/14/2010
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

Summary

The Complete, Up-to-Date, Practical Guide to Modern Petroleum Reservoir Engineering This is a complete, up-to-date guide to the practice of petroleum reservoir engineering, written by one of the worldrs"s most experienced professionals. Nnaemeka Ezekwe covers topics ranging from basic to advanced, focuses on currently acceptable practices and modern techniques, and illuminates key concepts with realistic case studies drawn from decades in the field. Ezekwe begins by discussing the basic rock and fluid properties data that underlie all reservoir engineering calculations. Next, he shows how to predict P-V-T properties with equations of state, and introduces the core concepts and techniques of basic reservoir engineering. Using case study examples, he thoroughly explains fluid flow in petroleum reservoirs, walks through essential well test analysis calculations, and presents each leading secondary and enhanced oil recovery methods. Readers will find practical coverage of software-based geologic modeling, reservoir characterization, and reservoir simulation. Ezekwe concludes by presenting a set of simple real-world principles for more effective petroleum reservoir management. WithPetroleum Reservoir Engineering Practicereaders will learn to Apply essential concepts, such as rock porosity, rock and relative permeability, and saturation Use the general material balance equation for basic reservoir analysis Perform accurate volumetric and graphical calculations of gas or oil reserves Analyze fluid flow, reservoir drive mechanisms, and pressure transients Understand the behavior of normal wells, hydraulically fractured wells, and naturally fractured reservoirs Use waterflooding, gasflooding, and other secondary recovery methods Understand modern enhanced oil recovery, including screening criteria and practical field implementation Use commercial software to model geologies, and to characterize and simulate reservoirs Throughout, Ezekwe combines thorough coverage of calculations and modeling with crucial information on data gathering and measurement. Each topic is presented concisely, and supported with copious references and examples. The result is an ideal handbook for working engineers, scientists, technicians, and managers-and a uniquely realistic primer for students.

Author Biography

Nnaemeka Ezekwe holds B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in chemical and petroleum engineering, and an MBA, all from the University of Kansas. For many years, he worked in several supervisory roles including manager of reservoir evaluation and development for Bechtel Petroleum Operations. As a senior petroleum engineer advisor for Pennzoil and later Devon Energy, he performed reservoir engineering analyses on many domestic and worldwide projects. Nnaemeka was an SPE Distinguished Lecturer in 2004–2005, during which he spoke on reservoir management strategies and practices to audiences in 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, Middle East, and North and South America. He has published numerous technical papers on chemical and petroleum engineering topics. Nnaemeka is a registered professional engineer in California and Texas.

Table of Contents

Preface          xiii

Acknowledgments          xxv

About the Author         xxix

 

Chapter 1: Porosity of Reservoir Rocks         1

1.1 Introduction   1

1.2 Total Porosity and Effective Porosity   1

1.3 Sources of Porosity Data   3

1.4 Applications of Porosity Data   10

Nomenclature   12

Abbreviations   13

References   13

General Reading   14

 

Chapter 2: Permeability and Relative Permeability         15

2.1 Introduction   15

2.2 Sources of Permeability Data   16

2.3 Relative Permeability   23

2.4 Sources of Relative Permeability Data   25

2.5 Three-Phase Relative Permeability   32

2.6 Applications of Permeability and Relative Permeability Data   32

Nomenclature   33

Abbreviations   34

References   34

General Reading   37

 

Chapter 3: Reservoir Fluid Saturations         39

3.1 Introduction   39

3.2 Determination of Water Saturations   40

3.3 Determination of Reservoir Productive Intervals   48

Nomenclature   49

Abbreviations   50

References   50

General Reading   52

 

Chapter 4: Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) Properties of Reservoir Fluids         53

4.1   Introduction   53

4.2   Phase Diagrams   53

4.3   Gas and Gas-Condensate Properties   63

4.4   Pseudo-critical Properties of Gas Mixtures   67

4.5   Wet Gas and Gas Condensate   70

4.6   Correlations for Gas Compressibility Factor   78

4.7   Gas Formation Volume Factor (FVF)   79

4.8   Gas Density   81

4.9   Gas Viscosity   82

4.10 Gas Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility   83

4.11 Correlations for Calculation of Oil PVT Properties   93

4.12 Correlations for Calculation of Water PVT Properties   103

Nomenclature   104

Subscripts   106

References   106

General Reading   108

 

Chapter 5: Reservoir Fluid Sampling and PVT Laboratory Measurements         111

5.1 Overview of Reservoir Fluid Sampling   111

5.2 Reservoir Type and State   116

5.3 Well Conditioning   119

5.4 Subsurface Sampling Methods and Tools  119

5.5 Wireline Formation Testers   121

5.6 PVT Laboratory Measurements   130

5.7 Applications of Laboratory PVT Measurements   134

Nomenclature   138

Subscripts  138

Abbreviations   139

References   139

General Reading   140

 

Appendix 5A: Typical Reservoir Fluid Study for a Black Oil Sample         142

5A.1 Reservoir Fluid Summary   142

5A.2 Calculated Analysis of Reservoir Fluid   143

5A.3 Pressure-Volume Properties at 212°F (Constant Composition Expansion)   144

5A.4 Differential Liberation at 212°F   145

5A.5 Gas Differentially Liberated at 212°F   146

5A.6 Viscosity Data at 212°F   147

5A.7 Comparison of Reservoir Oil Flash Liberation Tests   147

 

Appendix 5B: Typical Reservoir Fluid Study for a Gas Condensate Sample         148

5B.1 Summary of Reservoir Data and Surface Sampling Conditions   148

5B.2 Chromatograph Analysis of Separator Gas at 1140 psig and 92°F  150

5B.3 Chromatograph Analysis of Separator Liquid at 1140 psig and 92°F   151

5B.4 Composition of Reservoir Fluid (Calculated)   152

5B.5 Measured Saturation Pressures from Stepwise Recombinations at 267°F   152

5B.6 Pressure-Volume Properties of Reservoir Fluid at 267°F (or CCE)   153

5B.7 Depletion Study at 267°F: Hydrocarbon Analyses of Produced Wellstream (Mole %)   154

5B.8 Retrograde Condensation During Gas Depletion at 267°F   155

 

Chapter 6: PVT Properties Predictions from Equations of State         157

6.1 Historical Introduction to Equations of State (EOS)   157

6.2 van der Waals (vdW) EOS   158

6.3 Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) EOS   159

6.4 Peng-Robinson (PR) EOS   162

6.5 Phase Equilibrium of Mixtures   162

6.6 Roots from Cubic EOS   164

6.7 Volume Translation   165

6.8 Two-Phase Flash Calculation   168

6.9 Bubble Point and Dew Point Pressure Calculations   170

6.10 Characterization of Hydrocarbon Plus Fractions   171

6.11 Phase Equilibrium Predictions with Equations of State   174

Nomenclature   178

Subscripts   179

Superscripts   179

Abbreviations   179

References   180

 

Chapter 7: The General Material Balance Equation         183

7.1 Introduction   183

7.2 Derivation of the General Material Balance Equation (GMBE)   183

7.3 The GMBE for Gas Reservoirs   187

7.4 Discussion on the Application of the GMBE   188

Nomenclature   189

Subscripts   189

Abbreviations   189

References   190

 

Chapter 8: Gas Reservoirs         191

8.1 Introduction 191

8.2 Volumetric Gas Reservoirs   192

8.3 Gas Reservoirs with Water Influx   198

8.4 Water Influx Models   202

8.5 Geopressured Gas Reservoirs   213

8.6 Case Histories of Two Gas Reservoirs   221

Nomenclature   247

Subscripts   248

Abbreviations   248

References   248

General Reading   250

 

Appendix 8A: Correlations for Estimating Residual Gas Saturations for Gas Reservoirs under Water Influx         251

 

Appendix 8B: Dimensionless Pressure for Finite and Infinite Aquifers         252

 

Appendix 8C: Dimensionless Pressure for Infinite Aquifers         253

 

Chapter 9: Oil Reservoirs         255

9.1 Introduction   255

9.2 Oil Reservoir Drive Mechanisms   255

9.3 Gravity Drainage Mechanism   257

9.4 Volumetric Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs   258

9.5 Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs with Water Influx   264

9.6 Volumetric Saturated Oil Reservoirs   276

9.7 Material Balance Approach for Saturated Oil Reservoirs with Water Influx   279

9.8 Case History of Manatee Reservoirs   279

Nomenclature   292

Subscripts   292

Abbreviations   293

References   293

 

Chapter 10: Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs         295

10.1   Introduction   295

10.2   Fluid Types   296

10.3   Definition of Fluid Flow Regimes   297

10.4   Darcy Fluid Flow Equation   301

10.5   Radial Forms of the Darcy Equation   302

10.6   Derivation of the Continuity Equation in Radial Form   310

10.7   Derivation of Radial Diffusivity Equation for Slightly Compressible Fluids   311

10.8   Solutions of the Radial Diffusivity Equation for Slightly Compressible Fluids   313

10.9   Derivation of the Radial Diffusivity Equation for Compressible Fluids   321

10.10 Transformation of the Gas Diffusivity Equation with Real Gas Pseudo-Pressure Concept   322

10.11 The Superposition Principle   327

10.12 Well Productivity Index   338

10.13 Well Injectivity Index   338

Nomenclature   339

Subscripts   340

References   340

General Reading   341

 

Appendix 10A: Chart for Exponential Integral   342

 

Appendix 10B: Tabulation of pD vs tD for Radial Flow, Infinite Reservoirs with Constant Terminal Rate at Inner Boundary   343

 

Appendix 10C: Tabulation of pD vs tD for Radial Flow, Finite Reservoirs with Closed Outer Boundary and Constant Terminal Rate at Inner Boundary   345

 

Appendix 10D: Tabulation of pD vs tD for Radial Flow, Finite Reservoirs with Constant Pressure Outer Boundary and Constant Terminal Rate at Inner Boundary   350

 

Appendix 10E: Tabulation of QD vs tD for Radial Flow, Infinite Reservoirs with Constant Terminal Pressure at Inner Boundary   358

 

Appendix 10F: Tabulation of QD vs tD for Radial Flow, Finite Reservoirs with Closed Outer Boundary and Constant Terminal Pressure at Inner Boundary   361

 

Chapter 11: Well Test Analysis: Straightline Methods         367

11.1 Introduction   367

11.2 Basic Concepts in Well Test Analysis   368

11.3 Line Source Well, Infinite Reservoir Solution of the Diffusivity Equation with Skin Factor   378

11.4 Well Test Analyses with Straightline Methods   381

11.5 Special Topics in Well Test Analyses   432

Nomenclature   439

Subscripts   440

Abbreviations   441

References   441

General Reading   444

 

Chapter 12: Well Test Analysis: Type Curves         445

12.1 Introduction   445

12.2 What Are Type Curves?   445

12.3 Gringarten Type Curves   447

12.3.1 Unit-Slope Line   448

12.4 Bourdet Derivative Type Curves   449

12.5 Agarwal Equivalent Time   450

12.6 Type-Curve Matching   451

12.7 Procedures for Manual Application of Type-Curve Matching in Well Test Analysis   452

12.8 Stages of the Type-Curve Matching Procedures   454

Nomenclature   459

Subscripts   460

Abbreviations   460

References   461

 

Appendix 12A: Characteristic Shapes of Pressure and Pressure-Derivative Curves for Selected Well, Reservoir, and Boundary Models           463

 

Appendix 12B: Buildup Test Data for Example 12.1           467

 

Appendix 12C: Calculation of Pressure Derivatives           473

 

Chapter 13: Well Test Analysis: Hydraulically Fractured Wells and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs         475

13.1   Introduction   475

13.2   Hydraulically Fractured Wells   475

13.3   Definition of Dimensionless Variables for Fractured Wells   476

13.4   Flow Regimes in Fractured Wells   476

13.5   Fractured Well Flow Models   478

13.6   Fractured Well Test Analysis: Straightline Methods   480

13.7   Fractured Well Test Analysis: Type-Curve Matching 487

13.8   Naturally Fractured Reservoirs   497

13.9   Naturally Fractured Reservoir Models   497

13.10 Well Test Analysis in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Based on Double Porosity Model   505

13.11 Well Test Analysis in NFRs: Straightline Method  s 506

13.12 Well Test Analysis in NFRs: Type Curves   509

13.13 Procedure for Analysis of Well Test from NFRs Assuming Double Porosity Behavior   512

Nomenclature   520

Subscripts   521

Abbreviations   521

References   522

General Reading   523

 

Chapter 14: Well Test Analysis: Deconvolution Concepts         525

14.1 Introduction   525

14.2 What Is Deconvolution?   525

14.3 The Pressure-Rate Deconvolution Mod  el 526

14.4 Application of Deconvolution to Pressure-Rate Data   528

14.5 Examples on the Application of the von Schroeter Deconvolution Algorithm to Real Well Test Data   529

14.6 General Guidelines for Application of von Schroeter Deconvolution Algorithm to Pressure-Rate Data from Well Tests 534 

References 535

General Reading   536

 

Chapter 15: Immiscible Fluid Displacement          537

15.1 Introduction 537

15.2 Basic Concepts in Immiscible Fluid Displacement   538

15.3 Fractional Flow Equations   544

15.4 The Buckley-Leverett Equation   549

15.5 The Welge Method   553

15.6 Summary   559

Nomenclature   560

References   561

General Reading   562

 

Chapter 16: Secondary Recovery Methods         563

16.1 Introduction   563

16.2 Waterflooding   564

16.3 Gasflooding   575

Nomenclature   580

Abbreviations   580

References   580

General Reading   582

 

Chapter 17: Enhanced Oil Recovery          583

17.1 Introduction   583

17.2 EOR Processes   584

17.3 EOR Screening Criteria   587

17.4 Miscible Gas Injection Processes   589

17.5 Methods for Determination of MMP or MME for Gasfloods   595

17.6 Types of Miscible Gas Flooding   612

17.7 Chemical Flooding Processes   614

17.8 Thermal Processes   616

17.9 Implementation of EOR Projects   624

Nomenclature   630

Abbreviations   630

References   631

General Reading   638

 

Chapter 18: Geologic Modeling and Reservoir Characterization         641

18.1 Introduction   641

18.2 Sources of Data for Geologic Modeling and Reservoir Characterization   641

18.3 Data Quality Control and Quality Assurance   644

18.4 Scale and Integration of Data 644

18.5 General Procedure for Geologic Modeling and Reservoir Characterization   645

Nomenclature   676

Abbreviations   676

References   677

General Reading   678

 

Chapter 19: Reservoir Simulation          681

19.1 Introduction   681

19.2 Derivation of the Continuity Equation in Rectangular Form 684

19.3 Flow Equations for Three-Phase Flow of Oil, Water, and Gas   686

19.4 Basic Concepts, Terms, and Methods in Reservoir Simulation   689

19.5 General Structure of Flow Reservoir Models   706

Nomenclature 708

Subscripts 709

Abbreviations 709

References 710

General Reading 714

 

Chapter 20: Reservoir Management         717

20.1 Introduction   717

20.2 Reservoir Management Principles   718

20.3 Case Histories Demonstrating Applications of Reservoir Management Principles   720

References   741

General Reading   744

 

Index 745



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