9780199765225

Philosophy Here and Now Powerful Ideas in Everyday Life

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780199765225

  • ISBN10:

    0199765227

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 6/29/2012
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Summary

Philosophy Here and Now: Powerful Ideas in Everyday Lifeis a hybrid text/reader that helps students understand, appreciate, and even do philosophy. The book emphasizes philosophical writing, reinforced with step-by-step coaching in how to write argumentative essays and supported by multiple opportunities to hone critical thinking. It shows students how philosophy applies to their own lives and brings the subject to life with engaging chapter-ending literary selections, abundant illustrations, and a wealth of pedagogical features. FEATURES: *A A comprehensive introductory chapterlays the groundwork for philosophical thinking *Six types of text boxes--"Philosophy Now," "Philosophers at Work," "Philosophy Lab," "What Do You Believe," "Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical Views," and "Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own Views" demonstrate the value and relevance of philosophy *Additional pedagogical elementsmake the material even more engaging and accessible. These include marginal critical-thinking questions, marginal quotes, a timeline, key terms (boldfaced at their first appearance and listed and defined at the end of each chapter), marginal definitions, and a glossary. *Charts, tables, and color photoskeep students visually engaged *Fictional or narrative selections--followed by "Probing Questions"--at the end of each chapter explore and dramatize the philosophical issues discussed *"A How to Write a Philosophy Paper"appendix offers concise, step-by-step guidance in crafting an effective philosophical essay *An Instructor's Manual and Test Bank on CD and a Companion Websiteprovide additional resources

Author Biography


Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several books including The Power of Critical Thinking, Fourth Edition (2012), Great Philosophical Arguments (2011), Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, Eighth Edition (2011), Contemporary Moral Arguments (2010), and The Moral Life, Fourth Edition (2010), all published by Oxford University Press.

Table of Contents


Each chapter includes Review Notes, Key Terms, Probing Questions (which follow the literary selections), and Suggestions For Further Reading.

Preface
CHAPTER 1. PHILOSOPHY AND YOU
1.1 PHILOSOPHY: THE QUEST FOR UNDERSTANDING
The Good of Philosophy
Philosophical Terrain
1.2 SOCRATES AND THE EXAMINED LIFE
PLATO: The Republic
1.3 THINKING PHILOSOPHICALLY
Reasons and Arguments
Reading Philosophy
Fallacious Reasoning
Argument Exercises
Narrative: The Trial and Death of Socrates, Plato
CHAPTER 2. GOD AND RELIGION
2.1 OVERVIEW: GOD AND PHILOSOPHY
Why Religion Matters
Overview: The Philosopher's Quest
Belief and Disbelief
2.2 ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
Cosmological Arguments
AQUINAS: Summa Theologica
CRAIG: Reasonable Faith
Design Arguments
PALEY: Natural Theology
HUME: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
ANSELM: The Ontological Argument
KANT: Critique of Pure Reason
2.3 GOD AND THE PROBLEM OF EVIL
Rowe's Argument from Evil
The Free Will Defense
ROWE: Philosophy of Religion
SWINBURNE: Is There a God?
HICK: Evil and the God of Love
2.4 THEISM AND RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE
ST. TERESA OF AVILA: The Life of Teresa of Jesus
MACKIE: The Miracle of Theism
ROWE: Philosophy of Religion
SWINBURNE: The Existence of God
2.5 BELIEF WITHOUT REASON
JAMES: Pragmatic Faith
JAMES: The Will to Believe
MARTIN: Atheism: A Philosophical Justification
PASCAL: Pensees
2.6 BUDDHISM: AN EASTERN WAY
AJAHN SUMEDHO: Buddha-Nature
WALPOLA RAHULA: What the Buddha Taught
Fiction: Arthur C. Clarke, The Star
CHAPTER 3. MORALITY AND THE MORAL LIFE
3.1 OVERVIEW: ETHICS AND THE MORAL DOMAIN
Ethics and Morality
Moral Theories
SHAFER-LANDAU: Whatever Happened to Good and Evil?
3.2 MORAL RELATIVISM
Subjective Relativism
Cultural Relativism
3.3 MORALITY BASED ON CONSEQUENCES
Utilitarianism
MILL: Utilitarianism
3.4 MORALITY BASED ON DUTY AND RIGHTS
KANT: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals
3.5 MORALITY BASED ON CHARACTER
ARISTOTLE: Nicomachean Ethics
SHAFER-LANDAU: The Fundamentals of Ethics
3.6 FEMINIST ETHICS AND THE ETHICS OF CARE
JAGGAR: Feminist Ethics
CROSTHWAITE: Gender and Bioethics
HELD: The Ethics of Care
BAIER: The Need for More Than Justice
3.7 ALBERT CAMUS: AN EXISTENTIALIST VOICE
Fiction: Ursula Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas
CHAPTER 4. MIND AND BODY
4.1 OVERVIEW: THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM
4.2 SUBSTANCE DUALISM
DESCARTES: Discourse on the Method
SCHICK: Doing Philosophy
DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy
SEARLE: Mind
4.3 MIND-BODY IDENTITY
SMART: Sensations and Brain Processes
CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind
NAGEL: What Is It Like to Be a Bat?
4.4 THE MIND AS SOFTWARE
FODOR: The Mind-Body Problem
BLOCK: Troubles with Functionalism
SEARLE: Mind
4.5 THE MIND AS PROPERTIES
CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind
Fiction: Terry Bisson, They're Made Out of Meat
CHAPTER 5. FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM
5.1 OVERVIEW: THE FREE WILL PROBLEM
5.2 DETERMINISM AND INDETERMINISM
D'HOLBACH: Of the System of Man's Free Agency
JAMES: The Dilemma of Determinism
5.3 COMPATIBILISM
LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
STACE: Religion and the Modern Mind
ROWE: Two Concepts of Freedom
5.4 LIBERTARIANISM
VAN INWAGEN: An Essay on Free Will
TAYLOR: Metaphysics
5.5 SARTRE'S PROFOUND FREEDOM
SARTRE: Existentialism Is a Humanism
Fiction: Thomas D. Davis, A Little Omniscience Goes a Long Way
CHAPTER 6. KNOWLEDGE AND SKEPTICISM
6.1 OVERVIEW: THE PROBLEM OF KNOWLEDGE
6.2 THE RATIONALIST ROAD
Plato's Rationalism
Descartes' Doubt
Descartes' Certainty
PLATO: Meno
DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy
6.3 THE EMPIRICIST TURN
Locke
Berkeley
Hume
LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
BERKELEY: Of the Principles of Human Knowledge
HUME: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
6.4 THE KANTIAN COMPROMISE
KANT: Critique of Pure Reason
6.5 A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ON KNOWLEDGE
AINLEY: Feminist Philosophy
ANTONY: Embodiment and Epistemology
ANDERSON: Feminist Epistemology
COLE: Philosophy and Feminist Criticism
Fiction: Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking Glass
CHAPTER 7. THE JUST SOCIETY
7.1 OVERVIEW: JUSTICE AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
7.2 PLATO'S THEORY: JUSTICE AS MERIT
PLATO: The Republic
7.3 SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORIES
Hobbes
HOBBES: Leviathan
LOCKE: Second Treatise of Government
RAWLS: A Theory of Justice
7.4 SOCIALIST THEORIES
MARX: Manifesto of the Communist Party
7.5 FEMINISM AND SOCIAL JUSTICE
OKIN: Justice, Gender, and the Family
MILLER: Political Philosophy
Fiction: William Golding, Lord of the Flies
CHAPTER 8. THE MEANING OF LIFE
8.1 PHILOSOPHY AND THE MEANING OF LIFE
8.2 PESSIMISM: LIFE HAS NO MEANING
TOLSTOY: My Confession
SCHOPENHAUER: On the Sufferings of the World
BAGGINI: What's It All About?
8.3 OPTIMISM: LIFE CAN HAVE MEANING
Meaning from Above
TOLSTOY: My Confession
BAGGINI What's It All About?
Meaning from Below
EDWARDS: The Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Fiction: Voltaire, The Good Brahmin

Appendix A. Answers to Exercises
Appendix B. How to Write a Philosophy Paper
Notes
Glossary
Credits
Index

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