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Philosophy Here and Now: Powerful Ideas in Everyday Lifeis a hybrid text/reader that helps students understand, appreciate, and even do philosophy. The book emphasizes philosophical writing, reinforced with step-by-step coaching in how to write argumentative essays and supported by multiple opportunities to hone critical thinking. It shows students how philosophy applies to their own lives and brings the subject to life with engaging chapter-ending literary selections, abundant illustrations, and a wealth of pedagogical features. FEATURES: *A A comprehensive introductory chapterlays the groundwork for philosophical thinking *Six types of text boxes--"Philosophy Now," "Philosophers at Work," "Philosophy Lab," "What Do You Believe," "Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical Views," and "Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own Views" demonstrate the value and relevance of philosophy *Additional pedagogical elementsmake the material even more engaging and accessible. These include marginal critical-thinking questions, marginal quotes, a timeline, key terms (boldfaced at their first appearance and listed and defined at the end of each chapter), marginal definitions, and a glossary. *Charts, tables, and color photoskeep students visually engaged *Fictional or narrative selections--followed by "Probing Questions"--at the end of each chapter explore and dramatize the philosophical issues discussed *"A How to Write a Philosophy Paper"appendix offers concise, step-by-step guidance in crafting an effective philosophical essay *An Instructor's Manual and Test Bank on CD and a Companion Websiteprovide additional resources
Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several books including The Power of Critical Thinking, Fourth Edition (2012), Great Philosophical Arguments (2011), Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, Eighth Edition (2011), Contemporary Moral Arguments (2010), and The Moral Life, Fourth Edition (2010), all published by Oxford University Press.
Table of Contents
Each chapter includes Review Notes, Key Terms, Probing Questions (which follow the literary selections), and Suggestions For Further Reading.
Preface CHAPTER 1. PHILOSOPHY AND YOU 1.1 PHILOSOPHY: THE QUEST FOR UNDERSTANDING The Good of Philosophy Philosophical Terrain 1.2 SOCRATES AND THE EXAMINED LIFE PLATO: The Republic 1.3 THINKING PHILOSOPHICALLY Reasons and Arguments Reading Philosophy Fallacious Reasoning Argument Exercises Narrative: The Trial and Death of Socrates, Plato CHAPTER 2. GOD AND RELIGION 2.1 OVERVIEW: GOD AND PHILOSOPHY Why Religion Matters Overview: The Philosopher's Quest Belief and Disbelief 2.2 ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD Cosmological Arguments AQUINAS: Summa Theologica CRAIG: Reasonable Faith Design Arguments PALEY: Natural Theology HUME: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion ANSELM: The Ontological Argument KANT: Critique of Pure Reason 2.3 GOD AND THE PROBLEM OF EVIL Rowe's Argument from Evil The Free Will Defense ROWE: Philosophy of Religion SWINBURNE: Is There a God? HICK: Evil and the God of Love 2.4 THEISM AND RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE ST. TERESA OF AVILA: The Life of Teresa of Jesus MACKIE: The Miracle of Theism ROWE: Philosophy of Religion SWINBURNE: The Existence of God 2.5 BELIEF WITHOUT REASON JAMES: Pragmatic Faith JAMES: The Will to Believe MARTIN: Atheism: A Philosophical Justification PASCAL: Pensees 2.6 BUDDHISM: AN EASTERN WAY AJAHN SUMEDHO: Buddha-Nature WALPOLA RAHULA: What the Buddha Taught Fiction: Arthur C. Clarke, The Star CHAPTER 3. MORALITY AND THE MORAL LIFE 3.1 OVERVIEW: ETHICS AND THE MORAL DOMAIN Ethics and Morality Moral Theories SHAFER-LANDAU: Whatever Happened to Good and Evil? 3.2 MORAL RELATIVISM Subjective Relativism Cultural Relativism 3.3 MORALITY BASED ON CONSEQUENCES Utilitarianism MILL: Utilitarianism 3.4 MORALITY BASED ON DUTY AND RIGHTS KANT: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals 3.5 MORALITY BASED ON CHARACTER ARISTOTLE: Nicomachean Ethics SHAFER-LANDAU: The Fundamentals of Ethics 3.6 FEMINIST ETHICS AND THE ETHICS OF CARE JAGGAR: Feminist Ethics CROSTHWAITE: Gender and Bioethics HELD: The Ethics of Care BAIER: The Need for More Than Justice 3.7 ALBERT CAMUS: AN EXISTENTIALIST VOICE Fiction: Ursula Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas CHAPTER 4. MIND AND BODY 4.1 OVERVIEW: THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM 4.2 SUBSTANCE DUALISM DESCARTES: Discourse on the Method SCHICK: Doing Philosophy DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy SEARLE: Mind 4.3 MIND-BODY IDENTITY SMART: Sensations and Brain Processes CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind NAGEL: What Is It Like to Be a Bat? 4.4 THE MIND AS SOFTWARE FODOR: The Mind-Body Problem BLOCK: Troubles with Functionalism SEARLE: Mind 4.5 THE MIND AS PROPERTIES CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind Fiction: Terry Bisson, They're Made Out of Meat CHAPTER 5. FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM 5.1 OVERVIEW: THE FREE WILL PROBLEM 5.2 DETERMINISM AND INDETERMINISM D'HOLBACH: Of the System of Man's Free Agency JAMES: The Dilemma of Determinism 5.3 COMPATIBILISM LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding STACE: Religion and the Modern Mind ROWE: Two Concepts of Freedom 5.4 LIBERTARIANISM VAN INWAGEN: An Essay on Free Will TAYLOR: Metaphysics 5.5 SARTRE'S PROFOUND FREEDOM SARTRE: Existentialism Is a Humanism Fiction: Thomas D. Davis, A Little Omniscience Goes a Long Way CHAPTER 6. KNOWLEDGE AND SKEPTICISM 6.1 OVERVIEW: THE PROBLEM OF KNOWLEDGE 6.2 THE RATIONALIST ROAD Plato's Rationalism Descartes' Doubt Descartes' Certainty PLATO: Meno DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy 6.3 THE EMPIRICIST TURN Locke Berkeley Hume LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding BERKELEY: Of the Principles of Human Knowledge HUME: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding 6.4 THE KANTIAN COMPROMISE KANT: Critique of Pure Reason 6.5 A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ON KNOWLEDGE AINLEY: Feminist Philosophy ANTONY: Embodiment and Epistemology ANDERSON: Feminist Epistemology COLE: Philosophy and Feminist Criticism Fiction: Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking Glass CHAPTER 7. THE JUST SOCIETY 7.1 OVERVIEW: JUSTICE AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY 7.2 PLATO'S THEORY: JUSTICE AS MERIT PLATO: The Republic 7.3 SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORIES Hobbes HOBBES: Leviathan LOCKE: Second Treatise of Government RAWLS: A Theory of Justice 7.4 SOCIALIST THEORIES MARX: Manifesto of the Communist Party 7.5 FEMINISM AND SOCIAL JUSTICE OKIN: Justice, Gender, and the Family MILLER: Political Philosophy Fiction: William Golding, Lord of the Flies CHAPTER 8. THE MEANING OF LIFE 8.1 PHILOSOPHY AND THE MEANING OF LIFE 8.2 PESSIMISM: LIFE HAS NO MEANING TOLSTOY: My Confession SCHOPENHAUER: On the Sufferings of the World BAGGINI: What's It All About? 8.3 OPTIMISM: LIFE CAN HAVE MEANING Meaning from Above TOLSTOY: My Confession BAGGINI What's It All About? Meaning from Below EDWARDS: The Encyclopedia of Philosophy Fiction: Voltaire, The Good Brahmin
Appendix A. Answers to Exercises Appendix B. How to Write a Philosophy Paper Notes Glossary Credits Index