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Philosophy : The Power of Ideas,9781559349888
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Philosophy : The Power of Ideas

by ;
ISBN13:

9781559349888

ISBN10:
1559349883
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/1/1998
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill College
List Price: $76.70
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Table of Contents

Preface vii
Chapter 1 Powerful Ideas
1(20)
Philosophical Questions
3(6)
The Divisions of Philosophy
9(4)
The Benefits of Philosophy
13(1)
Two Myths about Philosophy
14(2)
Arguments
16(2)
Suggested Further Readings
18(3)
Part One METAPHYSICS AND EPISTEMOLOGY: EXISTENCE AND KNOWLEDGE 21(204)
Chapter 2 Early Philosophy
22(15)
The Milesians
25(2)
Pythagoras
27(1)
Heraclitus and Parmenides
28(2)
Empedocles and Anaxagoras
30(2)
The Atomists
32(3)
Checklist
35(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
35(1)
Suggested Further Readings
36(1)
Chapter 3 Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
37(29)
Socrates
37(4)
Plato
41(6)
Plato's Metaphysics: The Theory of Forms
41(4)
Plato's Theory of Knowledge
45(2)
Aristotle
47(5)
SELECTION 3.1: Plato, Republic
52(7)
SELECTION 3.2: Plato, Meno
59(5)
Checklist
64(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
65(1)
Suggested Further Readings
65(1)
Chapter 4 The Philosophers of the Hellenistic and Christian Eras
66(24)
Metaphysics in the Roman Empire
69(9)
Plotinus
69(2)
St. Augustine
71(2)
Augustine and Skepticism
73(3)
Hypatia
76(2)
The Middle Ages and Aquinas
78(5)
SELECTION 4.1: St. Augustine, Confessions
83(5)
Checklist
88(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
88(1)
Suggested Further Readings
88(2)
Chapter 5 The Modern Period
90(33)
Descartes and Dualism
94(7)
Skepticism As the Key to Certainty
97(1)
The "Clear and Distinct" Litmus Test
97(4)
Hobbes and Materialism
101(2)
Perception
101(2)
Difficulties
103(1)
Spinoza and Conway
103(4)
The Metaphysics of Anne Conway
103(2)
Spinoza
105(2)
John Locke, Berkeley, and Idealism
107(8)
Representative Realism
108(3)
George Berkeley
111(2)
Material Things As Clusters of Ideas
113(2)
SELECTION 5.1: Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy
115(3)
SELECTION 5.2: George Berkeley, Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
118(2)
Checklist
120(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
121(1)
Suggested Further Readings
121(2)
Chapter 6 The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
123(34)
David Hume
127(6)
The Quarter Experiment
129(1)
Hume on the Self
130(1)
Hume on Cause and Effect
131(2)
Immanuel Kant
133(4)
The Ordering Principles of the Mind
133(2)
Perceptions Must Be Conceptualized and Unified
135(1)
Things-in-Themselves
136(1)
The Nineteenth Century
137(7)
Main Themes of Hegel
138(2)
Reactions: Kierkegaard, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche
140(3)
John Stuart Mill
143(1)
SELECTION 6.1: David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
144(3)
SELECTION 6.2: Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason
147(1)
SELECTION 6.3: George Hegel, The Philosophy of History
148(1)
SELECTION 6.4: Arthur Schopenhauer, The World As Will and Representation
149(6)
Checklist
155(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
155(1)
Suggested Further Readings
156(1)
Chapter 7 The Continental Tradition
157(27)
Existentialism
160(4)
Two Existentialists
164(8)
Albert Camus
165(3)
Jean-Paul Sartre
168(4)
Phenomenology
172(6)
Martin Heidegger
173(5)
SELECTION 7.1: Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism and Humanism
178(3)
SELECTION 7.2: Albert Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus
181(1)
Checklist
182(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
182(1)
Suggested Further Readings
183(1)
Chapter 8 The Pragmatic and Analytic Traditions
184(41)
Pragmatism
187(3)
Analytic Philosophy
190(16)
What Analysis Is
190(1)
The Evolution of Analytic Philosophy
191(5)
Experience, Language, and the World
196(7)
Antirepresentationalism
203(3)
The Philosophy of Mind
206(11)
Dualism
206(2)
Behaviorism
208(4)
Identity Theory
212(1)
Functionalism
213(4)
SELECTION 8.1: Elizabeth Anscombe, Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Mind
217(1)
SELECTION 8.2: J.J.C. Smart, Sensations and Brain Processes
218(2)
SELECTION 8.3: Richard Rorty, Objectivity, Relativism, and Truth
220(1)
Checklist
221(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
222(1)
Suggested Further Readings
223(2)
Part Two MORAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY 225(164)
Chapter 9 Moral Philosophy
226(57)
The Early Greeks
229(9)
Plato
230(4)
A Complete Ethical Theory
234(1)
Aesara, the Lucanian
234(2)
Aristotle
236(2)
Epicureanism and Stoicism
238(4)
Epicureanism
238(1)
The Stoics
239(3)
Christianizing Ethics
242(7)
St. Augustine
242(1)
St. Hildegard of Bingen
243(2)
Heloise and Abelard
245(3)
St. Thomas Aquinas
248(1)
Hobbes and Hume
249(6)
Hobbes
249(3)
Hume
252(1)
Value Judgments Are Based on Emotion, Not Reason
252(1)
Benevolence
253(1)
Can There Be Ethics after Hume?
254(1)
Kant
255(3)
The Supreme Principle of Morality
256(1)
Why You Should Do What You Should Do
256(2)
The Utilitarians
258(5)
Bentham
258(2)
Mill
260(3)
Friedrich Nietzsche
263(1)
SELECTION 9.1: Plato, Gorgias
264(3)
SELECTION 9.2: Epicurus, Epicurus to Menoeceus
267(1)
SELECTION 9.3: Epictetus, The Encheiridion
268(2)
SELECTION 9.4: Immanuel Kant, Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals
270(2)
SELECTION 9.5: John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism
272(3)
SELECTION 9.6: Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil
275(4)
Checklist
279(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
280(1)
Suggested Further Readings
281(2)
Chapter 10 Political Philosophy
283(50)
Plato and Aristotle
287(4)
Plato
287(2)
Aristotle
289(2)
Natural Law Theory and Contractarian Theory
291(5)
Augustine and Aquinas
291(1)
Hobbes
292(4)
Two Other Contractarian Theorists
296(9)
John Locke
296(3)
Locke and the Right to Property
299(1)
Separation of Power
300(1)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
301(4)
Mary Wollstonecraft
305(1)
American Constitutional Theory
306(2)
Natural Law and Rights in the Declaration of Independence
307(1)
Natural Law and Rights in the U.S. Constitution
307(1)
The Right to Privacy
308(1)
Classic Liberalism and Marxism
308(13)
Harriet Taylor
309(1)
John Stuart Mill
310(2)
From Liberalism to Marxism via Utopianism
312(2)
Karl Marx
314(7)
SELECTION 10.1: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan
321(4)
SELECTION 10.2: John Stuart Mill, On Liberty
325(2)
SELECTION 10.3: Anne Doyle Wheeler and William Thompson, The Appeal of One Half of the Human Race
327(1)
Checklist
328(2)
Questions for Discussion and Review
330(1)
Suggested Further Readings
331(2)
Chapter 11 Recent Moral and Political Philosophy
333(56)
G. E. Moore
333(6)
W. D. Ross
339(1)
Emotivism and Beyond
340(4)
John Rawls, a Contemporary Liberal
344(5)
The Fundamental Requirements of the Just Society
344(2)
The Veil of Ignorance and the Original Position
346(1)
The Two Principles of Social Justice
346(1)
The Rights of Individuals
347(1)
Why Should I Accept That?
348(1)
Robert Nozick's Libertarianism
349(3)
A Minimal State Is Justified
350(1)
Only the "Night-Watchman" State Does Not Violate Rights
350(2)
The Rights of Individuals
352(1)
Communitarian Responses to Rawls
352(3)
Alasdair MacIntyre and Virtue Ethics
353(2)
Feminist Thought
355(16)
Androgyny As an Alternative
359(3)
Problems with Androgyny As an Ideal
362(3)
Feminist Moral Theory
365(4)
Justice, Gender, and the Family: Susan Moller Okin
369(2)
Herbert Marcuse, a Contemporary Marxist
371(3)
SELECTION 11.1: John Rawls, A Theory of Justice
374(1)
SELECTION 11.2: Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia
375(2)
SELECTION 11.3: Susan Moller Okin, Justice, Gender, and the Family
377(5)
SELECTION 11.4: Nel Noddings, Caring: A Feminist Approach to Ethics and Moral Education
382(2)
Checklist
384(2)
Questions for Discussion and Review
386(1)
Suggested Further Readings
387(2)
Part Three PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION: REASON AND FAITH 389(52)
Chapter 12 Philosophy and Belief in God
390(51)
Two Christian Greats
394(6)
Anselm
395(2)
Aquinas
397(3)
Mysticism
400(3)
Seventeenth-Century Perspectives
403(5)
Descartes
403(2)
Leibniz
405(3)
Eighteenth-Century Perspectives
408(7)
Hume
408(4)
Kant
412(3)
Nineteenth-Century Perspectives
415(9)
Newman
415(3)
Kierkegaard
418(1)
Nietzsche
419(1)
James
420(4)
Twentieth-Century Perspectives
424(5)
God and Logical Positivism
424(2)
The Unfolding of God
426(3)
SELECTION 12.1: St. Anselm, Proslogion
429(1)
SELECTION 12.2: St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica
430(1)
SELECTION 12.3: Friedrich Nietzsche, The Gay Science
431(1)
SELECTION 12.4: Antony Flew, Theology and Falsification
432(2)
SELECTION 12.5: Mary Daly, After the Death of God the Father
434(3)
Checklist
437(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
438(1)
Suggested Further Readings
439(2)
Part Four POST-MODERN CRITIQUE 441(122)
Chapter 13 An Era of Suspicion
442(29)
Jurgen Habermas
445(3)
Michel Foucault
448(2)
Structuralism versus Deconstruction
450(2)
Richard Rorty
452(2)
Feminist Critiques
454(9)
Sexism and Language
455(1)
Pornography
456(1)
The Importance of Recognizing Diversity
457(1)
Feminist Epistemology
458(1)
Ecofeminism
459(4)
SELECTION 13.1: Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality
463(1)
SELECTION 13.2: Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization
464(1)
SELECTION 13.3: Karen J. Warren, The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism
465(4)
Checklist
469(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
469(1)
Suggested Further Readings
470(1)
Chapter 14 Eastern Influences
471(50)
Hinduism
474(2)
Buddhism
476(5)
Buddha
477(4)
Taoism
481(9)
Lao Tzu
482(4)
Chuang Tzu
486(4)
Confucianism
490(18)
Confucius
490(4)
Mencius
494(5)
Zen Buddhism
499(1)
Hui Neng
499(2)
Stirring Up the Melting Pot of Eastern Philosophy
501(2)
Murasaki
503(2)
Dogen
505(3)
The Philosophy of the Samurai (c. 1100-1900)
508(5)
The Influence of Confucius
509(2)
The Influence of Zen Buddhism
511(2)
SELECTION 14.1: Confucius, Analects
513(2)
SELECTION 14.2: Dwight Goddard, ed., The Buddhist Bible
515(3)
Checklist
518(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
519(1)
Suggested Further Readings
520(1)
Chapter 15 Other Voices
521(42)
Historical Background
526(3)
Africa
529(5)
Oral and Traditional Philosophy
531(3)
The Americas
534(8)
African-American Thought
535(5)
Latin American Thought
540(2)
South Asia
542(4)
Satyagraha
543(1)
Metaphysics
544(2)
SELECTION 15.1: Leopold Sedar Senghor, On African Socialism
546(1)
SELECTION 15.2: Desmond Tutu, My Vision for South Africa
547(1)
SELECTION 15.3: Martin Luther King, Jr., The Sword That Heals
548(2)
SELECTION 15.4: Carlos Astrada, Existentialism and the Crisis of Philosophy
550(2)
SELECTION 15.5: Francisco Miro Quesada, Man without Theory
552(2)
SELECTION 15.6: Sonia Saldivar-Hull, Feminism on the Border: From Gender Politics to Geopolitics
554(2)
SELECTION 15.7: Mohandas K. Gandhi, Satyagraha
556(2)
SELECTION 15.8: Rabindranath Tagore, Towards Universal Man
558(1)
Checklist
559(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
560(1)
Suggested Further Readings
561(2)
Appendix 1: Truth 563(3)
Appendix 2: Knowledge 566(3)
Glossary/Index 569


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