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Philosophy Traditional and Experimental Readings



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Oxford University Press
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Recently, the fields of empirical and experimental philosophy have generated tremendous excitement, due to unexpected results that have challenged philosophical dogma. Responding to this trend,Philosophy: Traditional and Experimental Readingsis the first introductory philosophy reader to integrate cutting-edge work in empirical and experimental philosophy with traditional philosophy. Featuring coverage that is equal parts historical, contemporary, and empirical/experimental, this topically organized reader provides students with a unique introduction to both the core and the vanguard of philosophy. The text is enhanced by pedagogical tools including commentary on each reading and chapter, study questions, suggested further readings, and a glossary. An Instructor's Manual and Companion Website at provide additional resources.

Author Biography

Fritz Allhoff is Associate Professor of Philosophy and Director of Graduate Studies at Western Michigan University.

Ron Mallon is Associate Professor of Philosophy and Director of Philosophy-Neuroscience-Psychology at Washington University in St. Louis.

Shaun Nichols is Professor of Philosophy at The University of Arizona.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Belief in God
Kevin Timpe: Introduction
1.1a. Anselm: Proslogion
1.1b. Gaunilo: A Reply on Behalf of the Fool
1.2. Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologiae
1.3. William Paley: Natural Theology
1.4. Blaise Pascal: Pensées
1.5. Peter van Inwagen: The Argument from Evil
1.6. Sigmund Freud: The Future of an Illusion
1.7. Alvin Plantinga: Warranted Christian Belief
1.8. Deborah Kelemen: Are Children "Intuitive Theists"?
1.9. Daniel Dennett: Breaking the Spell
Chapter 2: Skepticism and the Analysis of Knowledge
James Beebe and Anand J. Vaidya: Introduction
2.1. Sextus Empiricus: Outlines of Pyrrhonism
2.2. René Descartes: Meditation I: Concerning Those Things That Can Be Called into Doubt
2.3. George Berkeley: Principles of Human Knowledge
2.4. G. E. Moore: Proof of an External World
2.5. Edmund Gettier: Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?
2.6. Alvin Goldman: What Is Justified Belief?
2.7. Shaun Nichols, Stephen Stich, and Jonathan Weinberg: Meta-Skepticism: Meditations in Ethno-Epistemology
Chapter 3: Explanation and Causation
Alexandra Bradner: Introduction
3.1. Aristotle: Physics, Posterior Analytics, Physics
3.2. David Hume: Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
3.3. Albert Michotte: The Perception of Causality
3.4. David Lewis: Causation
3.5. Laura Scultz, Tamar Kushnir, and Alison Gopnik: Learning from Doing
Chapter 4: Mental States
Mark Phelan and Eric Mandelbaum: Introduction
4.1. René Descartes and Princess Elisabeth: How Can Souls Move Bodies?
4.2. Paul Bloom: The Duel between Body and Soul
4.3. Mark Phelan, Eric Mandelbaum, and Shaun Nichols: Brain Damage, Mind Damage, and Dualism
4.4. Paul Churchland: Eliminative Materialism and the Propositional Attitudes
4.5. Ron Mallon, Edouard Machery, Shaun Nichols, and Stephen Stich: Against Arguments from Reference
4.6. Jerry Fodor: The Persistence of the Attitudes
4.7. Daniel Dennett: Real Patterns
4.8. Alison Gopnik and Henry M. Wellman: Why the Child's Theory of Mind Really Is a Theory
4.9. Joshua Knobe: Person as Scientist, Person as Moralist
Chapter 5: Consciousness
Emily Esch and Joshua Weisberg: Introduction
5.1. René Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy
5.2. Gottfried Leibniz: The Monadology
5.3. T. H. Huxley: On the Hypothesis That Animals Are Automata, and Its History
5.4. Frank Jackson: Epiphenomenal Qualia
5.5. David Chalmers: The Puzzle of Conscious Experience
5.6. Patricia Churchland: The Hornswoggle Problem
5.7a. Martha J. Farah: Visual Perception and Visual Awareness after Brain Damage: A Tutorial
5.7b. Michael Tye: Ten Problems of Consciousness
5.8. Justin Sytsma: Folk Psychology and Phenomenal Consciousness
Chapter 6: Free Will and Moral Responsibility
Stephen Morris and Chris Weigel: Introduction
6.1. Kai Nielson: The Compatibility of Freedom and Determinism
6.2. Roderick Chisholm: Human Freedom and the Self
6.3. Galen Strawson: The Impossibility of Moral Responsibility
6.4. Harry G. Frankfurt: Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person
6.5. Eddy Nahmias, Stephen Morris, Thomas Nadelhoffer, and Jason Turner: Surveying Freedom: Folk Intuitions about Free Will and Moral Responsibility
6.6. Daniel Wegner: The Illusion of Conscious Will
6.7. Alfred R. Mele: Free Will and Luck
Chapter 7: Persons and the Self
Emily Esch: Introduction
7.1. John Locke: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
7.2. Thomas Reid: Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man
7.3. David Hume: Treatise of Human Nature
7.4. Derek Parfit: Divided Minds and the Nature of Persons
7.5. Paul Bloom: First Person Plural
Chapter 8: Meta-Ethics
Tamler Sommers and Jennifer Cole Wright: Introduction
8.1. Herodotus: Culture Is King
8.2. Plato: Why Be Moral?
8.3. A. J. Ayer: Emotivism
8.4. J. L. Mackie: Error Theory
8.5. Michael Smith: The Moral Problem
8.6. James Rachels: The Challenge of Cultural Relativism
8.7. John Doris and Stephen Stich: Empirical Approaches to Metaethics
8.8. Jennifer Cole Wright and Hagop Sarkissian: Folk Meta-Ethical Commitments
Chapter 9: Normative Ethics
Kevin Timpe: Introduction
9.1. Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics
9.2. Immanuel Kant: Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals
9.3. John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism
9.4. John Doris: Persons, Situations, and Virtue Ethics
9.5. Joshua Greene: The Secret Joke of Kant's Soul
Chapter 10: Philosophical Method
Anand J. Vaidya and Michael Shaffer: Introduction
10.1. Plato: Meno
10.2. Ludwig Wittgenstein: Philosophical Investigations
10.3. Stephen P. Stich: Plato's Method Meets Cognitive Science
10.4. Ernest Sosa: Experimental Philosophy and Philosophical Intuition
About the Editors

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