Physics : Principles with Applications

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Package
  • Copyright: 1/1/2005
  • Publisher: Prentice-Hall Press

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This easy-to-carry 5" x 7" paperback contains a summary of the entire text, including all key concepts and equations, as well as tips and hints. Perfect for carrying to lecture and taking notes.

Table of Contents

Introduction, Measurement, Estimatingp. 1
The Nature of Sciencep. 1
Physics and Its Relation to Other Fieldsp. 2
Models, Theories, and Lawsp. 3
Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figuresp. 3
Units, Standards, and the SI Systemp. 5
Converting Unitsp. 6
Order-of-Magnitude: Rapid Estimatingp. 6
Dimensions and Dimensional Analysisp. 7
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 7
Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimensionp. 8
Reference Frames and Displacementp. 8
Average Velocityp. 9
Instantaneous Velocityp. 10
Accelerationp. 10
Motion at Constant Accelerationp. 11
Solving Problemsp. 12
Falling Objectsp. 12
Graphical Analysis of Linear Motionp. 13
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 14
Kinematics in Two Dimensions; Vectorsp. 16
Vectors and Scalarsp. 16
Addition of Vectors-Graphical Methodsp. 17
Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalarp. 19
Adding Vectors by Componentsp. 20
Projectile Motionp. 21
Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motionp. 23
Projectile Motion is Parabolicp. 25
Relative Velocityp. 25
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 26
Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motionp. 28
Forcep. 28
Newton's First Law of Motionp. 29
Massp. 29
Newton's Second Law of Motionp. 30
Newton's Third Law of Motionp. 30
Weight-the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Forcep. 31
Solving Problems with Newton's Laws: Free-Body Diagramsp. 32
Applications Involving Friction, Inclinesp. 33
Problem Solving-A General Approachp. 36
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 37
Circular Motion; Gravitationp. 39
Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motionp. 39
Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motionp. 40
Highway Curves, Banked and Unbankedp. 41
Nonuniform Circular Motionp. 42
Centrifugationp. 43
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitationp. 43
Gravity Near the Earth's Surface; Geophysical Applicationsp. 45
Satellites and "Weightlessness"p. 46
Kepler's Laws and Newton's Synthesisp. 47
Types of Forces in Naturep. 49
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 50
Work and Energyp. 51
Work Done by a Constant Forcep. 51
Work Done by a Variable Forcep. 52
Kinetic Energy, and the Work-Energy Principlep. 53
Potential Energyp. 54
Conservative and Nonconservative Forcesp. 56
Mechanical Energy and Its Conservationp. 57
Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energyp. 58
Other Forms of Energy; Energy Transformations and the Law of Conservation of Energyp. 59
Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problemsp. 59
Powerp. 60
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 61
Linear Momentump. 63
Momentum and Its Relation to Forcep. 63
Conservation of Momentump. 64
Collisions and Impulsep. 65
Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisionsp. 66
Elastic Collisions in One Dimensionp. 66
Inelastic Collisionsp. 67
Collisions in Two or Three Dimensionsp. 68
Center of Mass (CM)p. 68
CM for the Human Bodyp. 69
Center of Mass and Translational Motionp. 70
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 71
Rotational Motionp. 72
Angular Quantitiesp. 72
Constant Angular Accelerationp. 75
Rolling Motion (Without Slipping)p. 76
Torquep. 76
Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertiap. 78
Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamicsp. 79
Rotational Kinetic Energyp. 79
Angular Momentum and Its Conservationp. 81
Vector Nature of Angular Quantitiesp. 82
Suggestion for Solving Problemsp. 83
Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracturep. 85
The Conditions for Equilibriump. 85
Solving Statics Problemsp. 86
Applications to Muscles and Jointsp. 86
Stability and Balancep. 87
Elasticity; Stress and Strainp. 88
Fracturep. 91
Spanning a Space: Arches and Domesp. 91
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 92
Fluidsp. 93
Phases of Matterp. 94
Density and Specific Gravityp. 94
Pressure in Fluidsp. 95
Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressurep. 96
Pascal's Principlep. 96
Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometerp. 97
Buoyancy and Archimedes' Principlep. 98
Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuityp. 99
Bernoulli's Equationp. 100
Applications of Bernoulli's Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes, Baseballs, and TIAp. 101
Viscosityp. 102
Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille's Equation, Blood Flowp. 103
Surface Tension and Capillarityp. 104
Pumps, and the Heartp. 105
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 106
Vibrations and Wavesp. 108
Simple Harmonic Motionp. 108
Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillatorp. 109
The Period and Sinusoidal Nature of SHMp. 110
The Simple Pendulump. 113
Damped Oscillationsp. 114
Forced Vibrations; Resonancep. 115
Wave Motionp. 116
Types of Waves; Transverse and Longitudinalp. 118
Energy Transported by Wavesp. 120
Intensity Related to Amplitude and Frequencyp. 121
Reflection and Transmission of Wavesp. 121
Interferencep. 122
Standing Waves; Resonancep. 123
Refractionp. 124
Diffractionp. 124
Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wavep. 125
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 125
Soundp. 127
Characteristics of Soundp. 128
Intensity of Sound: Decibelsp. 129
The Ear and Its Response; Loudnessp. 130
Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columnsp. 131
Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superpositionp. 133
Interference of Sound Waves; Beatsp. 133
Doppler Effectp. 135
Shock Waves and the Sonic Boomp. 137
Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imagingp. 137
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 138
Temperature and Kinetic Theoryp. 140
Atomic Theory of Matterp. 141
Temperature and Thermometersp. 142
Thermal Equilibrium and Zeroth Law of Thermodynamicsp. 143
Thermal Expansionp. 143
Heat Thermal Stressp. 144
The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperaturep. 145
The Ideal Gas Lawp. 146
Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Lawp. 147
Ideal Gas Law in terms of Molecules: Avogadro's Numberp. 147
Kinetic Theory and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperaturep. 147
Distribution of Molecular Speedsp. 149
Real Gases and Changes of Phasep. 150
Vapor Pressure and Humidityp. 151
Diffusionp. 153
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 153
Heatp. 155
Heat as Energy Transferp. 155
Internal Energyp. 156
Specific Heatp. 157
Calorimetry-Solving Problemsp. 157
Latent Heatp. 158
Heat Transfer: Conductionp. 159
Heat Transfer: Convectionp. 161
Heat Transfer: Radiationp. 161
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 163
The Laws of Thermodynamicsp. 165
The First Law of Thermodynamicsp. 166
Thermodynamic Processes and the First Lawp. 166
Human Metabolism and the First Lawp. 168
The Second Law of Thermodynamics-Introductionp. 169
Heat Enginesp. 169
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumpsp. 172
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamicsp. 173
Order to Disorderp. 174
Unavailability of Energy; Heat Deathp. 175
Evolution and Growth; "Time Arrow"p. 175
Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Lawp. 176
Thermal Pollution and Global Warmingp. 176
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 177
Electric Charge and Electric Fieldp. 179
Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservationp. 179
Electric Charge in the Atomp. 180
Insulators and Conductorsp. 180
Induced Charge; the Electroscopep. 181
Coulomb's Lawp. 182
Solving Problems involving Coulomb's Law and Vectorsp. 184
The Electric Fieldp. 185
Field Linesp. 185
Electric Fields and Conductorsp. 187
Gauss's Lawp. 187
Electric Field in Molecular Biology: DNA Structure and Replicationp. 189
Photocopy Machines and Computer Printers Use Electrostaticsp. 190
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 191
Electric Potentialp. 193
Electric Potential Energy and Potential Differencep. 193
Relation Between Electric Potential and Electric Fieldp. 194
Equipotential Linesp. 195
The Electron Volt, a Unit of Energyp. 196
Electric Potential Due to Point Chargesp. 196
Potential Due to Electric Dipole; Dipole Momentp. 197
Capacitorsp. 197
Dielectricsp. 198
Storage of Electrical Energyp. 200
Cathode Ray Tube: TV and Computer Monitors, Oscilloscopep. 200
The Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)p. 201
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 202
Electric Currentsp. 204
Electric Batteryp. 205
Electric Currentp. 205
Ohm's Law: Resistance and Resistorsp. 206
Resistivityp. 208
Electric Powerp. 209
Power in Household Circuitsp. 209
Alternating Currentp. 210
Microscopic View of Electric Currentp. 212
Superconductivityp. 212
Electric Conduction in the Human Nervous Systemp. 213
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 215
DC Circuitsp. 216
EMF and Terminal Voltagep. 216
Resistors in Series and in Parallelp. 217
Kirchhoff's Rulesp. 218
EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Batteryp. 219
Circuits Containing Capacitors in Series and in Parallelp. 220
RC Circuits-Resistor and Capacitor in Seriesp. 221
Electric Hazardsp. 222
Ammeters and Voltmetersp. 223
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 225
Magnetismp. 226
Magnets and Magnetic Fieldsp. 227
Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fieldsp. 228
Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of Bp. 229
Force on Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Fieldp. 231
The Magnetic Field Due to a Straight Wirep. 232
Force Between Two Parallel Wiresp. 233
Electromagnets and Solenoidsp. 234
Ampere's Lawp. 234
Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Momentp. 235
Applications: Galvanometers, Motors, Loudspeakersp. 236
Mass Spectrometersp. 237
Ferromagnetism: Domains and Hysteresisp. 238
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 240
Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday's Lawp. 242
Induced EMFp. 243
Faraday's Law of Induction; Lenz's Lawp. 243
EMF Induced in a Moving Conductorp. 244
Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Fieldp. 245
Electric Generatorsp. 245
Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currentsp. 247
Transformers; Transmission of Powerp. 248
Applications of Induction: Sound Systems, Computer Memory, the Seismographp. 249
Inductancep. 250
Energy Stored in a Magnetic Fieldp. 252
LR Circuitp. 252
AC Circuits and Impedancep. 253
LRC Series AC Circuit; Problem Solvingp. 255
Resonance in AC Circuits; Oscillatorsp. 256
Impedance Matchingp. 257
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 258
Electromagnetic Wavesp. 261
Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Maxwell's Equationsp. 261
Production of Electromagnetic Wavesp. 262
Light as an Electromagnetic wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrump. 264
Measuring the Speed of Lightp. 265
Energy in EM Wavesp. 266
Momentum Transfer and Radiation Pressurep. 266
Radio and Television: Wireless Communicationp. 267
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 269
Light: Geometric Opticsp. 270
The Ray Model of Lightp. 271
Reflection; Image Formation by a Planar Mirrorp. 271
Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrorsp. 273
Index of Refractionp. 275
Refraction: Snell's Lawp. 275
Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Opticsp. 277
Thin Lenses; Ray Tracingp. 278
The Thin Lens Equation; Magnificationp. 280
Combinations of Lensesp. 281
The Lensmaker's Equationp. 281
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 282
The Wave Nature of Lightp. 284
Waves Versus Particles; Huygens' Principle and Diffractionp. 285
Huygens' Principle and the law of Refractionp. 285
Interference-Young's Double-Slit Experimentp. 286
The Visible Spectrum and Dispersionp. 288
Diffraction by a Single Slit or Diskp. 289
Diffraction Gratingsp. 290
The Spectrometer and Spectroscopyp. 291
Interference by Thin Filmsp. 292
Michelson Interferometerp. 293
Polarizationp. 294
Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)p. 296
Scattering of Light by the Atmospherep. 297
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 297
Optical Instrumentsp. 299
Cameras, Standard and Digitalp. 300
The Human Eye; Corrective Lensesp. 302
The Magnifying Glassp. 303
Telescopesp. 304
Compound Microscopep. 305
Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrorsp. 306
Limits of Resolution; the Raleigh Criterionp. 308
Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the [Lambda] Limitp. 309
Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnificationp. 310
Specialty Microscopes and Contrastp. 310
X-Rays and X-Ray Diffractionp. 311
X-Ray Imaging and Computerized Axial Tomography (CT Scan)p. 313
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 314
Special Theory of Relativityp. 315
Galilean-Newtonian Relativityp. 315
Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativityp. 317
Simultaneityp. 317
Time Dilation and the Twin Paradoxp. 318
Length Contractionp. 320
Four-Dimensional Space-Timep. 321
Relativistic Momentum and Massp. 321
The Ultimate Speedp. 322
E = mc[superscript 2]; Mass and Energyp. 322
Relativistic Addition of Velocitiesp. 324
The Impact of Special Relativityp. 325
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 326
Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atomsp. 328
Discovery and Properties of the Electronp. 329
Planck's Quantum Hypothesisp. 331
Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effectp. 332
Compton Effectp. 334
Photon Interactions, Pair Productionp. 335
Wave-Particle Duality; the Principle of Complementarityp. 336
Wave Nature of Matterp. 336
Electron Microscopesp. 337
Early Models of the Atomp. 338
Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atomp. 339
The Bohr Modelp. 340
de Broglie Hypothesis As Applied to Atomsp. 344
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 345
Quantum Mechanics of Atomsp. 347
Quantum Mechanics-A New Theoryp. 348
The Wave Function and Its Interpretation; the Double-Slit Experimentp. 348
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principlep. 349
Philosophical Implications; Probability versus Determinismp. 350
Quantum-Mechanical View of Atomsp. 351
Quantum Mechanics of the Hydrogen Atom; Quantum Numbersp. 351
Complex Atoms; the Exclusion Principlep. 353
The Periodic Table of Elementsp. 353
X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Numberp. 354
Fluorescence and Phosphorescencep. 355
Lasersp. 356
Holographyp. 358
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 359
Molecules and Solidsp. 360
Bonding in Moleculesp. 360
Potential Energy Diagrams for Moleculesp. 362
Weak (van der Waals) Bondsp. 363
Molecular Spectrap. 364
Bonding in Solidsp. 366
Band Theory of Solidsp. 367
Semiconductors and Dopingp. 368
Semiconductor Diodesp. 369
Transistors and Integrated Circuitsp. 372
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 373
Nuclear Physics and Radioactivityp. 374
Structure and Properties of the Nucleusp. 375
Binding Energy and Nuclear Forcesp. 376
Radioactivityp. 378
Alpha Decayp. 378
Beta Decayp. 379
Gamma Decayp. 381
Conservation of Nucleon Number and Other Conservation Lawsp. 381
Half-Life and Rate of Decayp. 381
Calculations Involving Decay Rates and Half-Lifep. 382
Decay Seriesp. 382
Radioactive Datingp. 383
Stability and Tunnelingp. 383
Detection of Radiationp. 384
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 386
Nuclear Energy; Effects and Uses of Radiationp. 388
Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elementsp. 389
Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactorsp. 390
Fusionp. 392
Passage of Radiation Through Matter; Radiation Damagep. 394
Measurement of Radiation-Dosimetryp. 395
Radiation Therapyp. 396
Tracers and Imaging in Research and Medicinep. 397
Emission Tomographyp. 397
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)p. 398
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 400
Elementary Particlesp. 401
High Energy Particles and Acceleratorsp. 401
Beginnings of Elementary Particle Physics-Particle Exchangep. 404
Particles and Antiparticlesp. 406
Particle Interactions and Conservation Lawsp. 407
Particle Classificationp. 408
Particle Stability and Resonancesp. 408
Strange Particlesp. 409
Quarksp. 409
The "Standard Model": Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the Electroweak Theoryp. 410
Grand Unified Theoriesp. 411
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 413
Astrophysics and Cosmologyp. 414
Stars and Galaxiesp. 415
Stellar Evolution: The Birth and Death of Starsp. 416
Distance Measurementsp. 419
General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Spacep. 419
The Expanding Universe: Red Shift and Hubble's Lawp. 422
The Big Bang and the Cosmic Microwave Backgroundp. 423
The Standard Cosmological Model: The Early History of the Universep. 424
Mass-Energy in the Universe; Dark Matter and Dark Energyp. 426
Large-Scale Structure of the Universep. 427
Finally...p. 427
Suggestions for Solving Problemsp. 428
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