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# Physics : Principles with Applications

**by**DAS

6th

### 9780130352491

0130352497

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1/1/2005

Prentice-Hall Press

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## Summary

This easy-to-carry 5" x 7" paperback contains a summary of the entire text, including all key concepts and equations, as well as tips and hints. Perfect for carrying to lecture and taking notes.

## Table of Contents

Introduction, Measurement, Estimating | p. 1 |

The Nature of Science | p. 1 |

Physics and Its Relation to Other Fields | p. 2 |

Models, Theories, and Laws | p. 3 |

Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures | p. 3 |

Units, Standards, and the SI System | p. 5 |

Converting Units | p. 6 |

Order-of-Magnitude: Rapid Estimating | p. 6 |

Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis | p. 7 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 7 |

Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension | p. 8 |

Reference Frames and Displacement | p. 8 |

Average Velocity | p. 9 |

Instantaneous Velocity | p. 10 |

Acceleration | p. 10 |

Motion at Constant Acceleration | p. 11 |

Solving Problems | p. 12 |

Falling Objects | p. 12 |

Graphical Analysis of Linear Motion | p. 13 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 14 |

Kinematics in Two Dimensions; Vectors | p. 16 |

Vectors and Scalars | p. 16 |

Addition of Vectors-Graphical Methods | p. 17 |

Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar | p. 19 |

Adding Vectors by Components | p. 20 |

Projectile Motion | p. 21 |

Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion | p. 23 |

Projectile Motion is Parabolic | p. 25 |

Relative Velocity | p. 25 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 26 |

Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion | p. 28 |

Force | p. 28 |

Newton's First Law of Motion | p. 29 |

Mass | p. 29 |

Newton's Second Law of Motion | p. 30 |

Newton's Third Law of Motion | p. 30 |

Weight-the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force | p. 31 |

Solving Problems with Newton's Laws: Free-Body Diagrams | p. 32 |

Applications Involving Friction, Inclines | p. 33 |

Problem Solving-A General Approach | p. 36 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 37 |

Circular Motion; Gravitation | p. 39 |

Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion | p. 39 |

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion | p. 40 |

Highway Curves, Banked and Unbanked | p. 41 |

Nonuniform Circular Motion | p. 42 |

Centrifugation | p. 43 |

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation | p. 43 |

Gravity Near the Earth's Surface; Geophysical Applications | p. 45 |

Satellites and "Weightlessness" | p. 46 |

Kepler's Laws and Newton's Synthesis | p. 47 |

Types of Forces in Nature | p. 49 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 50 |

Work and Energy | p. 51 |

Work Done by a Constant Force | p. 51 |

Work Done by a Variable Force | p. 52 |

Kinetic Energy, and the Work-Energy Principle | p. 53 |

Potential Energy | p. 54 |

Conservative and Nonconservative Forces | p. 56 |

Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation | p. 57 |

Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy | p. 58 |

Other Forms of Energy; Energy Transformations and the Law of Conservation of Energy | p. 59 |

Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems | p. 59 |

Power | p. 60 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 61 |

Linear Momentum | p. 63 |

Momentum and Its Relation to Force | p. 63 |

Conservation of Momentum | p. 64 |

Collisions and Impulse | p. 65 |

Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions | p. 66 |

Elastic Collisions in One Dimension | p. 66 |

Inelastic Collisions | p. 67 |

Collisions in Two or Three Dimensions | p. 68 |

Center of Mass (CM) | p. 68 |

CM for the Human Body | p. 69 |

Center of Mass and Translational Motion | p. 70 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 71 |

Rotational Motion | p. 72 |

Angular Quantities | p. 72 |

Constant Angular Acceleration | p. 75 |

Rolling Motion (Without Slipping) | p. 76 |

Torque | p. 76 |

Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia | p. 78 |

Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics | p. 79 |

Rotational Kinetic Energy | p. 79 |

Angular Momentum and Its Conservation | p. 81 |

Vector Nature of Angular Quantities | p. 82 |

Suggestion for Solving Problems | p. 83 |

Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture | p. 85 |

The Conditions for Equilibrium | p. 85 |

Solving Statics Problems | p. 86 |

Applications to Muscles and Joints | p. 86 |

Stability and Balance | p. 87 |

Elasticity; Stress and Strain | p. 88 |

Fracture | p. 91 |

Spanning a Space: Arches and Domes | p. 91 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 92 |

Fluids | p. 93 |

Phases of Matter | p. 94 |

Density and Specific Gravity | p. 94 |

Pressure in Fluids | p. 95 |

Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure | p. 96 |

Pascal's Principle | p. 96 |

Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer | p. 97 |

Buoyancy and Archimedes' Principle | p. 98 |

Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity | p. 99 |

Bernoulli's Equation | p. 100 |

Applications of Bernoulli's Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes, Baseballs, and TIA | p. 101 |

Viscosity | p. 102 |

Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille's Equation, Blood Flow | p. 103 |

Surface Tension and Capillarity | p. 104 |

Pumps, and the Heart | p. 105 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 106 |

Vibrations and Waves | p. 108 |

Simple Harmonic Motion | p. 108 |

Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator | p. 109 |

The Period and Sinusoidal Nature of SHM | p. 110 |

The Simple Pendulum | p. 113 |

Damped Oscillations | p. 114 |

Forced Vibrations; Resonance | p. 115 |

Wave Motion | p. 116 |

Types of Waves; Transverse and Longitudinal | p. 118 |

Energy Transported by Waves | p. 120 |

Intensity Related to Amplitude and Frequency | p. 121 |

Reflection and Transmission of Waves | p. 121 |

Interference | p. 122 |

Standing Waves; Resonance | p. 123 |

Refraction | p. 124 |

Diffraction | p. 124 |

Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave | p. 125 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 125 |

Sound | p. 127 |

Characteristics of Sound | p. 128 |

Intensity of Sound: Decibels | p. 129 |

The Ear and Its Response; Loudness | p. 130 |

Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns | p. 131 |

Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition | p. 133 |

Interference of Sound Waves; Beats | p. 133 |

Doppler Effect | p. 135 |

Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom | p. 137 |

Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging | p. 137 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 138 |

Temperature and Kinetic Theory | p. 140 |

Atomic Theory of Matter | p. 141 |

Temperature and Thermometers | p. 142 |

Thermal Equilibrium and Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics | p. 143 |

Thermal Expansion | p. 143 |

Heat Thermal Stress | p. 144 |

The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature | p. 145 |

The Ideal Gas Law | p. 146 |

Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law | p. 147 |

Ideal Gas Law in terms of Molecules: Avogadro's Number | p. 147 |

Kinetic Theory and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature | p. 147 |

Distribution of Molecular Speeds | p. 149 |

Real Gases and Changes of Phase | p. 150 |

Vapor Pressure and Humidity | p. 151 |

Diffusion | p. 153 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 153 |

Heat | p. 155 |

Heat as Energy Transfer | p. 155 |

Internal Energy | p. 156 |

Specific Heat | p. 157 |

Calorimetry-Solving Problems | p. 157 |

Latent Heat | p. 158 |

Heat Transfer: Conduction | p. 159 |

Heat Transfer: Convection | p. 161 |

Heat Transfer: Radiation | p. 161 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 163 |

The Laws of Thermodynamics | p. 165 |

The First Law of Thermodynamics | p. 166 |

Thermodynamic Processes and the First Law | p. 166 |

Human Metabolism and the First Law | p. 168 |

The Second Law of Thermodynamics-Introduction | p. 169 |

Heat Engines | p. 169 |

Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps | p. 172 |

Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | p. 173 |

Order to Disorder | p. 174 |

Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death | p. 175 |

Evolution and Growth; "Time Arrow" | p. 175 |

Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law | p. 176 |

Thermal Pollution and Global Warming | p. 176 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 177 |

Electric Charge and Electric Field | p. 179 |

Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation | p. 179 |

Electric Charge in the Atom | p. 180 |

Insulators and Conductors | p. 180 |

Induced Charge; the Electroscope | p. 181 |

Coulomb's Law | p. 182 |

Solving Problems involving Coulomb's Law and Vectors | p. 184 |

The Electric Field | p. 185 |

Field Lines | p. 185 |

Electric Fields and Conductors | p. 187 |

Gauss's Law | p. 187 |

Electric Field in Molecular Biology: DNA Structure and Replication | p. 189 |

Photocopy Machines and Computer Printers Use Electrostatics | p. 190 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 191 |

Electric Potential | p. 193 |

Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference | p. 193 |

Relation Between Electric Potential and Electric Field | p. 194 |

Equipotential Lines | p. 195 |

The Electron Volt, a Unit of Energy | p. 196 |

Electric Potential Due to Point Charges | p. 196 |

Potential Due to Electric Dipole; Dipole Moment | p. 197 |

Capacitors | p. 197 |

Dielectrics | p. 198 |

Storage of Electrical Energy | p. 200 |

Cathode Ray Tube: TV and Computer Monitors, Oscilloscope | p. 200 |

The Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) | p. 201 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 202 |

Electric Currents | p. 204 |

Electric Battery | p. 205 |

Electric Current | p. 205 |

Ohm's Law: Resistance and Resistors | p. 206 |

Resistivity | p. 208 |

Electric Power | p. 209 |

Power in Household Circuits | p. 209 |

Alternating Current | p. 210 |

Microscopic View of Electric Current | p. 212 |

Superconductivity | p. 212 |

Electric Conduction in the Human Nervous System | p. 213 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 215 |

DC Circuits | p. 216 |

EMF and Terminal Voltage | p. 216 |

Resistors in Series and in Parallel | p. 217 |

Kirchhoff's Rules | p. 218 |

EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery | p. 219 |

Circuits Containing Capacitors in Series and in Parallel | p. 220 |

RC Circuits-Resistor and Capacitor in Series | p. 221 |

Electric Hazards | p. 222 |

Ammeters and Voltmeters | p. 223 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 225 |

Magnetism | p. 226 |

Magnets and Magnetic Fields | p. 227 |

Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields | p. 228 |

Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of B | p. 229 |

Force on Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field | p. 231 |

The Magnetic Field Due to a Straight Wire | p. 232 |

Force Between Two Parallel Wires | p. 233 |

Electromagnets and Solenoids | p. 234 |

Ampere's Law | p. 234 |

Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Moment | p. 235 |

Applications: Galvanometers, Motors, Loudspeakers | p. 236 |

Mass Spectrometers | p. 237 |

Ferromagnetism: Domains and Hysteresis | p. 238 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 240 |

Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday's Law | p. 242 |

Induced EMF | p. 243 |

Faraday's Law of Induction; Lenz's Law | p. 243 |

EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor | p. 244 |

Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field | p. 245 |

Electric Generators | p. 245 |

Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currents | p. 247 |

Transformers; Transmission of Power | p. 248 |

Applications of Induction: Sound Systems, Computer Memory, the Seismograph | p. 249 |

Inductance | p. 250 |

Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field | p. 252 |

LR Circuit | p. 252 |

AC Circuits and Impedance | p. 253 |

LRC Series AC Circuit; Problem Solving | p. 255 |

Resonance in AC Circuits; Oscillators | p. 256 |

Impedance Matching | p. 257 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 258 |

Electromagnetic Waves | p. 261 |

Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Maxwell's Equations | p. 261 |

Production of Electromagnetic Waves | p. 262 |

Light as an Electromagnetic wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum | p. 264 |

Measuring the Speed of Light | p. 265 |

Energy in EM Waves | p. 266 |

Momentum Transfer and Radiation Pressure | p. 266 |

Radio and Television: Wireless Communication | p. 267 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 269 |

Light: Geometric Optics | p. 270 |

The Ray Model of Light | p. 271 |

Reflection; Image Formation by a Planar Mirror | p. 271 |

Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors | p. 273 |

Index of Refraction | p. 275 |

Refraction: Snell's Law | p. 275 |

Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics | p. 277 |

Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing | p. 278 |

The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification | p. 280 |

Combinations of Lenses | p. 281 |

The Lensmaker's Equation | p. 281 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 282 |

The Wave Nature of Light | p. 284 |

Waves Versus Particles; Huygens' Principle and Diffraction | p. 285 |

Huygens' Principle and the law of Refraction | p. 285 |

Interference-Young's Double-Slit Experiment | p. 286 |

The Visible Spectrum and Dispersion | p. 288 |

Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk | p. 289 |

Diffraction Gratings | p. 290 |

The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy | p. 291 |

Interference by Thin Films | p. 292 |

Michelson Interferometer | p. 293 |

Polarization | p. 294 |

Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) | p. 296 |

Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere | p. 297 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 297 |

Optical Instruments | p. 299 |

Cameras, Standard and Digital | p. 300 |

The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses | p. 302 |

The Magnifying Glass | p. 303 |

Telescopes | p. 304 |

Compound Microscope | p. 305 |

Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors | p. 306 |

Limits of Resolution; the Raleigh Criterion | p. 308 |

Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the [Lambda] Limit | p. 309 |

Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification | p. 310 |

Specialty Microscopes and Contrast | p. 310 |

X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction | p. 311 |

X-Ray Imaging and Computerized Axial Tomography (CT Scan) | p. 313 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 314 |

Special Theory of Relativity | p. 315 |

Galilean-Newtonian Relativity | p. 315 |

Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity | p. 317 |

Simultaneity | p. 317 |

Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox | p. 318 |

Length Contraction | p. 320 |

Four-Dimensional Space-Time | p. 321 |

Relativistic Momentum and Mass | p. 321 |

The Ultimate Speed | p. 322 |

E = mc[superscript 2]; Mass and Energy | p. 322 |

Relativistic Addition of Velocities | p. 324 |

The Impact of Special Relativity | p. 325 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 326 |

Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atoms | p. 328 |

Discovery and Properties of the Electron | p. 329 |

Planck's Quantum Hypothesis | p. 331 |

Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect | p. 332 |

Compton Effect | p. 334 |

Photon Interactions, Pair Production | p. 335 |

Wave-Particle Duality; the Principle of Complementarity | p. 336 |

Wave Nature of Matter | p. 336 |

Electron Microscopes | p. 337 |

Early Models of the Atom | p. 338 |

Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom | p. 339 |

The Bohr Model | p. 340 |

de Broglie Hypothesis As Applied to Atoms | p. 344 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 345 |

Quantum Mechanics of Atoms | p. 347 |

Quantum Mechanics-A New Theory | p. 348 |

The Wave Function and Its Interpretation; the Double-Slit Experiment | p. 348 |

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle | p. 349 |

Philosophical Implications; Probability versus Determinism | p. 350 |

Quantum-Mechanical View of Atoms | p. 351 |

Quantum Mechanics of the Hydrogen Atom; Quantum Numbers | p. 351 |

Complex Atoms; the Exclusion Principle | p. 353 |

The Periodic Table of Elements | p. 353 |

X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Number | p. 354 |

Fluorescence and Phosphorescence | p. 355 |

Lasers | p. 356 |

Holography | p. 358 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 359 |

Molecules and Solids | p. 360 |

Bonding in Molecules | p. 360 |

Potential Energy Diagrams for Molecules | p. 362 |

Weak (van der Waals) Bonds | p. 363 |

Molecular Spectra | p. 364 |

Bonding in Solids | p. 366 |

Band Theory of Solids | p. 367 |

Semiconductors and Doping | p. 368 |

Semiconductor Diodes | p. 369 |

Transistors and Integrated Circuits | p. 372 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 373 |

Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity | p. 374 |

Structure and Properties of the Nucleus | p. 375 |

Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces | p. 376 |

Radioactivity | p. 378 |

Alpha Decay | p. 378 |

Beta Decay | p. 379 |

Gamma Decay | p. 381 |

Conservation of Nucleon Number and Other Conservation Laws | p. 381 |

Half-Life and Rate of Decay | p. 381 |

Calculations Involving Decay Rates and Half-Life | p. 382 |

Decay Series | p. 382 |

Radioactive Dating | p. 383 |

Stability and Tunneling | p. 383 |

Detection of Radiation | p. 384 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 386 |

Nuclear Energy; Effects and Uses of Radiation | p. 388 |

Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements | p. 389 |

Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors | p. 390 |

Fusion | p. 392 |

Passage of Radiation Through Matter; Radiation Damage | p. 394 |

Measurement of Radiation-Dosimetry | p. 395 |

Radiation Therapy | p. 396 |

Tracers and Imaging in Research and Medicine | p. 397 |

Emission Tomography | p. 397 |

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) | p. 398 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 400 |

Elementary Particles | p. 401 |

High Energy Particles and Accelerators | p. 401 |

Beginnings of Elementary Particle Physics-Particle Exchange | p. 404 |

Particles and Antiparticles | p. 406 |

Particle Interactions and Conservation Laws | p. 407 |

Particle Classification | p. 408 |

Particle Stability and Resonances | p. 408 |

Strange Particles | p. 409 |

Quarks | p. 409 |

The "Standard Model": Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the Electroweak Theory | p. 410 |

Grand Unified Theories | p. 411 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 413 |

Astrophysics and Cosmology | p. 414 |

Stars and Galaxies | p. 415 |

Stellar Evolution: The Birth and Death of Stars | p. 416 |

Distance Measurements | p. 419 |

General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space | p. 419 |

The Expanding Universe: Red Shift and Hubble's Law | p. 422 |

The Big Bang and the Cosmic Microwave Background | p. 423 |

The Standard Cosmological Model: The Early History of the Universe | p. 424 |

Mass-Energy in the Universe; Dark Matter and Dark Energy | p. 426 |

Large-Scale Structure of the Universe | p. 427 |

Finally... | p. 427 |

Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 428 |

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