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Introduction, Measurement, Estimating | p. 1 |
The Nature of Science | p. 1 |
Physics and Its Relation to Other Fields | p. 2 |
Models, Theories, and Laws | p. 3 |
Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures | p. 3 |
Units, Standards, and the SI System | p. 5 |
Converting Units | p. 6 |
Order-of-Magnitude: Rapid Estimating | p. 6 |
Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis | p. 7 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 7 |
Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension | p. 8 |
Reference Frames and Displacement | p. 8 |
Average Velocity | p. 9 |
Instantaneous Velocity | p. 10 |
Acceleration | p. 10 |
Motion at Constant Acceleration | p. 11 |
Solving Problems | p. 12 |
Falling Objects | p. 12 |
Graphical Analysis of Linear Motion | p. 13 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 14 |
Kinematics in Two Dimensions; Vectors | p. 16 |
Vectors and Scalars | p. 16 |
Addition of Vectors-Graphical Methods | p. 17 |
Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar | p. 19 |
Adding Vectors by Components | p. 20 |
Projectile Motion | p. 21 |
Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion | p. 23 |
Projectile Motion is Parabolic | p. 25 |
Relative Velocity | p. 25 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 26 |
Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion | p. 28 |
Force | p. 28 |
Newton's First Law of Motion | p. 29 |
Mass | p. 29 |
Newton's Second Law of Motion | p. 30 |
Newton's Third Law of Motion | p. 30 |
Weight-the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force | p. 31 |
Solving Problems with Newton's Laws: Free-Body Diagrams | p. 32 |
Applications Involving Friction, Inclines | p. 33 |
Problem Solving-A General Approach | p. 36 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 37 |
Circular Motion; Gravitation | p. 39 |
Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion | p. 39 |
Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion | p. 40 |
Highway Curves, Banked and Unbanked | p. 41 |
Nonuniform Circular Motion | p. 42 |
Centrifugation | p. 43 |
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation | p. 43 |
Gravity Near the Earth's Surface; Geophysical Applications | p. 45 |
Satellites and "Weightlessness" | p. 46 |
Kepler's Laws and Newton's Synthesis | p. 47 |
Types of Forces in Nature | p. 49 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 50 |
Work and Energy | p. 51 |
Work Done by a Constant Force | p. 51 |
Work Done by a Variable Force | p. 52 |
Kinetic Energy, and the Work-Energy Principle | p. 53 |
Potential Energy | p. 54 |
Conservative and Nonconservative Forces | p. 56 |
Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation | p. 57 |
Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy | p. 58 |
Other Forms of Energy; Energy Transformations and the Law of Conservation of Energy | p. 59 |
Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems | p. 59 |
Power | p. 60 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 61 |
Linear Momentum | p. 63 |
Momentum and Its Relation to Force | p. 63 |
Conservation of Momentum | p. 64 |
Collisions and Impulse | p. 65 |
Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions | p. 66 |
Elastic Collisions in One Dimension | p. 66 |
Inelastic Collisions | p. 67 |
Collisions in Two or Three Dimensions | p. 68 |
Center of Mass (CM) | p. 68 |
CM for the Human Body | p. 69 |
Center of Mass and Translational Motion | p. 70 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 71 |
Rotational Motion | p. 72 |
Angular Quantities | p. 72 |
Constant Angular Acceleration | p. 75 |
Rolling Motion (Without Slipping) | p. 76 |
Torque | p. 76 |
Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia | p. 78 |
Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics | p. 79 |
Rotational Kinetic Energy | p. 79 |
Angular Momentum and Its Conservation | p. 81 |
Vector Nature of Angular Quantities | p. 82 |
Suggestion for Solving Problems | p. 83 |
Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture | p. 85 |
The Conditions for Equilibrium | p. 85 |
Solving Statics Problems | p. 86 |
Applications to Muscles and Joints | p. 86 |
Stability and Balance | p. 87 |
Elasticity; Stress and Strain | p. 88 |
Fracture | p. 91 |
Spanning a Space: Arches and Domes | p. 91 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 92 |
Fluids | p. 93 |
Phases of Matter | p. 94 |
Density and Specific Gravity | p. 94 |
Pressure in Fluids | p. 95 |
Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure | p. 96 |
Pascal's Principle | p. 96 |
Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer | p. 97 |
Buoyancy and Archimedes' Principle | p. 98 |
Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity | p. 99 |
Bernoulli's Equation | p. 100 |
Applications of Bernoulli's Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes, Baseballs, and TIA | p. 101 |
Viscosity | p. 102 |
Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille's Equation, Blood Flow | p. 103 |
Surface Tension and Capillarity | p. 104 |
Pumps, and the Heart | p. 105 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 106 |
Vibrations and Waves | p. 108 |
Simple Harmonic Motion | p. 108 |
Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator | p. 109 |
The Period and Sinusoidal Nature of SHM | p. 110 |
The Simple Pendulum | p. 113 |
Damped Oscillations | p. 114 |
Forced Vibrations; Resonance | p. 115 |
Wave Motion | p. 116 |
Types of Waves; Transverse and Longitudinal | p. 118 |
Energy Transported by Waves | p. 120 |
Intensity Related to Amplitude and Frequency | p. 121 |
Reflection and Transmission of Waves | p. 121 |
Interference | p. 122 |
Standing Waves; Resonance | p. 123 |
Refraction | p. 124 |
Diffraction | p. 124 |
Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave | p. 125 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 125 |
Sound | p. 127 |
Characteristics of Sound | p. 128 |
Intensity of Sound: Decibels | p. 129 |
The Ear and Its Response; Loudness | p. 130 |
Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns | p. 131 |
Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition | p. 133 |
Interference of Sound Waves; Beats | p. 133 |
Doppler Effect | p. 135 |
Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom | p. 137 |
Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging | p. 137 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 138 |
Temperature and Kinetic Theory | p. 140 |
Atomic Theory of Matter | p. 141 |
Temperature and Thermometers | p. 142 |
Thermal Equilibrium and Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics | p. 143 |
Thermal Expansion | p. 143 |
Heat Thermal Stress | p. 144 |
The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature | p. 145 |
The Ideal Gas Law | p. 146 |
Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law | p. 147 |
Ideal Gas Law in terms of Molecules: Avogadro's Number | p. 147 |
Kinetic Theory and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature | p. 147 |
Distribution of Molecular Speeds | p. 149 |
Real Gases and Changes of Phase | p. 150 |
Vapor Pressure and Humidity | p. 151 |
Diffusion | p. 153 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 153 |
Heat | p. 155 |
Heat as Energy Transfer | p. 155 |
Internal Energy | p. 156 |
Specific Heat | p. 157 |
Calorimetry-Solving Problems | p. 157 |
Latent Heat | p. 158 |
Heat Transfer: Conduction | p. 159 |
Heat Transfer: Convection | p. 161 |
Heat Transfer: Radiation | p. 161 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 163 |
The Laws of Thermodynamics | p. 165 |
The First Law of Thermodynamics | p. 166 |
Thermodynamic Processes and the First Law | p. 166 |
Human Metabolism and the First Law | p. 168 |
The Second Law of Thermodynamics-Introduction | p. 169 |
Heat Engines | p. 169 |
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps | p. 172 |
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | p. 173 |
Order to Disorder | p. 174 |
Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death | p. 175 |
Evolution and Growth; "Time Arrow" | p. 175 |
Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law | p. 176 |
Thermal Pollution and Global Warming | p. 176 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 177 |
Electric Charge and Electric Field | p. 179 |
Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation | p. 179 |
Electric Charge in the Atom | p. 180 |
Insulators and Conductors | p. 180 |
Induced Charge; the Electroscope | p. 181 |
Coulomb's Law | p. 182 |
Solving Problems involving Coulomb's Law and Vectors | p. 184 |
The Electric Field | p. 185 |
Field Lines | p. 185 |
Electric Fields and Conductors | p. 187 |
Gauss's Law | p. 187 |
Electric Field in Molecular Biology: DNA Structure and Replication | p. 189 |
Photocopy Machines and Computer Printers Use Electrostatics | p. 190 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 191 |
Electric Potential | p. 193 |
Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference | p. 193 |
Relation Between Electric Potential and Electric Field | p. 194 |
Equipotential Lines | p. 195 |
The Electron Volt, a Unit of Energy | p. 196 |
Electric Potential Due to Point Charges | p. 196 |
Potential Due to Electric Dipole; Dipole Moment | p. 197 |
Capacitors | p. 197 |
Dielectrics | p. 198 |
Storage of Electrical Energy | p. 200 |
Cathode Ray Tube: TV and Computer Monitors, Oscilloscope | p. 200 |
The Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) | p. 201 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 202 |
Electric Currents | p. 204 |
Electric Battery | p. 205 |
Electric Current | p. 205 |
Ohm's Law: Resistance and Resistors | p. 206 |
Resistivity | p. 208 |
Electric Power | p. 209 |
Power in Household Circuits | p. 209 |
Alternating Current | p. 210 |
Microscopic View of Electric Current | p. 212 |
Superconductivity | p. 212 |
Electric Conduction in the Human Nervous System | p. 213 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 215 |
DC Circuits | p. 216 |
EMF and Terminal Voltage | p. 216 |
Resistors in Series and in Parallel | p. 217 |
Kirchhoff's Rules | p. 218 |
EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery | p. 219 |
Circuits Containing Capacitors in Series and in Parallel | p. 220 |
RC Circuits-Resistor and Capacitor in Series | p. 221 |
Electric Hazards | p. 222 |
Ammeters and Voltmeters | p. 223 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 225 |
Magnetism | p. 226 |
Magnets and Magnetic Fields | p. 227 |
Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields | p. 228 |
Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of B | p. 229 |
Force on Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field | p. 231 |
The Magnetic Field Due to a Straight Wire | p. 232 |
Force Between Two Parallel Wires | p. 233 |
Electromagnets and Solenoids | p. 234 |
Ampere's Law | p. 234 |
Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Moment | p. 235 |
Applications: Galvanometers, Motors, Loudspeakers | p. 236 |
Mass Spectrometers | p. 237 |
Ferromagnetism: Domains and Hysteresis | p. 238 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 240 |
Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday's Law | p. 242 |
Induced EMF | p. 243 |
Faraday's Law of Induction; Lenz's Law | p. 243 |
EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor | p. 244 |
Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field | p. 245 |
Electric Generators | p. 245 |
Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currents | p. 247 |
Transformers; Transmission of Power | p. 248 |
Applications of Induction: Sound Systems, Computer Memory, the Seismograph | p. 249 |
Inductance | p. 250 |
Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field | p. 252 |
LR Circuit | p. 252 |
AC Circuits and Impedance | p. 253 |
LRC Series AC Circuit; Problem Solving | p. 255 |
Resonance in AC Circuits; Oscillators | p. 256 |
Impedance Matching | p. 257 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 258 |
Electromagnetic Waves | p. 261 |
Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Maxwell's Equations | p. 261 |
Production of Electromagnetic Waves | p. 262 |
Light as an Electromagnetic wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum | p. 264 |
Measuring the Speed of Light | p. 265 |
Energy in EM Waves | p. 266 |
Momentum Transfer and Radiation Pressure | p. 266 |
Radio and Television: Wireless Communication | p. 267 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 269 |
Light: Geometric Optics | p. 270 |
The Ray Model of Light | p. 271 |
Reflection; Image Formation by a Planar Mirror | p. 271 |
Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors | p. 273 |
Index of Refraction | p. 275 |
Refraction: Snell's Law | p. 275 |
Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics | p. 277 |
Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing | p. 278 |
The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification | p. 280 |
Combinations of Lenses | p. 281 |
The Lensmaker's Equation | p. 281 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 282 |
The Wave Nature of Light | p. 284 |
Waves Versus Particles; Huygens' Principle and Diffraction | p. 285 |
Huygens' Principle and the law of Refraction | p. 285 |
Interference-Young's Double-Slit Experiment | p. 286 |
The Visible Spectrum and Dispersion | p. 288 |
Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk | p. 289 |
Diffraction Gratings | p. 290 |
The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy | p. 291 |
Interference by Thin Films | p. 292 |
Michelson Interferometer | p. 293 |
Polarization | p. 294 |
Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) | p. 296 |
Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere | p. 297 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 297 |
Optical Instruments | p. 299 |
Cameras, Standard and Digital | p. 300 |
The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses | p. 302 |
The Magnifying Glass | p. 303 |
Telescopes | p. 304 |
Compound Microscope | p. 305 |
Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors | p. 306 |
Limits of Resolution; the Raleigh Criterion | p. 308 |
Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the [Lambda] Limit | p. 309 |
Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification | p. 310 |
Specialty Microscopes and Contrast | p. 310 |
X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction | p. 311 |
X-Ray Imaging and Computerized Axial Tomography (CT Scan) | p. 313 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 314 |
Special Theory of Relativity | p. 315 |
Galilean-Newtonian Relativity | p. 315 |
Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity | p. 317 |
Simultaneity | p. 317 |
Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox | p. 318 |
Length Contraction | p. 320 |
Four-Dimensional Space-Time | p. 321 |
Relativistic Momentum and Mass | p. 321 |
The Ultimate Speed | p. 322 |
E = mc[superscript 2]; Mass and Energy | p. 322 |
Relativistic Addition of Velocities | p. 324 |
The Impact of Special Relativity | p. 325 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 326 |
Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atoms | p. 328 |
Discovery and Properties of the Electron | p. 329 |
Planck's Quantum Hypothesis | p. 331 |
Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect | p. 332 |
Compton Effect | p. 334 |
Photon Interactions, Pair Production | p. 335 |
Wave-Particle Duality; the Principle of Complementarity | p. 336 |
Wave Nature of Matter | p. 336 |
Electron Microscopes | p. 337 |
Early Models of the Atom | p. 338 |
Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom | p. 339 |
The Bohr Model | p. 340 |
de Broglie Hypothesis As Applied to Atoms | p. 344 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 345 |
Quantum Mechanics of Atoms | p. 347 |
Quantum Mechanics-A New Theory | p. 348 |
The Wave Function and Its Interpretation; the Double-Slit Experiment | p. 348 |
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle | p. 349 |
Philosophical Implications; Probability versus Determinism | p. 350 |
Quantum-Mechanical View of Atoms | p. 351 |
Quantum Mechanics of the Hydrogen Atom; Quantum Numbers | p. 351 |
Complex Atoms; the Exclusion Principle | p. 353 |
The Periodic Table of Elements | p. 353 |
X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Number | p. 354 |
Fluorescence and Phosphorescence | p. 355 |
Lasers | p. 356 |
Holography | p. 358 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 359 |
Molecules and Solids | p. 360 |
Bonding in Molecules | p. 360 |
Potential Energy Diagrams for Molecules | p. 362 |
Weak (van der Waals) Bonds | p. 363 |
Molecular Spectra | p. 364 |
Bonding in Solids | p. 366 |
Band Theory of Solids | p. 367 |
Semiconductors and Doping | p. 368 |
Semiconductor Diodes | p. 369 |
Transistors and Integrated Circuits | p. 372 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 373 |
Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity | p. 374 |
Structure and Properties of the Nucleus | p. 375 |
Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces | p. 376 |
Radioactivity | p. 378 |
Alpha Decay | p. 378 |
Beta Decay | p. 379 |
Gamma Decay | p. 381 |
Conservation of Nucleon Number and Other Conservation Laws | p. 381 |
Half-Life and Rate of Decay | p. 381 |
Calculations Involving Decay Rates and Half-Life | p. 382 |
Decay Series | p. 382 |
Radioactive Dating | p. 383 |
Stability and Tunneling | p. 383 |
Detection of Radiation | p. 384 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 386 |
Nuclear Energy; Effects and Uses of Radiation | p. 388 |
Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements | p. 389 |
Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors | p. 390 |
Fusion | p. 392 |
Passage of Radiation Through Matter; Radiation Damage | p. 394 |
Measurement of Radiation-Dosimetry | p. 395 |
Radiation Therapy | p. 396 |
Tracers and Imaging in Research and Medicine | p. 397 |
Emission Tomography | p. 397 |
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) | p. 398 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 400 |
Elementary Particles | p. 401 |
High Energy Particles and Accelerators | p. 401 |
Beginnings of Elementary Particle Physics-Particle Exchange | p. 404 |
Particles and Antiparticles | p. 406 |
Particle Interactions and Conservation Laws | p. 407 |
Particle Classification | p. 408 |
Particle Stability and Resonances | p. 408 |
Strange Particles | p. 409 |
Quarks | p. 409 |
The "Standard Model": Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the Electroweak Theory | p. 410 |
Grand Unified Theories | p. 411 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 413 |
Astrophysics and Cosmology | p. 414 |
Stars and Galaxies | p. 415 |
Stellar Evolution: The Birth and Death of Stars | p. 416 |
Distance Measurements | p. 419 |
General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space | p. 419 |
The Expanding Universe: Red Shift and Hubble's Law | p. 422 |
The Big Bang and the Cosmic Microwave Background | p. 423 |
The Standard Cosmological Model: The Early History of the Universe | p. 424 |
Mass-Energy in the Universe; Dark Matter and Dark Energy | p. 426 |
Large-Scale Structure of the Universe | p. 427 |
Finally... | p. 427 |
Suggestions for Solving Problems | p. 428 |
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