Mechanics | p. 1 |

Physics and Measurement | p. 2 |

Standards of Length, Mass, and Time | p. 4 |

Matter and Model Building | p. 7 |

Density and Atomic Mass | p. 9 |

Dimensional Analysis | p. 10 |

Conversion of Units | p. 12 |

Estimates and Order-of-Magnitude Calculations | p. 13 |

Significant Figures | p. 15 |

Motion in One Dimension | p. 23 |

Position, Velocity, and Speed | p. 24 |

Instantaneous Velocity and Speed | p. 28 |

Acceleration | p. 31 |

Motion Diagrams | p. 34 |

One-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration | p. 36 |

Freely Falling Objects | p. 40 |

Kinematic Equations Derived from Calculus | p. 44 |

General Problem-Solving Strategy | p. 47 |

Vectors | p. 58 |

Coordinate Systems | p. 59 |

Vector and Scalar Quantities | p. 60 |

Some Properties of Vectors | p. 61 |

Components of a Vector and Unit Vectors | p. 65 |

Motion in Two Dimensions | p. 77 |

The Position, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors | p. 78 |

Two-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration | p. 80 |

Projectile Motion | p. 83 |

Uniform Circular Motion | p. 91 |

Tangential and Radial Acceleration | p. 94 |

Relative Velocity and Relative Acceleration | p. 96 |

The Laws of Motion | p. 111 |

The Concept of Force | p. 112 |

Newton's First Law and Inertial Frames | p. 114 |

Mass | p. 116 |

Newton's Second Law | p. 116 |

The Gravitational Force and Weight | p. 119 |

Newton's Third Law | p. 120 |

Some Applications of Newton's Laws | p. 122 |

Forces of Friction | p. 131 |

Circular Motion and Other Applications of Newton's Laws | p. 150 |

Newton's Second Law Applied to Uniform Circular Motion | p. 151 |

Nonuniform Circular Motion | p. 157 |

Motion in Accelerated Frames | p. 159 |

Motion in the Presence of Resistive Forces | p. 162 |

Numerical Modeling in Particle Dynamics | p. 167 |

Energy and Energy Transfer | p. 181 |

Systems and Environments | p. 182 |

Work Done by a Constant Force | p. 183 |

The Scalar Product of Two Vectors | p. 186 |

Work Done by a Varying Force | p. 188 |

Kinetic Energy and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem | p. 193 |

The Nonisolated System--Conservation of Energy | p. 196 |

Situations Involving Kinetic Friction | p. 199 |

Power | p. 203 |

Energy and the Automobile | p. 205 |

Potential Energy | p. 217 |

Potential Energy of a System | p. 218 |

The Isolated System--Conservation of Mechanical Energy | p. 220 |

Conservative and Nonconservative Forces | p. 228 |

Changes in Mechanical Energy for Nonconservative Forces | p. 229 |

Relationship Between Conservative Forces and Potential Energy | p. 234 |

Energy Diagrams and Equilibrium of a System | p. 236 |

Linear Momentum and Collisions | p. 251 |

Linear Momentum and Its Conservation | p. 252 |

Impulse and Momentum | p. 256 |

Collisions in One Dimension | p. 260 |

Two-Dimensional Collisions | p. 267 |

The Center of Mass | p. 270 |

Motion of a System of Particles | p. 274 |

Rocket Propulsion | p. 277 |

Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis | p. 292 |

Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration | p. 293 |

Rotational Kinematics: Rotational Motion with Constant Angular Acceleration | p. 296 |

Angular and Linear Quantities | p. 297 |

Rotational Kinetic Energy | p. 300 |

Calculation of Moments of Inertia | p. 302 |

Torque | p. 306 |

Relationship Between Torque and Angular Acceleration | p. 307 |

Work, Power, and Energy in Rotational Motion | p. 312 |

Rolling Motion of a Rigid Object | p. 316 |

Angular Momentum | p. 336 |

The Vector Product and Torque | p. 337 |

Angular Momentum | p. 339 |

Angular Momentum of a Rotating Rigid Object | p. 343 |

Conservation of Angular Momentum | p. 345 |

The Motion of Gyroscopes and Tops | p. 350 |

Angular Momentum as a Fundamental Quantity | p. 351 |

Static Equilibrium and Elasticity | p. 362 |

The Conditions for Equilibrium | p. 363 |

More on the Center of Gravity | p. 365 |

Examples of Rigid Objects in Static Equilibrium | p. 366 |

Elastic Properties of Solids | p. 373 |

Universal Gravitation | p. 389 |

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation | p. 390 |

Measuring the Gravitational Constant | p. 393 |

Free-Fall Acceleration and the Gravitational Force | p. 394 |

Kepler's Laws and the Motion of Planets | p. 396 |

The Gravitational Field | p. 401 |

Gravitational Potential Energy | p. 403 |

Energy Considerations in Planetary and Satellite Motion | p. 405 |

Fluid Mechanics | p. 420 |

Pressure | p. 421 |

Variation of Pressure with Depth | p. 423 |

Pressure Measurements | p. 426 |

Buoyant Forces and Archimedes's Principle | p. 427 |

Fluid Dynamics | p. 431 |

Bernoulli's Equation | p. 433 |

Other Applications of Fluid Dynamics | p. 436 |

Oscillations and Mechanical Waves | p. 451 |

Oscillatory Motion | p. 452 |

Motion of an Object Attached to a Spring | p. 453 |

Mathematical Representation of Simple Harmonic Motion | p. 454 |

Energy of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator | p. 462 |

Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motion | p. 465 |

The Pendulum | p. 468 |

Damped Oscillations | p. 471 |

Forced Oscillations | p. 472 |

Wave Motion | p. 486 |

Propagation of a Disturbance | p. 487 |

Sinusoidal Waves | p. 491 |

The Speed of Waves on Strings | p. 496 |

Reflection and Transmission | p. 499 |

Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal Waves on Strings | p. 501 |

The Linear Wave Equation | p. 503 |

Sound Waves | p. 512 |

Speed of Sound Waves | p. 513 |

Periodic Sound Waves | p. 515 |

Intensity of Periodic Sound Waves | p. 516 |

The Doppler Effect | p. 522 |

Digital Sound Recording | p. 528 |

Motion Picture Sound | p. 532 |

Superposition and Standing Waves | p. 543 |

Superposition and Interference | p. 544 |

Standing Waves | p. 549 |

Standing Waves in a String Fixed at Both Ends | p. 552 |

Resonance | p. 558 |

Standing Waves in Air Columns | p. 559 |

Standing Waves in Rods and Membranes | p. 563 |

Beats: Interference in Time | p. 564 |

Nonsinusoidal Wave Patterns | p. 566 |

Thermodynamics | p. 579 |

Temperature | p. 580 |

Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics | p. 581 |

Thermometers and the Celsius Temperature Scale | p. 583 |

The Constant-Volume Gas Thermometer and the Absolute Temperature Scale | p. 584 |

Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids | p. 586 |

Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas | p. 591 |

Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics | p. 604 |

Heat and Internal Energy | p. 605 |

Specific Heat and Calorimetry | p. 607 |

Latent Heat | p. 611 |

Work and Heat in Thermodynamic Processes | p. 615 |

The First Law of Thermodynamics | p. 618 |

Some Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics | p. 619 |

Energy Transfer Mechanisms | p. 623 |

The Kinetic Theory of Gases | p. 640 |

Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas | p. 641 |

Molar Specific Heat of an Ideal Gas | p. 646 |

Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas | p. 649 |

The Equipartition of Energy | p. 650 |

The Boltzmann Distribution Law | p. 654 |

Distribution of Molecular Speeds | p. 655 |

Mean Free Path | p. 658 |

Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | p. 667 |

Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | p. 669 |

Heat Pumps and Refrigerators | p. 671 |

Reversible and Irreversible Processes | p. 673 |

The Carnot Engine | p. 675 |

Gasoline and Diesel Engines | p. 679 |

Entropy | p. 683 |

Entropy Changes in Irreversible Processes | p. 687 |

Entropy on a Microscopic Scale | p. 690 |

Electricity and Magnetism | p. 705 |

Electric Fields | p. 706 |

Properties of Electric Charges | p. 707 |

Charging Objects by Induction | p. 709 |

Coulomb's Law | p. 711 |

The Electric Field | p. 715 |

Electric Field of a Continuous Charge Distribution | p. 719 |

Electric Field Lines | p. 723 |

Motion of Charged Particles in a Uniform Electric Field | p. 725 |

Gauss's Law | p. 739 |

Electric Flux | p. 740 |

Gauss's Law | p. 743 |

Application of Gauss's Law to Various Charge Distributions | p. 746 |

Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium | p. 750 |

Formal Derivation of Gauss's Law | p. 752 |

Electric Potential | p. 762 |

Potential Difference and Electric Potential | p. 763 |

Potential Differences in a Uniform Electric Field | p. 765 |

Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges | p. 768 |

Obtaining the Value of the Electric Field from the Electric Potential | p. 772 |

Electric Potential Due to Continuous Charge Distributions | p. 774 |

Electric Potential Due to a Charged Conductor | p. 778 |

The Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment | p. 781 |

Applications of Electrostatics | p. 782 |

Capacitance and Dielectrics | p. 795 |

Definition of Capacitance | p. 796 |

Calculating Capacitance | p. 797 |

Combinations of Capacitors | p. 802 |

Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor | p. 807 |

Capacitors with Dielectrics | p. 810 |

Electric Dipole in an Electric Field | p. 815 |

An Atomic Description of Dielectrics | p. 817 |

Current and Resistance | p. 831 |

Electric Current | p. 832 |

Resistance | p. 835 |

A Model for Electrical Conduction | p. 841 |

Resistance and Temperature | p. 843 |

Superconductors | p. 844 |

Electrical Power | p. 845 |

Direct Current Circuits | p. 858 |

Electromotive Force | p. 859 |

Resistors in Series and Parallel | p. 862 |

Kirchhoff's Rules | p. 869 |

RC Circuits | p. 873 |

Electrical Meters | p. 879 |

Household Wiring and Electrical Safety | p. 880 |

Magnetic Fields | p. 894 |

Magnetic Fields and Forces | p. 896 |

Magnetic Force Acting on a Current-Carrying Conductor | p. 900 |

Torque on a Current Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field | p. 904 |

Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field | p. 907 |

Applications Involving Charged Particles Moving in a Magnetic Field | p. 910 |

The Hall Effect | p. 914 |

Sources of the Magnetic Field | p. 926 |

The Biot-Savart Law | p. 927 |

The Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors | p. 932 |

Ampere's Law | p. 933 |

The Magnetic Field of a Solenoid | p. 938 |

Magnetic Flux | p. 940 |

Gauss's Law in Magnetism | p. 941 |

Displacement Current and the General Form of Ampere's Law | p. 942 |

Magnetism in Matter | p. 944 |

The Magnetic Field of the Earth | p. 953 |

Faraday's Law | p. 967 |

Faraday's Law of Induction | p. 968 |

Motional emf | p. 973 |

Lenz's Law | p. 977 |

Induced emf and Electric Fields | p. 981 |

Generators and Motors | p. 982 |

Eddy Currents | p. 986 |

Maxwell's Equations | p. 988 |

Inductance | p. 1003 |

Self-Inductance | p. 1004 |

RL Circuits | p. 1006 |

Energy in a Magnetic Field | p. 1011 |

Mutual Inductance | p. 1013 |

Oscillations in an LC Circuit | p. 1015 |

The RLC Circuit | p. 1020 |

Alternating Current Circuits | p. 1033 |

AC Sources | p. 1033 |

Resistors in an AC Circuit | p. 1034 |

Inductors in an AC Circuit | p. 1038 |

Capacitors in an AC Circuit | p. 1041 |

The RLC Series Circuit | p. 1043 |

Power in an AC Circuit | p. 1047 |

Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit | p. 1049 |

The Transformer and Power Transmission | p. 1052 |

Rectifiers and Filters | p. 1054 |

Electromagnetic Waves | p. 1066 |

Maxwell's Equations and Hertz's Discoveries | p. 1067 |

Plane Electromagnetic Waves | p. 1069 |

Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves | p. 1074 |

Momentum and Radiation Pressure | p. 1076 |

Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antenna | p. 1079 |

The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves | p. 1080 |

Light and Optics | p. 1093 |

The Nature of Light and the Laws of Geometric Optics | p. 1094 |

The Nature of Light | p. 1095 |

Measurements of the Speed of Light | p. 1096 |

The Ray Approximation in Geometric Optics | p. 1097 |

Reflection | p. 1098 |

Refraction | p. 1102 |

Huygens's Principle | p. 1107 |

Dispersion and Prisms | p. 1109 |

Total Internal Reflection | p. 1111 |

Fermat's Principle | p. 1114 |

Image Formation | p. 1126 |

Images Formed by Flat Mirrors | p. 1127 |

Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors | p. 1131 |

Images Formed by Refraction | p. 1138 |

Thin Lenses | p. 1141 |

Lens Aberrations | p. 1152 |

The Camera | p. 1153 |

The Eye | p. 1155 |

The Simple Magnifier | p. 1159 |

The Compound Microscope | p. 1160 |

The Telescope | p. 1162 |

Interference of Light Waves | p. 1176 |

Conditions for Interference | p. 1177 |

Young's Double-Slit Experiment | p. 1177 |

Intensity Distribution of the Double-Slit Interference Pattern | p. 1182 |

Phasor Addition of Waves | p. 1184 |

Change of Phase Due to Reflection | p. 1188 |

Interference in Thin Films | p. 1189 |

The Michelson Interferometer | p. 1194 |

Diffraction Patterns and Polarization | p. 1205 |

Introduction to Diffraction Patterns | p. 1206 |

Diffraction Patterns from Narrow Slits | p. 1207 |

Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Apertures | p. 1214 |

The Diffraction Grating | p. 1217 |

Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals | p. 1224 |

Polarization of Light Waves | p. 1225 |

Modern Physics | p. 1243 |

Relativity | p. 1244 |

The Principle of Galilean Relativity | p. 1246 |

The Michelson-Morley Experiment | p. 1248 |

Einstein's Principle of Relativity | p. 1250 |

Consequences of the Special Theory of Relativity | p. 1251 |

The Lorentz Transformation Equations | p. 1262 |

The Lorentz Velocity Transformation Equations | p. 1264 |

Relativistic Linear Momentum and the Relativistic Form of Newton's Laws | p. 1267 |

Relativistic Energy | p. 1268 |

Mass and Energy | p. 1272 |

The General Theory of Relativity | p. 1273 |

Introduction to Quantum Physics | p. 1284 |

Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Hypothesis | p. 1285 |

The Photoelectric Effect | p. 1291 |

The Compton Effect | p. 1297 |

Photons and Electromagnetic Waves | p. 1300 |

The Wave Properties of Particles | p. 1301 |

The Quantum Particle | p. 1304 |

The Double-Slit Experiment Revisited | p. 1307 |

The Uncertainty Principle | p. 1309 |

Quantum Mechanics | p. 1321 |

An Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics | p. 1322 |

A Particle in a Box | p. 1326 |

The Particle Under Boundary Conditions | p. 1330 |

The Schrodinger Equation | p. 1331 |

A Particle in a Well of Finite Height | p. 1334 |

Tunneling Through a Potential Energy Barrier | p. 1336 |

The Scanning Tunneling Microscope | p. 1340 |

The Simple Harmonic Oscillator | p. 1341 |

Atomic Physics | p. 1351 |

Atomic Spectra of Gases | p. 1352 |

Early Models of the Atom | p. 1355 |

Bohr's Model of the Hydrogen Atom | p. 1356 |

The Quantum Model of the Hydrogen Atom | p. 1361 |

The Wave Functions for Hydrogen | p. 1364 |

Physical Interpretation of the Quantum Numbers | p. 1367 |

The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table | p. 1374 |

More on Atomic Spectra: Visible and X-Ray | p. 1380 |

Spontaneous and Stimulated Transitions | p. 1383 |

Lasers | p. 1385 |

Molecules and Solids | p. 1398 |

Molecular Bonds | p. 1399 |

Energy States and Spectra of Molecules | p. 1403 |

Bonding in Solids | p. 1411 |

Free-Electron Theory of Metals | p. 1415 |

Band Theory of Solids | p. 1418 |

Electrical Conduction in Metals, Insulators, and Semiconductors | p. 1420 |

Semiconductor Devices | p. 1424 |

Superconductivity | p. 1430 |

Nuclear Structure | p. 1440 |

Some Properties of Nuclei | p. 1441 |

Nuclear Binding Energy | p. 1447 |

Nuclear Models | p. 1448 |

Radioactivity | p. 1452 |

The Decay Process | p. 1456 |

Natural Radioactivity | p. 1465 |

Nuclear Reactions | p. 1465 |

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging | p. 1467 |

Applications of Nuclear Physics | p. 1479 |

Interactions Involving Neutrons | p. 1480 |

Nuclear Fission | p. 1481 |

Nuclear Reactors | p. 1483 |

Nuclear Fusion | p. 1487 |

Radiation Damage | p. 1495 |

Radiation Detectors | p. 1497 |

Uses of Radiation | p. 1500 |

Particle Physics and Cosmology | p. 1511 |

The Fundamental Forces in Nature | p. 1512 |

Positrons and Other Antiparticles | p. 1513 |

Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics | p. 1516 |

Classification of Particles | p. 1518 |

Conservation Laws | p. 1520 |

Strange Particles and Strangeness | p. 1523 |

Making Particles and Measuring Their Properties | p. 1524 |

Finding Patterns in the Particles | p. 1527 |

Quarks | p. 1529 |

Multicolored Quarks | p. 1532 |

The Standard Model | p. 1534 |

The Cosmic Connection | p. 1536 |

Problems and Perspectives | p. 1542 |

Tables | p. 1 |

Conversion Factors | p. 1 |

Symbols, Dimensions, and Units of Physical Quantities | p. 2 |

Table of Atomic Masses | p. 4 |

Mathematics Review | p. 14 |

Scientific Notation | p. 14 |

Algebra | p. 15 |

Geometry | p. 20 |

Trigonometry | p. 21 |

Series Expansions | p. 23 |

Differential Calculus | p. 23 |

Integral Calculus | p. 25 |

Propagation of Uncertainty | p. 28 |

Periodic Table of the Elements | p. 30 |

SI Units | p. 32 |

Nobel Prizes | p. 33 |

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems | p. 37 |

Index | p. 1 |

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