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Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics: Volume II,9780130215192
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Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics: Volume II

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130215192

ISBN10:
0130215198
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $115.33
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Summary

Physics for Scientists and Engineers combines outstanding pedagogy with a clear and direct narrative and applications that draw the reader into the physics. The new edition features an unrivaled suite of media and on-line resources that enhance the understanding of physics. Many new topics have been incorporated such as: the Otto cycle, lens combinations, three-phase alternating current, and many more. New developments and discoveries in physics have been added including the Hubble space telescope, age and inflation of the universe, and distant planets. Modern physics topics are often discussed within the framework of classical physics where appropriate. For scientists and engineers who are interested in learning physics.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Supplements xxviii
Notes to Students and Instructors on the Format xxx
Use of Color xxxi
Introduction, Measurement, Estimating
1(15)
The Nature of Science
2(1)
Models, Theories, and Laws
3(1)
Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures
4(2)
Units, Standards, and the SI System
6(2)
Converting Units
8(1)
Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating
9(3)
Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis
12(4)
Summary
13(1)
Questions
13(1)
Problems
14(1)
General Problems
15(1)
Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension
16(29)
Reference Frames and Displacement
17(1)
Average Velocity
18(2)
Instantaneous Velocity
20(3)
Acceleration
23(3)
Motion at Constant Acceleration
26(2)
Solving Problems
28(3)
Falling Objects
31(5)
Use of Calculus; Variable Acceleration
36(9)
Summary
38(1)
Questions
38(1)
Problems
39(3)
General Problems
42(3)
Kinematics in Two Dimensions; Vectors
45(32)
Vectors and Scalars
45(1)
Addition of Vectors---Graphical Methods
46(2)
Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
48(1)
Adding Vectors by Components
48(4)
Unit Vectors
52(1)
Vector Kinematics
53(2)
Projectile Motion
55(3)
Solving Problems in Projectile Motion
58(5)
Uniform Circular Motion
63(3)
Relative Velocity
66(11)
Summary
68(1)
Questions
69(1)
Problems
70(4)
General Problems
74(3)
Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion
77(29)
Force
77(1)
Newton's First Law of Motion
78(1)
Mass
79(1)
Newton's Second Law of Motion
80(2)
Newton's Third Law of Motion
82(3)
Weight---the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force
85(3)
Solving Problems with Newton's Laws: Free-Body Diagrams
88(8)
Problem Solving---A General Approach
96(10)
Summary
97(1)
Questions
97(1)
Problems
98(5)
General Problems
103(3)
Further Applications of Newton's Laws
106(27)
Applications of Newton's Laws Involving Friction
106(8)
Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
114(4)
Highway Curves, Banked and Unbanked
118(3)
Nonuniform Circular Motion
121(1)
Velocity-Dependent Forces; Terminal Velocity
122(11)
Summary
124(1)
Questions
124(1)
Problems
125(4)
General Problems
129(4)
Gravitation and Newton's Synthesis
133(22)
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
133(3)
Vector Form of Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
136(1)
Gravity Near the Earth's Surface; Geophysical Applications
137(2)
Satellites and ``Weightlessness''
139(4)
Kepler's Laws and Newton's Synthesis
143(3)
Gravitational Field
146(1)
Types of Forces in Nature
147(1)
Gravitational Versus Inertial Mass; the Principle of Equivalence
148(1)
Gravitation as Curvature of Space; Black Holes
149(6)
Summary
150(1)
Questions
150(1)
Problems
151(2)
General Problems
153(2)
Work and Energy
155(21)
Work Done by a Constant Force
156(3)
Scalar Product of Two Vectors
159(2)
Work Done by a Varying Force
161(3)
Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Principle
164(5)
Kinetic Energy at Very High Speed
169(1)
Summary
170(1)
Questions
170(1)
Problems
171(3)
General Problems
174(2)
Conservation of Energy
176(30)
Conservative and Nonconservative Forces
177(1)
Potential Energy
178(4)
Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation
182(2)
Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy
184(5)
The Law of Conservation of Energy
189(1)
Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems
190(2)
Gravitational Potential Energy and Escape Velocity
192(3)
Power
195(2)
Potential Energy Diagrams; Stable and Unstable Equilibrium
197(9)
Summary
198(1)
Questions
199(1)
Problems
200(4)
General Problems
204(2)
Linear Momentum and Collisions
206(33)
Momentum and Its Relation to Force
206(2)
Conservation of Momentum
208(3)
Collisions and Impulse
211(3)
Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions
214(1)
Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
214(3)
Inelastic Collisions
217(2)
Collisions in Two or Three Dimensions
219(2)
Center of Mass (CM)
221(4)
Center of Mass and Translational Motion
225(2)
Systems of Variable Mass; Rocket Propulsion
227(12)
Summary
230(1)
Questions
230(1)
Problems
231(5)
General Problems
236(3)
Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis
239(40)
Angular Quantities
240(3)
Kinematic Equations for Uniformly Accelerated Rotational Motion
243(1)
Rolling Motion (without Slipping)
244(2)
Vector Nature of Angular Quantities
246(1)
Torque
247(2)
Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia
249(1)
Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics
250(4)
Determining Moments of Inertia
254(2)
Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
256(4)
Rotational Kinetic Energy
260(2)
Rotational Plus Translational Motion; Rolling
262(6)
Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down?
268(11)
Summary
268(1)
Questions
269(1)
Problems
270(6)
General Problems
276(3)
General Rotation
279(21)
Vector Cross Product
279(1)
The Torque Vector
280(1)
Angular Momentum of a Particle
281(2)
Angular Momentum and Torque for a System of Particles; General Motion
283(2)
Angular Momentum and Torque for a Rigid Body
285(2)
Rotational Imbalance
287(1)
Conservation of Angular Momentum
288(2)
The Spinning Top
290(1)
Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces
291(1)
The Coriolis Effect
292(8)
Summary
294(1)
Questions
294(1)
Problems
295(3)
General Problems
298(2)
Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture
300(32)
Statics---The Study of Forces in Equilibrium
300(1)
The Conditions for Equilibrium
301(2)
Solving Statics Problems
303(5)
Stability and Balance
308(1)
Elasticity; Stress and Strain
309(3)
Fracture
312(3)
Trusses and Bridges
315(4)
Arches and Domes
319(13)
Summary
321(1)
Questions
321(1)
Problems
322(6)
General Problems
328(4)
Fluids
332(30)
Density and Specific Gravity
332(1)
Pressure in Fluids
333(4)
Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
337(1)
Pascal's Principle
337(1)
Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer
338(2)
Buoyancy and Archimedes' Principle
340(3)
Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity
343(2)
Bernoulli's Equation
345(2)
Applications of Bernoulli's Principle: From Torricelli to Sailboats, Airfoils, and TIA
347(3)
Viscosity
350(1)
Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille's Equation
351(1)
Surface Tension and Capillarity
351(2)
Pumps
353(9)
Summary
354(1)
Questions
354(2)
Problems
356(4)
General Problems
360(2)
Oscillations
362(26)
Oscillations of a Spring
363(1)
Simple Harmonic Motion
364(5)
Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
369(2)
Simple Harmonic Motion Related to Uniform Circular Motion
371(1)
The Simple Pendulum
371(2)
Physical Pendulum and Torsion Pendulum
373(1)
Damped Harmonic Motion
374(4)
Forced Vibrations; Resonance
378(10)
Summary
380(1)
Questions
381(1)
Problems
381(5)
General Problems
386(2)
Wave Motion
388(29)
Characteristics of Wave Motion
389(2)
Wave Types
391(4)
Energy Transported by Waves
395(1)
Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave
396(3)
The Wave Equation
399(2)
The Principle of Superposition
401(1)
Reflection and Transmission
402(2)
Interference
404(1)
Standing Waves; Resonance
405(3)
Refraction
408(2)
Diffraction
410(7)
Summary
410(1)
Questions
411(1)
Problems
412(3)
General Problems
415(2)
Sound
417(28)
Characteristics of Sound
417(2)
Mathematical Representation of Longitudinal Waves
419(1)
Intensity of Sound; Decibels
420(4)
Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns
424(5)
Quality of Sound, and Noise
429(1)
Interference of Sound Waves; Beats
429(3)
Doppler Effect
432(3)
Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom
435(2)
Applications; Ultrasound and Ultrasound Imaging
437(8)
Summary
438(1)
Questions
438(1)
Problems
439(4)
General Problems
443(2)
Temperature, Thermal Expansion, and the Ideal Gas Law
445(21)
Atomic Theory of Matter
446(1)
Temperature and Thermometers
447(2)
Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
449(1)
Thermal Expansion
450(4)
Thermal Stresses
454(1)
The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature
454(2)
The Ideal Gas Law
456(1)
Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law
457(2)
Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro's Number
459(1)
Ideal Gas Temperature Scale---A Standard
460(6)
Summary
461(1)
Questions
461(1)
Problems
462(2)
General Problems
464(2)
Kinetic Theory of Gases
466(19)
The Ideal Gas Law and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature
466(4)
Distribution of Molecular Speeds
470(3)
Real Gases and Changes of Phase
473(1)
Vapor Pressure and Humidity
474(3)
Van der Waals Equation of State
477(1)
Mean Free Path
478(1)
Diffusion
479(6)
Summary
481(1)
Questions
481(1)
Problems
482(2)
General Problems
484(1)
Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics
485(31)
Heat as Energy Transfer
485(2)
Internal Energy
487(1)
Specific Heat
488(1)
Calorimetry=---Solving Problems
489(1)
Latent Heat
490(3)
The First Law of Thermodynamics
493(2)
Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics; Calculating the Work
495(3)
Molar Specific Heats for Gases, and the Equipartition of Energy
498(4)
Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas
502(1)
Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation
503(13)
Summary
508(1)
Questions
509(1)
Problems
510(4)
General Problems
514(2)
Second Law of Thermodynamics; Heat Engines
516(29)
The Second Law of Thermodynamics---Introduction
516(1)
Heat Engines
517(3)
Reversible and Irreversible Processes; The Carnot Engine
520(5)
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps
525(3)
Entropy
528(1)
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
529(4)
Order to Disorder
533(1)
Energy Availability; Heat Death
534(1)
Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law
535(2)
Thermodynamic Temperature Scale; Absolute Zero and the Third Law of Thermodynamics
537(8)
Summary
539(1)
Questions
539(1)
Problems
540(3)
General Problems
543(2)
Electric Charge and Electric Field
545(30)
Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation
546(1)
Electric Charge in the Atom
547(1)
Insulators and Conductors
547(1)
Induced Charge; the Electroscope
548(1)
Coulomb's Law
549(5)
The Electric Field
554(4)
Electric Field Calculations for Continuous Charge Distributions
558(3)
Field Lines
561(1)
Electric Fields and Conductors
562(2)
Motion of a Charged Particle in an Electric Field
564(1)
Electric Dipoles
565(10)
Summary
567(1)
Questions
568(1)
Problems
569(3)
General Problems
572(3)
Gauss's Law
575(16)
Electric Flux
576(2)
Gauss's Law
578(2)
Applications of Gauss's Law
580(6)
Experimental Basis of Gauss's and Coulomb's Law
586(5)
Summary
586(1)
Questions
587(1)
Problems
587(3)
General Problems
590(1)
Electric Potential
591(22)
Electric Potential and Potential Difference
591(4)
Relation Between Electric Potential and Electric Field
595(2)
Electric Potential Due to Point Charges
597(2)
Potential Due to Any Charge Distribution
599(1)
Equipotential Surfaces
600(1)
Electric Dipoles
601(1)
E Determined from V
602(1)
Electrostatic Potential Energy; the Electron Volt
603(2)
Cathode Ray Tube: TV and Computer Monitors, Oscilloscope
605(8)
Summary
607(1)
Questions
607(1)
Problems
608(3)
General Problems
611(2)
Capacitance, Dielectrics, Electric Energy Storage
613(21)
Capacitors
613(1)
Determination of Capacitance
614(3)
Capacitors in Series and Parallel
617(3)
Electric Energy Storage
620(1)
Dielectrics
621(3)
Molecular Description of Dielectrics
624(10)
Summary
627(1)
Questions
627(1)
Problems
628(4)
General Problems
632(2)
Electric Currents and Resistance
634(24)
The Electric Battery
635(1)
Electric Current
636(2)
Ohm's Law: Resistance and Resistors
638(2)
Resistivity
640(2)
Electric Power
642(2)
Power in Household Circuits
644(1)
Alternating Current
645(2)
Microscopic View of Electric Current: Current Density and Drift Velocity
647(3)
Superconductivity
650(1)
Electric Hazards; Leakage Currents
651(7)
Summary
653(1)
Questions
653(1)
Problems
654(2)
General Problems
656(2)
DC Circuits
658(28)
EMF and Terminal Voltage
659(1)
Resistors in Series and in Parallel
660(4)
Kirchhoff's Rules
664(5)
Circuits Containing Resistor and Capacitor (RC Circuits)
669(5)
DC Ammeters and Voltmeters
674(2)
Transducers and the Thermocouple
676(10)
Summary
678(1)
Questions
678(1)
Problems
679(4)
General Problems
683(3)
Magnetism
686(23)
Magnets and Magnetic Fields
686(3)
Electric Currents Produce Magnetism
689(1)
Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of B
689(3)
Force on an Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field
692(3)
Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Dipole Moment
695(2)
Applications: Galvanometers, Motors, Loudspeakers
697(2)
Discovery and Properties of the Electron
699(2)
The Hall Effect
701(1)
Mass Spectrometer
702(7)
Summary
702(1)
Questions
703(1)
Problems
704(3)
General Problems
707(2)
Sources of Magnetic Field
709(25)
Magnetic Field Due to a Straight Wire
710(1)
Force Between Two Parallel Wires
710(2)
Operational Definitions of the Ampere and the Coulomb
712(1)
Ampere's Law
712(4)
Magnetic Field of a Solenoid and a Toroid
716(3)
Biot-Savart Law
719(3)
Magnetic Materials---Ferromagnetism
722(1)
Electromagnets and Solenoids
723(1)
Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Materials; Hysteresis
724(1)
Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism
725(9)
Summary
727(1)
Questions
727(1)
Problems
728(4)
General Problems
732(2)
Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday's Law
734(22)
Induced EMF
734(2)
Faraday's Law of Induction; Lenz's Law
736(3)
EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor
739(1)
Electric Generators
740(2)
Counter EMF and Torque; Eddy Currents
742(2)
Transformers and Transmission of Power
744(3)
A Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field
747(2)
Applications of Induction: Sound Systems, Computer Memory, the Seismograph
749(7)
Summary
750(1)
Questions
750(1)
Problems
751(3)
General Problems
754(2)
Inductance; and Electromagnetic Oscillations
756(16)
Mutual Inductance
756(2)
Self-Inductance
758(2)
Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
760(2)
LR Circuits
762(2)
LC Circuits and Electromagnetic Oscillations
764(2)
LC Oscillations with Resistance (LRC Circuit)
766(6)
Summary
767(1)
Questions
768(1)
Problems
768(2)
General Problems
770(2)
AC Circuits
772(15)
Introduction: AC Circuits
772(1)
AC Circuit Containing only Resistance R
773(1)
AC Circuit Containing only Inductance L
773(1)
AC Circuit Containing only Capacitance C
774(2)
LRC Series AC Circuit
776(4)
Resonance in AC Circuits
780(1)
Impedance Matching
781(1)
Three-Phase AC
782(5)
Summary
783(1)
Questions
783(1)
Problems
784(1)
General Problems
785(2)
Maxwell's Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
787(23)
Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Ampere's Law and Displacement Current
788(3)
Gauss's Law for Magnetism
791(1)
Maxwell's Equations
792(1)
Production of Electromagnetic Waves
792(2)
Electromagnetic Waves, and Their Speed, from Maxwell's Equations
794(4)
Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
798(2)
Energy in EM Waves; the Poynting Vector
800(2)
Radiation Pressure
802(1)
Radio and Television
803(7)
Summary
806(1)
Questions
807(1)
Problems
807(2)
General Problems
809(1)
Light: Reflection and Refraction
810(26)
The Ray Model of Light
811(1)
The Speed of Light and Index of Refraction
811(1)
Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror
812(4)
Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors
816(6)
Refraction: Snell's Law
822(2)
Visible Spectrum and Dispersion
824(2)
Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics
826(2)
Refraction at a Spherical Surface
828(8)
Summary
830(1)
Questions
831(1)
Problems
832(3)
General Problems
835(1)
Lenses and Optical Instruments
836(30)
Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing
837(3)
The Lens Equation
840(3)
Combinations of Lenses
843(2)
Lensmaker's Equation
845(3)
Cameras
848(2)
The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses
850(3)
Magnifying Glass
853(1)
Telescopes
854(2)
Compound Microscope
856(2)
Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors
858(8)
Summary
860(1)
Questions
860(1)
Problems
861(3)
General Problems
864(2)
Wave Nature of Light; Interference
866(21)
Huygens' Principle and Diffraction
867(1)
Huygens' Principle and the Law of Refraction
867(3)
Interference---Young's Double-Slit Experiment
870(3)
Coherence
873(1)
Intensity in the Double-Slit Interference Pattern
874(3)
Interference in Thin Films
877(4)
Michelson Interferometer
881(1)
Luminous Intensity
882(5)
Summary
883(1)
Questions
883(1)
Problems
884(1)
General Problems
885(2)
Diffraction and Polarization
887(29)
Diffraction by a Single Slit
888(2)
Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction Pattern
890(3)
Diffraction in the Double-Slit Experiment
893(3)
Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures
896(2)
Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the λ Limit
898(1)
Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification
899(1)
Diffraction Grating
900(1)
The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy
901(2)
Peak Widths and Resolving Power for a Diffraction Grating
903(2)
X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction
905(2)
Polarization
907(4)
Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere
911(5)
Summary
911(1)
Questions
912(1)
Problems
913(2)
General Problems
915(1)
Special Theory of Relativity
916(33)
Galilean--Newtonian Relativity
917(2)
The Michelson--Morley Experiment
919(3)
Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity
922(2)
Simultaneity
924(2)
Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox
926(4)
Length Contraction
930(2)
Four-Dimensional Space---Time
932(1)
Galilean and Lorentz Transformations
932(4)
Relativistic Momentum and Mass
936(2)
The Ultimate Speed
938(1)
Energy and Mass; E = mc2
938(4)
Doppler Shift for Light
942(1)
The Impact of Special Relativity
943(6)
Summary
944(1)
Questions
945(1)
Problems
945(2)
General Problems
947(2)
Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom
949(28)
Planck's Quantum Hypothesis
949(3)
Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect
952(3)
Photons and the Compton Effect
955(2)
Photon Interactions; Pair Production
957(1)
Wave-Particle Duality; The Principle of Complementarity
958(1)
Wave Nature of Matter
959(2)
Electron Microscopes
961(1)
Early Models of the Atom
962(1)
Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom
963(2)
The Bohr Model
965(6)
De Broglie's Hypothesis Applied to Atoms
971(6)
Summary
972(1)
Questions
973(1)
Problems
974(2)
General Problems
976(1)
Quantum Mechanics
977(26)
Quantum Mechanics---A New Theory
978(1)
The Wave Function and Its Interpretation; the Double-Slit Experiment
979(2)
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
981(3)
Philosophic Implications; Probability Versus Determinism
984(1)
The Schrodinger Equation in One Dimension--Time-Independent Form
985(3)
Time-Dependent Schrodinger Equation
988(1)
Free Particles; Plane Waves and Wave Packets
989(1)
Particle in an Infinitely Deep Square Well Potential (a Rigid Box)
990(4)
Finite Potential Well
994(2)
Tunneling Through a Barrier
996(7)
Summary
999(1)
Questions
1000(1)
Problems
1000(2)
General Problems
1002(1)
Quantum Mechanics of Atoms
1003(27)
Quantum-Mechanical View of Atoms
1003(1)
Hydrogen Atom: Schrodinger Equation and Quantum Numbers
1004(3)
Hydrogen Atom Wave Functions
1007(3)
Complex Atoms; the Exclusion Principle
1010(2)
The Periodic Table of Elements
1012(1)
X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Number
1013(2)
Magnetic Dipole Moments; Total Angular Momentum
1015(4)
Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
1019(1)
Lasers
1019(4)
Holography
1023(7)
Summary
1025(1)
Questions
1025(1)
Problems
1026(2)
General Problems
1028(2)
Molecules and Solids
1030(31)
Bonding in Molecules
1030(3)
Potential-Energy Diagrams for Molecules
1033(3)
Weak (van der Waals) Bonds
1036(1)
Molecular Spectra
1037(7)
Bonding in Solids
1044(1)
Free-Electron Theory of Metals
1045(3)
Band Theory of Solids
1048(3)
Semiconductors and Doping
1051(1)
Semiconductor Diodes
1052(2)
Transistors and Integrated Circuits
1054(7)
Summary
1055(1)
Questions
1056(1)
Problems
1057(2)
General Problems
1059(2)
Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity
1061(24)
Structure and Properties of the Nucleus
1061(3)
Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces
1064(3)
Radioactivity
1067(1)
Alpha Decay
1068(2)
Beta Decay
1070(2)
Gamma Decay
1072(1)
Conservation of Nucleon Number and Other Conservation Laws
1073(1)
Half-Life and Rate of Decay
1073(4)
Decay Series
1077(1)
Radioactive Dating
1078(2)
Detection of Radiation
1080(5)
Summary
1081(1)
Questions
1081(1)
Problems
1082(1)
General Problems
1083(2)
Nuclear Energy Effects and Uses of Radiation
1085(29)
Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements
1085(3)
Cross Section
1088(2)
Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors
1090(5)
Fusion
1095(5)
Passage of Radiation through Matter; Radiation Damage
1100(1)
Measurement of Radiation---Dosimetry
1101(3)
Radiation Therapy
1104(1)
Tracers
1104(1)
Imaging by Tomography: CAT Scans, and Emission Tomography
1105(2)
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
1107(7)
Summary
1109(1)
Questions
1110(1)
Problems
1110(3)
General Problems
1113(1)
Elementary Particles
1114(26)
High-Energy Particles
1115(1)
Particle Accelerators and Detectors
1115(6)
Beginnings of Elementary Particle Physics---Particle Exchange
1121(3)
Particles and Antiparticles
1124(1)
Particle Interactions and Conservation Laws
1124(2)
Particle Classification
1126(1)
Particle Stability and Resonances
1127(2)
Strange Particles
1129(1)
Quarks
1130(2)
The ``Standard Model'': Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the Electroweak Theory
1132(2)
Grand Unified Theories
1134(6)
Summary
1136(1)
Questions
1137(1)
Problems
1137(1)
General Problems
1138(2)
Astrophysics and and Cosmology
1140(1)
Stars and Galaxies
1141(4)
Stellar Evolution; the Birth and Death of Stars
1145(6)
General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space
1151(5)
The Expanding Universe
1156(3)
The Big Bang and the Cosmic Microwave Background
1159(2)
The Standard Cosmological Model: The Early History of the Universe
1161(4)
The Future of the Universe?
1165(3)
Summary
1168(1)
Questions
1169(1)
Problems
1170(1)
General Problems
1171
Appendices
A Mathematical Formulas
A-1
A-1 Quadratic Formula
A-1
A-2 Binomial Expansion
A-1
A-3 Other Expansions
A-1
A-4 Areas and Volumes
A-1
A-5 Plane Geometry
A-2
A-6 Trigonometric Functions and Identities
A-2
A-7 Logarithms
A-3
B Derivatives and Integrals
A-4
C Gravitational Force Due to a Spherical Mass Distribution
A-6
D Selected Isotopes
A-9
Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-14
Index A-33
Photo Credits A-57

Excerpts

PREFACE A Brand New Third Edition It has been more than ten years since the second edition of this calculus-based introductory physics textbook was published. A lot has changed since then, not only in physics itself, but also in how physics is presented. Research in how students learn has provided textbook authors new opportunities to help students learn physics and learn it well. This third edition comes in two versions. The standard version covers all of classical physics plus a chapter on special relativity and one on the early quantum theory. The extended version, with modern physics, contains a total of nine detailed chapters on modern physics, ending with astrophysics and cosmology. This book retains the original approach: in-depth physics, concrete and nondogmatic, readable. This new third edition has many improvements in the physics and its applications. Before discussing those changes in detail, here is a list of some of the overall changes that will catch the eye immediately. Full color throughoutis not just cosmetic, although fine color photographs do help to attract the student readers. More important, full color diagrams allow the physics to be displayed with much greater clarity. We have not stopped at a 4-color process; this book has actually been printed in 5 pure colors (5 passes through the presses) to provide better variety and definition for illustrating vectors and other physics concepts such as rays and fields. I want to emphasize that color is used pedagogically to bring out the physics. For example, different types of vectors are given different colors--see the chart on page xxxi. Many more diagrams,almost double the number in the previous edition, have all been done or redone carefully using full color; there are many more graphs and many more photographs throughout. See for example in optics where new photographs show lenses and the images they make. Marginal noteshave been added as an aid to students to (i) point out what is truly important, (ii) serve as a sort of outline, and (iii) help students find details about something referred to later that they may not remember so well. Besides such "normal" marginal notes, there are also marginal notes that point out briefproblem solvinghints, and others that point out interestingapplications. The great laws of physicsare emphasized by giving them a marginal note all in capital letters and enclosed in a rectangle. The most important equations, especially those expressing the great laws, are further emphasized by a tan-colored screen behind them. Chapter opening photographshave been chosen to illustrate aspects of each chapter. Each was chosen with an eye to writing a caption which could serve as a kind of summary of what is in that chapter, and sometimes offer a challenge. Some chapter-opening photos have vectors or other analysis superimposed on them. Page layout: complete derivations.Serious attention has been paid to how each page was formatted, especially for page turns. Great effort has been made to keep important derivations and arguments on facing pages. Students then don't have to turn back to check. More important, readers repeatedly see before them, on two facing pages, an important slice of physics. Two kinds of Examples: Conceptual ExamplesandEstimates. New Physics The whole idea of a new edition is to improve, to bring in new material, and to delete material that is verbose and only makes the book longer or is perhaps too advanced and not so useful. Here is a brief summary of a few of the changes involving the physics itself. These lists are selections, not complete lists. New discoveries: planets revolving around distant stars Hubble Space Telescope updates in particle physics and cosmology, such a


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