Preface 

xvii  
Supplements 

xxviii  
Notes to Students and Instructors on the Format 

xxx  
Use of Color 

xxxi  

Introduction, Measurement, Estimating 


1  (15) 


2  (1) 

Models, Theories, and Laws 


3  (1) 

Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures 


4  (2) 

Units, Standards, and the SI System 


6  (2) 


8  (1) 

Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating 


9  (3) 

Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis 


12  (4) 


13  (1) 


13  (1) 


14  (1) 


15  (1) 

Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension 


16  (29) 

Reference Frames and Displacement 


17  (1) 


18  (2) 


20  (3) 


23  (3) 

Motion at Constant Acceleration 


26  (2) 


28  (3) 


31  (5) 

Use of Calculus; Variable Acceleration 


36  (9) 


38  (1) 


38  (1) 


39  (3) 


42  (3) 

Kinematics in Two Dimensions; Vectors 


45  (32) 


45  (1) 

Addition of VectorsGraphical Methods 


46  (2) 

Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar 


48  (1) 

Adding Vectors by Components 


48  (4) 


52  (1) 


53  (2) 


55  (3) 

Solving Problems in Projectile Motion 


58  (5) 


63  (3) 


66  (11) 


68  (1) 


69  (1) 


70  (4) 


74  (3) 

Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion 


77  (29) 


77  (1) 

Newton's First Law of Motion 


78  (1) 


79  (1) 

Newton's Second Law of Motion 


80  (2) 

Newton's Third Law of Motion 


82  (3) 

Weightthe Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force 


85  (3) 

Solving Problems with Newton's Laws: FreeBody Diagrams 


88  (8) 

Problem SolvingA General Approach 


96  (10) 


97  (1) 


97  (1) 


98  (5) 


103  (3) 

Further Applications of Newton's Laws 


106  (27) 

Applications of Newton's Laws Involving Friction 


106  (8) 

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion 


114  (4) 

Highway Curves, Banked and Unbanked 


118  (3) 

Nonuniform Circular Motion 


121  (1) 

VelocityDependent Forces; Terminal Velocity 


122  (11) 


124  (1) 


124  (1) 


125  (4) 


129  (4) 

Gravitation and Newton's Synthesis 


133  (22) 

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation 


133  (3) 

Vector Form of Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation 


136  (1) 

Gravity Near the Earth's Surface; Geophysical Applications 


137  (2) 

Satellites and ``Weightlessness'' 


139  (4) 

Kepler's Laws and Newton's Synthesis 


143  (3) 


146  (1) 

Types of Forces in Nature 


147  (1) 

Gravitational Versus Inertial Mass; the Principle of Equivalence 


148  (1) 

Gravitation as Curvature of Space; Black Holes 


149  (6) 


150  (1) 


150  (1) 


151  (2) 


153  (2) 


155  (21) 

Work Done by a Constant Force 


156  (3) 

Scalar Product of Two Vectors 


159  (2) 

Work Done by a Varying Force 


161  (3) 

Kinetic Energy and the WorkEnergy Principle 


164  (5) 

Kinetic Energy at Very High Speed 


169  (1) 


170  (1) 


170  (1) 


171  (3) 


174  (2) 


176  (30) 

Conservative and Nonconservative Forces 


177  (1) 


178  (4) 

Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation 


182  (2) 

Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy 


184  (5) 

The Law of Conservation of Energy 


189  (1) 

Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems 


190  (2) 

Gravitational Potential Energy and Escape Velocity 


192  (3) 


195  (2) 

Potential Energy Diagrams; Stable and Unstable Equilibrium 


197  (9) 


198  (1) 


199  (1) 


200  (4) 


204  (2) 

Linear Momentum and Collisions 


206  (33) 

Momentum and Its Relation to Force 


206  (2) 


208  (3) 


211  (3) 

Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions 


214  (1) 

Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 


214  (3) 


217  (2) 

Collisions in Two or Three Dimensions 


219  (2) 


221  (4) 

Center of Mass and Translational Motion 


225  (2) 

Systems of Variable Mass; Rocket Propulsion 


227  (12) 


230  (1) 


230  (1) 


231  (5) 


236  (3) 

Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis 


239  (40) 


240  (3) 

Kinematic Equations for Uniformly Accelerated Rotational Motion 


243  (1) 

Rolling Motion (without Slipping) 


244  (2) 

Vector Nature of Angular Quantities 


246  (1) 


247  (2) 

Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia 


249  (1) 

Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics 


250  (4) 

Determining Moments of Inertia 


254  (2) 

Angular Momentum and Its Conservation 


256  (4) 

Rotational Kinetic Energy 


260  (2) 

Rotational Plus Translational Motion; Rolling 


262  (6) 

Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down? 


268  (11) 


268  (1) 


269  (1) 


270  (6) 


276  (3) 


279  (21) 


279  (1) 


280  (1) 

Angular Momentum of a Particle 


281  (2) 

Angular Momentum and Torque for a System of Particles; General Motion 


283  (2) 

Angular Momentum and Torque for a Rigid Body 


285  (2) 


287  (1) 

Conservation of Angular Momentum 


288  (2) 


290  (1) 

Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces 


291  (1) 


292  (8) 


294  (1) 


294  (1) 


295  (3) 


298  (2) 

Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture 


300  (32) 

StaticsThe Study of Forces in Equilibrium 


300  (1) 

The Conditions for Equilibrium 


301  (2) 


303  (5) 


308  (1) 

Elasticity; Stress and Strain 


309  (3) 


312  (3) 


315  (4) 


319  (13) 


321  (1) 


321  (1) 


322  (6) 


328  (4) 


332  (30) 

Density and Specific Gravity 


332  (1) 


333  (4) 

Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure 


337  (1) 


337  (1) 

Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer 


338  (2) 

Buoyancy and Archimedes' Principle 


340  (3) 

Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity 


343  (2) 


345  (2) 

Applications of Bernoulli's Principle: From Torricelli to Sailboats, Airfoils, and TIA 


347  (3) 


350  (1) 

Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille's Equation 


351  (1) 

Surface Tension and Capillarity 


351  (2) 


353  (9) 


354  (1) 


354  (2) 


356  (4) 


360  (2) 


362  (26) 


363  (1) 


364  (5) 

Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 


369  (2) 

Simple Harmonic Motion Related to Uniform Circular Motion 


371  (1) 


371  (2) 

Physical Pendulum and Torsion Pendulum 


373  (1) 


374  (4) 

Forced Vibrations; Resonance 


378  (10) 


380  (1) 


381  (1) 


381  (5) 


386  (2) 


388  (29) 

Characteristics of Wave Motion 


389  (2) 


391  (4) 

Energy Transported by Waves 


395  (1) 

Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave 


396  (3) 


399  (2) 

The Principle of Superposition 


401  (1) 

Reflection and Transmission 


402  (2) 


404  (1) 

Standing Waves; Resonance 


405  (3) 


408  (2) 


410  (7) 


410  (1) 


411  (1) 


412  (3) 


415  (2) 


417  (28) 


417  (2) 

Mathematical Representation of Longitudinal Waves 


419  (1) 

Intensity of Sound; Decibels 


420  (4) 

Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns 


424  (5) 

Quality of Sound, and Noise 


429  (1) 

Interference of Sound Waves; Beats 


429  (3) 


432  (3) 

Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom 


435  (2) 

Applications; Ultrasound and Ultrasound Imaging 


437  (8) 


438  (1) 


438  (1) 


439  (4) 


443  (2) 

Temperature, Thermal Expansion, and the Ideal Gas Law 


445  (21) 


446  (1) 

Temperature and Thermometers 


447  (2) 

Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 


449  (1) 


450  (4) 


454  (1) 

The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature 


454  (2) 


456  (1) 

Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law 


457  (2) 

Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro's Number 


459  (1) 

Ideal Gas Temperature ScaleA Standard 


460  (6) 


461  (1) 


461  (1) 


462  (2) 


464  (2) 


466  (19) 

The Ideal Gas Law and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature 


466  (4) 

Distribution of Molecular Speeds 


470  (3) 

Real Gases and Changes of Phase 


473  (1) 

Vapor Pressure and Humidity 


474  (3) 

Van der Waals Equation of State 


477  (1) 


478  (1) 


479  (6) 


481  (1) 


481  (1) 


482  (2) 


484  (1) 

Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics 


485  (31) 


485  (2) 


487  (1) 


488  (1) 

Calorimetry=Solving Problems 


489  (1) 


490  (3) 

The First Law of Thermodynamics 


493  (2) 

Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics; Calculating the Work 


495  (3) 

Molar Specific Heats for Gases, and the Equipartition of Energy 


498  (4) 

Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas 


502  (1) 

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation 


503  (13) 


508  (1) 


509  (1) 


510  (4) 


514  (2) 

Second Law of Thermodynamics; Heat Engines 


516  (29) 

The Second Law of ThermodynamicsIntroduction 


516  (1) 


517  (3) 

Reversible and Irreversible Processes; The Carnot Engine 


520  (5) 

Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps 


525  (3) 


528  (1) 

Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 


529  (4) 


533  (1) 

Energy Availability; Heat Death 


534  (1) 

Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law 


535  (2) 

Thermodynamic Temperature Scale; Absolute Zero and the Third Law of Thermodynamics 


537  (8) 


539  (1) 


539  (1) 


540  (3) 


543  (2) 

Electric Charge and Electric Field 


545  (30) 

Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation 


546  (1) 

Electric Charge in the Atom 


547  (1) 

Insulators and Conductors 


547  (1) 

Induced Charge; the Electroscope 


548  (1) 


549  (5) 


554  (4) 

Electric Field Calculations for Continuous Charge Distributions 


558  (3) 


561  (1) 

Electric Fields and Conductors 


562  (2) 

Motion of a Charged Particle in an Electric Field 


564  (1) 


565  (10) 


567  (1) 


568  (1) 


569  (3) 


572  (3) 


575  (16) 


576  (2) 


578  (2) 

Applications of Gauss's Law 


580  (6) 

Experimental Basis of Gauss's and Coulomb's Law 


586  (5) 


586  (1) 


587  (1) 


587  (3) 


590  (1) 


591  (22) 

Electric Potential and Potential Difference 


591  (4) 

Relation Between Electric Potential and Electric Field 


595  (2) 

Electric Potential Due to Point Charges 


597  (2) 

Potential Due to Any Charge Distribution 


599  (1) 


600  (1) 


601  (1) 


602  (1) 

Electrostatic Potential Energy; the Electron Volt 


603  (2) 

Cathode Ray Tube: TV and Computer Monitors, Oscilloscope 


605  (8) 


607  (1) 


607  (1) 


608  (3) 


611  (2) 

Capacitance, Dielectrics, Electric Energy Storage 


613  (21) 


613  (1) 

Determination of Capacitance 


614  (3) 

Capacitors in Series and Parallel 


617  (3) 


620  (1) 


621  (3) 

Molecular Description of Dielectrics 


624  (10) 


627  (1) 


627  (1) 


628  (4) 


632  (2) 

Electric Currents and Resistance 


634  (24) 


635  (1) 


636  (2) 

Ohm's Law: Resistance and Resistors 


638  (2) 


640  (2) 


642  (2) 

Power in Household Circuits 


644  (1) 


645  (2) 

Microscopic View of Electric Current: Current Density and Drift Velocity 


647  (3) 


650  (1) 

Electric Hazards; Leakage Currents 


651  (7) 


653  (1) 


653  (1) 


654  (2) 


656  (2) 


658  (28) 


659  (1) 

Resistors in Series and in Parallel 


660  (4) 


664  (5) 

Circuits Containing Resistor and Capacitor (RC Circuits) 


669  (5) 

DC Ammeters and Voltmeters 


674  (2) 

Transducers and the Thermocouple 


676  (10) 


678  (1) 


678  (1) 


679  (4) 


683  (3) 


686  (23) 

Magnets and Magnetic Fields 


686  (3) 

Electric Currents Produce Magnetism 


689  (1) 

Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of B 


689  (3) 

Force on an Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field 


692  (3) 

Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Dipole Moment 


695  (2) 

Applications: Galvanometers, Motors, Loudspeakers 


697  (2) 

Discovery and Properties of the Electron 


699  (2) 


701  (1) 


702  (7) 


702  (1) 


703  (1) 


704  (3) 


707  (2) 

Sources of Magnetic Field 


709  (25) 

Magnetic Field Due to a Straight Wire 


710  (1) 

Force Between Two Parallel Wires 


710  (2) 

Operational Definitions of the Ampere and the Coulomb 


712  (1) 


712  (4) 

Magnetic Field of a Solenoid and a Toroid 


716  (3) 


719  (3) 

Magnetic MaterialsFerromagnetism 


722  (1) 

Electromagnets and Solenoids 


723  (1) 

Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Materials; Hysteresis 


724  (1) 

Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism 


725  (9) 


727  (1) 


727  (1) 


728  (4) 


732  (2) 

Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday's Law 


734  (22) 


734  (2) 

Faraday's Law of Induction; Lenz's Law 


736  (3) 

EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor 


739  (1) 


740  (2) 

Counter EMF and Torque; Eddy Currents 


742  (2) 

Transformers and Transmission of Power 


744  (3) 

A Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field 


747  (2) 

Applications of Induction: Sound Systems, Computer Memory, the Seismograph 


749  (7) 


750  (1) 


750  (1) 


751  (3) 


754  (2) 

Inductance; and Electromagnetic Oscillations 


756  (16) 


756  (2) 


758  (2) 

Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field 


760  (2) 


762  (2) 

LC Circuits and Electromagnetic Oscillations 


764  (2) 

LC Oscillations with Resistance (LRC Circuit) 


766  (6) 


767  (1) 


768  (1) 


768  (2) 


770  (2) 


772  (15) 

Introduction: AC Circuits 


772  (1) 

AC Circuit Containing only Resistance R 


773  (1) 

AC Circuit Containing only Inductance L 


773  (1) 

AC Circuit Containing only Capacitance C 


774  (2) 


776  (4) 


780  (1) 


781  (1) 


782  (5) 


783  (1) 


783  (1) 


784  (1) 


785  (2) 

Maxwell's Equations and Electromagnetic Waves 


787  (23) 

Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Ampere's Law and Displacement Current 


788  (3) 

Gauss's Law for Magnetism 


791  (1) 


792  (1) 

Production of Electromagnetic Waves 


792  (2) 

Electromagnetic Waves, and Their Speed, from Maxwell's Equations 


794  (4) 

Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum 


798  (2) 

Energy in EM Waves; the Poynting Vector 


800  (2) 


802  (1) 


803  (7) 


806  (1) 


807  (1) 


807  (2) 


809  (1) 

Light: Reflection and Refraction 


810  (26) 


811  (1) 

The Speed of Light and Index of Refraction 


811  (1) 

Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror 


812  (4) 

Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors 


816  (6) 


822  (2) 

Visible Spectrum and Dispersion 


824  (2) 

Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics 


826  (2) 

Refraction at a Spherical Surface 


828  (8) 


830  (1) 


831  (1) 


832  (3) 


835  (1) 

Lenses and Optical Instruments 


836  (30) 


837  (3) 


840  (3) 


843  (2) 


845  (3) 


848  (2) 

The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses 


850  (3) 


853  (1) 


854  (2) 


856  (2) 

Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors 


858  (8) 


860  (1) 


860  (1) 


861  (3) 


864  (2) 

Wave Nature of Light; Interference 


866  (21) 

Huygens' Principle and Diffraction 


867  (1) 

Huygens' Principle and the Law of Refraction 


867  (3) 

InterferenceYoung's DoubleSlit Experiment 


870  (3) 


873  (1) 

Intensity in the DoubleSlit Interference Pattern 


874  (3) 

Interference in Thin Films 


877  (4) 


881  (1) 


882  (5) 


883  (1) 


883  (1) 


884  (1) 


885  (2) 

Diffraction and Polarization 


887  (29) 

Diffraction by a Single Slit 


888  (2) 

Intensity in SingleSlit Diffraction Pattern 


890  (3) 

Diffraction in the DoubleSlit Experiment 


893  (3) 

Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures 


896  (2) 

Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the λ Limit 


898  (1) 

Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification 


899  (1) 


900  (1) 

The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy 


901  (2) 

Peak Widths and Resolving Power for a Diffraction Grating 


903  (2) 

XRays and XRay Diffraction 


905  (2) 


907  (4) 

Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere 


911  (5) 


911  (1) 


912  (1) 


913  (2) 


915  (1) 

Special Theory of Relativity 


916  (33) 

GalileanNewtonian Relativity 


917  (2) 

The MichelsonMorley Experiment 


919  (3) 

Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity 


922  (2) 


924  (2) 

Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox 


926  (4) 


930  (2) 

FourDimensional SpaceTime 


932  (1) 

Galilean and Lorentz Transformations 


932  (4) 

Relativistic Momentum and Mass 


936  (2) 


938  (1) 


938  (4) 


942  (1) 

The Impact of Special Relativity 


943  (6) 


944  (1) 


945  (1) 


945  (2) 


947  (2) 

Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom 


949  (28) 

Planck's Quantum Hypothesis 


949  (3) 

Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect 


952  (3) 

Photons and the Compton Effect 


955  (2) 

Photon Interactions; Pair Production 


957  (1) 

WaveParticle Duality; The Principle of Complementarity 


958  (1) 


959  (2) 


961  (1) 


962  (1) 

Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom 


963  (2) 


965  (6) 

De Broglie's Hypothesis Applied to Atoms 


971  (6) 


972  (1) 


973  (1) 


974  (2) 


976  (1) 


977  (26) 

Quantum MechanicsA New Theory 


978  (1) 

The Wave Function and Its Interpretation; the DoubleSlit Experiment 


979  (2) 

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 


981  (3) 

Philosophic Implications; Probability Versus Determinism 


984  (1) 

The Schrodinger Equation in One DimensionTimeIndependent Form 


985  (3) 

TimeDependent Schrodinger Equation 


988  (1) 

Free Particles; Plane Waves and Wave Packets 


989  (1) 

Particle in an Infinitely Deep Square Well Potential (a Rigid Box) 


990  (4) 


994  (2) 

Tunneling Through a Barrier 


996  (7) 


999  (1) 


1000  (1) 


1000  (2) 


1002  (1) 

Quantum Mechanics of Atoms 


1003  (27) 

QuantumMechanical View of Atoms 


1003  (1) 

Hydrogen Atom: Schrodinger Equation and Quantum Numbers 


1004  (3) 

Hydrogen Atom Wave Functions 


1007  (3) 

Complex Atoms; the Exclusion Principle 


1010  (2) 

The Periodic Table of Elements 


1012  (1) 

XRay Spectra and Atomic Number 


1013  (2) 

Magnetic Dipole Moments; Total Angular Momentum 


1015  (4) 

Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 


1019  (1) 


1019  (4) 


1023  (7) 


1025  (1) 


1025  (1) 


1026  (2) 


1028  (2) 


1030  (31) 


1030  (3) 

PotentialEnergy Diagrams for Molecules 


1033  (3) 

Weak (van der Waals) Bonds 


1036  (1) 


1037  (7) 


1044  (1) 

FreeElectron Theory of Metals 


1045  (3) 


1048  (3) 

Semiconductors and Doping 


1051  (1) 


1052  (2) 

Transistors and Integrated Circuits 


1054  (7) 


1055  (1) 


1056  (1) 


1057  (2) 


1059  (2) 

Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 


1061  (24) 

Structure and Properties of the Nucleus 


1061  (3) 

Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces 


1064  (3) 


1067  (1) 


1068  (2) 


1070  (2) 


1072  (1) 

Conservation of Nucleon Number and Other Conservation Laws 


1073  (1) 

HalfLife and Rate of Decay 


1073  (4) 


1077  (1) 


1078  (2) 


1080  (5) 


1081  (1) 


1081  (1) 


1082  (1) 


1083  (2) 

Nuclear Energy Effects and Uses of Radiation 


1085  (29) 

Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements 


1085  (3) 


1088  (2) 

Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors 


1090  (5) 


1095  (5) 

Passage of Radiation through Matter; Radiation Damage 


1100  (1) 

Measurement of RadiationDosimetry 


1101  (3) 


1104  (1) 


1104  (1) 

Imaging by Tomography: CAT Scans, and Emission Tomography 


1105  (2) 

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 


1107  (7) 


1109  (1) 


1110  (1) 


1110  (3) 


1113  (1) 


1114  (26) 


1115  (1) 

Particle Accelerators and Detectors 


1115  (6) 

Beginnings of Elementary Particle PhysicsParticle Exchange 


1121  (3) 

Particles and Antiparticles 


1124  (1) 

Particle Interactions and Conservation Laws 


1124  (2) 


1126  (1) 

Particle Stability and Resonances 


1127  (2) 


1129  (1) 


1130  (2) 

The ``Standard Model'': Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the Electroweak Theory 


1132  (2) 


1134  (6) 


1136  (1) 


1137  (1) 


1137  (1) 


1138  (2) 

Astrophysics and and Cosmology 


1140  (1) 


1141  (4) 

Stellar Evolution; the Birth and Death of Stars 


1145  (6) 

General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space 


1151  (5) 


1156  (3) 

The Big Bang and the Cosmic Microwave Background 


1159  (2) 

The Standard Cosmological Model: The Early History of the Universe 


1161  (4) 

The Future of the Universe? 


1165  (3) 


1168  (1) 


1169  (1) 


1170  (1) 


1171  
Appendices 



A1  


A1  


A1  


A1  


A1  


A2  

A6 Trigonometric Functions and Identities 


A2  


A3  

B Derivatives and Integrals 


A4  

C Gravitational Force Due to a Spherical Mass Distribution 


A6  


A9  
Answers to OddNumbered Problems 

A14  
Index 

A33  
Photo Credits 

A57  