Preface 

xvii  
Supplements 

xxviii  
Notes to Students and Instructors on the Format. 

xxx  
Use of Color 

xxxi  

Introduction, Measurement, Estimating 


1  (15) 


2  (1) 

Models, Theories, and Laws 


3  (1) 

Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures 


4  (2) 

Units, Standards, and the SI System 


6  (2) 


8  (1) 

Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating 


9  (3) 

Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis 


12  (4) 


13  (1) 


13  (1) 


14  (1) 


15  (1) 

Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension 


16  (29) 

Reference Frames and Displacement 


17  (1) 


18  (2) 


20  (3) 


23  (3) 

Motion at Constant Acceleration 


26  (2) 


28  (3) 


31  (5) 

Use of Calculus; Variable Acceleration 


36  (9) 


38  (1) 


38  (1) 


39  (3) 


42  (3) 

Kinematics in Two Dimensions; Vectors 


45  (32) 


45  (1) 

Addition of VectorsGraphical Methods 


46  (2) 

Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar 


48  (1) 

Adding Vectors by Components 


48  (4) 


52  (1) 


53  (2) 


55  (3) 

Solving Problems in Projectile Motion 


58  (5) 


63  (3) 


66  (11) 


68  (1) 


69  (1) 


70  (4) 


74  (3) 

Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion 


77  (29) 


77  (1) 

Newton's First Law of Motion 


78  (1) 


79  (1) 

Newton's Second Law of Motion 


80  (2) 

Newton's Third Law of Motion 


82  (3) 

Weightthe Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force 


85  (3) 

Solving Problems with Newton's Laws: FreeBody Diagrams 


88  (8) 

Problem SolvingA General Approach 


96  (10) 


97  (1) 


97  (1) 


98  (5) 


103  (3) 

Further Applications of Newton's Laws 


106  (27) 

Applications of Newton's Laws Involving Friction 


106  (8) 

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion 


114  (4) 

Highway Curves, Banked and Unbanked 


118  (3) 

Nonuniform Circular Motion 


121  (1) 

VelocityDependent Forces; Terminal Velocity 


122  (11) 


124  (1) 


124  (1) 


125  (4) 


129  (4) 

Gravitation and Newton's Synthesis 


133  (22) 

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation 


133  (3) 

Vector Form of Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation 


136  (1) 

Gravity Near the Earth's Surface; Geophysical Applications 


137  (2) 

Satellites and ``Weightlessness'' 


139  (4) 

Kepler's Laws and Newton's Synthesis 


143  (3) 


146  (1) 

Types of Forces in Nature 


147  (1) 

Gravitational Versus Inertial Mass; the Principle of Equivalence 


148  (1) 

Gravitation as Curvature of Space; Black Holes 


149  (6) 


150  (1) 


150  (1) 


151  (2) 


153  (2) 


155  (21) 

Work Done by a Constant Force 


156  (3) 

Scalar Product of Two Vectors 


159  (2) 

Work Done by a Varying Force 


161  (3) 

Kinetic Energy and the WorkEnergy Principle 


164  (5) 

Kinetic Energy at Very High Speed 


169  (7) 


170  (1) 


170  (1) 


171  (3) 


174  (2) 


176  (30) 

Conservative and Nonconservative Forces 


177  (1) 


178  (4) 

Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation 


182  (2) 

Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy 


184  (5) 

The Law of Conservation of Energy 


189  (1) 

Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems 


190  (2) 

Gravitational Potential Energy and Escape Velocity 


192  (3) 


195  (2) 

Potential Energy Diagrams; Stable and Unstable Equilibrium 


197  (9) 


198  (1) 


199  (1) 


200  (4) 


204  (2) 

Linear Momentum and Collisions 


206  (33) 

Momentum and Its Relation to Force 


206  (2) 


208  (3) 


211  (3) 

Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions 


214  (1) 

Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 


214  (3) 


217  (2) 

Collisions in Two or Three Dimensions 


219  (2) 


221  (4) 

Center of Mass and Translational Motion 


225  (2) 

Systems of Variable Mass; Rocket Propulsion 


227  (12) 


230  (1) 


230  (1) 


231  (5) 


236  (3) 

Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis 


239  (40) 


240  (3) 

Kinematic Equations for Uniformly Accelerated Rotational Motion 


243  (1) 

Rolling Motion (without Slipping) 


244  (2) 

Vector Nature of Angular Quantities 


246  (1) 


247  (2) 

Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia 


249  (1) 

Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics 


250  (4) 

Determining Moments of Inertia 


254  (2) 

Angular Momentum and Its Conservation 


256  (4) 

Rotational Kinetic Energy 


260  (2) 

Rotational Plus Translational Motion; Rolling 


262  (6) 

Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down? 


268  (11) 


268  (1) 


269  (1) 


270  (6) 


276  (3) 


279  (21) 


279  (1) 


280  (1) 

Angular Momentum of a Praticle 


281  (2) 

Angular Momentum and Torque for a System of Particles; General Motion 


283  (2) 

Angular Momentum and Torque for A Rigid Body 


285  (2) 


287  (1) 

Conservation of Angular Momentum 


288  (2) 


290  (1) 

Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces 


291  (1) 


292  (8) 


294  (1) 


294  (1) 


295  (3) 


298  (2) 

Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture 


300  (32) 

StaticsThe Study of Forces in Equilibrium 


300  (1) 

The Conditions for Equilibrium 


301  (2) 


303  (5) 


308  (1) 

Elasticity; Stress and Strain 


309  (3) 


312  (3) 


315  (4) 


319  (13) 


321  (1) 


321  (1) 


322  (6) 


328  (4) 


332  (30) 

Density and Specific Gravity 


332  (1) 


333  (4) 

Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure 


337  (1) 


337  (1) 

Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer 


338  (2) 

Buoyancy and Archimedes's Principle 


340  (3) 

Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity 


343  (2) 


345  (2) 

Applications of Bernoulli's Principle: From Torricelli to Sailboats Airfoils and TIA 


347  (3) 


350  (1) 

Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille's Equation 


351  (1) 

Surface Tension and Capillarity 


351  (2) 


353  (9) 


354  (1) 


354  (2) 


356  (4) 


360  (2) 


362  (26) 


363  (1) 


364  (5) 

Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 


369  (2) 

Simple Harmonic Motion Related to Uniform Circular Motion 


371  (1) 


371  (2) 

Physical Pendulum and Torsion Pendulum 


373  (1) 


374  (4) 

Forced Vibrations; Resonance 


378  (10) 


380  (1) 


381  (1) 


381  (5) 


386  (2) 


388  (29) 

Characteristics of Wave Motion 


389  (2) 


391  (4) 

Energy Transported by Waves 


395  (1) 

Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave 


396  (3) 


399  (2) 

The Principle of Superposition 


401  (1) 

Reflection and Transmission 


402  (2) 


404  (1) 

Standing Waves; Resonance 


405  (3) 


408  (2) 


410  (7) 


410  (1) 


411  (1) 


412  (3) 


415  (2) 


417  (28) 


417  (2) 

Mathematical Representation of Longitudinal Waves 


419  (1) 

Intensity of Sound; Decibels 


420  (4) 

Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns 


424  (5) 

Quality of Sound and Noise 


429  (1) 

Interference of Sound Waves; Beats 


429  (3) 


432  (3) 

Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom 


435  (2) 

Applications; Ultrasound and Ultrasound Imaging 


437  (8) 


438  (1) 


438  (1) 


439  (4) 


443  (2) 

Temperature Thermal Expansion and the Ideal Gas Law 


445  (21) 


446  (1) 

Temperature and Thermometers 


447  (2) 

Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 


449  (1) 


450  (4) 


454  (1) 

The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature 


454  (2) 


456  (1) 

Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law 


457  (2) 

Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro's Number 


459  (1) 

Ideal Gas Temperature ScaleA Standard 


460  (6) 


461  (1) 


461  (1) 


462  (2) 


464  (2) 


466  (19) 

The Ideal Gas Law and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature 


466  (4) 

Distribution of Molecular Speeds 


470  (3) 

Real Gases and Changes of Phase 


473  (1) 

Vapor Pressure and Humidity 


474  (3) 

Van der Waals Equation of State 


477  (1) 


478  (1) 


479  (6) 


481  (1) 


481  (1) 


482  (2) 


484  (1) 

Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics 


485  (31) 


485  (2) 


487  (1) 


488  (1) 

CalorimetrySolving Problems 


489  (1) 


490  (3) 

The First Law of Thermodynamics 


493  (2) 

Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics; Calculating the Work 


495  (3) 

Molar Specific Heats for Gases and the Equipartition of Energy 


498  (4) 

Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas 


502  (1) 

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation 


503  (13) 


508  (1) 


509  (1) 


510  (4) 


514  (2) 

Second Law of Thermodynamics; Heat Engines 


516  

The Second Law of ThermodynamicsIntroduction 


516  (1) 


517  (3) 

Reversible and Irreversible Processes; The Carnot Engine 


520  (5) 

Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps 


525  (3) 


528  (1) 

Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 


529  (4) 


533  (1) 

Energy Availability; Heat Death 


534  (1) 

Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law 


535  (2) 

Thermodynamic Temperature Scale; Absolute Zero and the Third Law of Thermodynamics 


537  


539  (1) 


539  (1) 


540  (3) 


543  
Appendices 



A1  (1) 

B. Derivatives and Integrals 


A4  (1) 

C. Gravitational Force Due to a Spherical Mass Distribution 


A6  (1) 


A9  (1) 
Answers to oddnumbered problems 

A14  (1) 
Index 

A24  (1) 
Photo Credits 

A32  