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Plastics Additives and Testing,9781118118900
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Plastics Additives and Testing



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Plastics Additives and Testing will have a profound impact both on attaining improved plastics processing and on meeting the desired quality end products. The book is considered as a vehicle to foster recognition and critical examination of the interaction between chemistry of additives and testing. Inorganic or organic chemicals are widely used as additives in plastics processing operations. The existence of process and end products of plastics has radically changed our thinking with respect to performing chemical analyses on additives. Testing is now necessarily an integral part to subject raw materials used in plastics processing. Instrumental methods used in plastics additive testing have the ability to control experiments on plastics processing, to collect data, and to perform calculations with ever increasing efficiency to reduce wastage during processing. Today, it is common practice to use analytical techniques to improve the processing. Now, because of the potentially critical problems in meeting quality products, a reasonable balance must be drawn between control requirements and parameters for improved processing method with respect to plastics additives. This book details this balance and should be seen as a practical reference for plastics engineers, technicians and processors, as well as academics and researcher.

Author Biography

Muralisrinivasan Subramanian is a plastics technology consultant specializing in materials, additives, and processing equipment, including troubleshooting. He obtained his BSc in chemistry from the Madurai Kamaraj University and his MSc in polymer technology from Bharathiar University. He received his postgraduate diploma in plastics processing technology from CIPET, Chennai. He has also completed his PhD in polymer science from Madurai Kamaraj University. Dr. Subramanian worked in the plastic process industry, mainly in R & D, for thirteen years before turning to consultancy and building up an international client base. He teaches plastics processing seminars as well as being a Board of Studies expert member of colleges in India, advising on curriculum issues with regard to technology subjects.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Summary 4

References 4

2 Thermoplastics and Thermosets 5

2.1 Benefits/Advantages of Plastics 5

2.2 Classification 7

2.3 Thermoplastics 7

2.4 Thermosets 22

3 Types of Additives 35

3.1 Selection of Additives 36

3.2 Surface Property Modifiers 36

3.3 Chemical Property Modifiers 40

3.4 Processing Modifiers 45

3.5 Mechanical Property Modifiers 53

3.6 Aesthetic Property Modifiers 59

3.7 Other Additives 61

3.8 Additives from Natural Sources 64

References 65

4 Plastics Additive and Chemistry 73

4.1 Properties of Plastics 74

4.2 Chemistry of Additives 74

4.3 Chemical Properties of Additives 75

References 94

5 Organic Additives 101

5.1 Antioxidants 102

5.2 Antistatic Agents 102

5.3 Antifogging Agents 103

5.4 Antiblocking Agents 104

5.5 Slip Additives 105

5.6 UV Stabilizers 105

5.7 Nucleating Agents 107

5.8 Flame Retardants 107

5.9 Lubricants 110

5.10 Plasticizers 112

5.11 Impact Modifiers 113

5.12 Fillers 113

5.13 Organic Colorants 115

5.14 Foaming Agents 117

5.15 Chain Extenders 118

5.16 Organic Peroxides 118

5.17 Accelerators 119

5.18 Activators 119

References 120

6 Inorganic Additives 125

6.1 Heat Stabilizers 126

6.2 Flame Retardants 127

6.3 Fillers 128

6.4 Blowing Agents 137

6.5 Inorganic Colorants 138

6.6 Antimicrobial Agents 139

References 140

7 Additives and Processing 145

7.1 Plastics Processing 145

7.2 Nature of Plastics 146

7.3 Nature of Additives 148

7.4 Plastics Processing Technology 149

7.5 Injection Molding 150

7.6 Extrusion 153

7.7 Blow Molding 157

7.8 Thermoforming 157

7.9 Role of Additive 158

7.10 Rotational Molding 159

7.11 Calendering 160

7.12 Thermosets and Processing 161

References 163

8 Identification of Additives 167

8.1 Melting and Boiling Point 168

8.2 Organic Additives 168

8.3 Inorganic Additives 171

8.4 Morphology 173

8.5 Mass Spectrometry 173

8.6 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 173

8.7 Benefits 174

References 174

9 Testing of Additives 177

9.1 Plastics and Additives in Analysis 178

9.2 Properties of Additives 178

9.3 Testing of Additives 179

9.4 Brabender Plastographs 179

9.5 Extraction of Polymer Additives Systems 181

9.6 Liquid Chromatography 184

9.7 Gas Chromatography 186

9.8 Thermal Analysis 189

9.9 Thermogravimetric-Mass Spectrometry 192

9.10 FTIR Spectroscopy 194

9.11 Quantitative Analysis of Additives 196

9.12 Quality Control 198

References 199

10 Future Trends 203

10.1 In Plastics Packaging 204

10.2 In Medicine 204

10.3 In Electrical and Electronics Industries 205

10.4 In Building 205

10.5 In Engineering 205

10.6 Present Trends 206

10.7 Future Requirements 208

References 209

Index 000

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