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Police & Society offers an in-depth and analytical look at the process of policing, from police behavior and organization to operations and historical perspectives. Focusing on the relationship between the police and the community and how it has changed throughout the years, the authors explore the most important theoretical foundations and incisive research on contemporary policing and show how that research is put into practice. Now in its sixth edition, this unique text incorporates expanded coverage of police technology, homeland security, privacy and surveillance, immigration, and evidence-based practices and includes the most current scholarship. A new companion website (www.oup.com/us/roberg) features an online student study guide, animated flashcards, and self-quizzes.
Roy Roberg is Professor Emeritus of Justice Studies at San José State University.
Kenneth Novak is Professor and Chair of Criminal Justice and Criminology at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.
Gary Cordner is Professor of Criminal Justice at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
Brad Smith is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at Wayne State University.
Table of Contents
Preface ?xiii Acknowledgments ?xiv About the Authors ?xv
CHAPTER 1 Police in a Democracy ?2 Policing a Free Society ?4 Police and Government ?5 Police and Rule of Law ?6 Police, Terrorism, and Homeland Security ?8 Police Systems ?9 The U.S. Police System ?11 Other Types of Law Enforcement Agencies ?15 Similarities and Differences ?16 Police Role and Purpose ?18 Law Enforcement or Politics ?20 Crime Fighting or Social Service ?20 Proactive or Reactive ?21 Police Activities and Workload ?21 Police Goals and Strategies ?23 Looking Ahead ?25 Summary ?26
CHAPTER 2 Police History ?29 Foundations of Policing ?30 Early Policing ?30 Policing in Nineteenth-Century England ?32 The Emergence of Modern Policing in the United States ?34 The First City Police Forces ?34 The County Sheriff ?36 Vigilance Committees ?36 Modern American Policing ?37 The Political Era ?37 Police Development ?37 Criticism in the Political Era ?40 The Reform Era ?40 Minority Perspective on to the Development of American Police ?46 State Police ?46 Texas and Massachusetts ?46 Pennsylvania ?47 Highway Patrol ?47 Federal Law Enforcement ?50 The Revenue Cutter Service and the U.S. Marshal Service ?50 Postal Inspectors ?50 The Secret Service ?50 The Federal Bureau of Investigation ?50 Summary ?53
CHAPTER 3 Legal Issues ?56 Criminal Procedure ?57 Searches and Seizures of Persons ?58 Searches and Seizures of Property ?64 Interrogations and Confessions ?68 Civil Liability ?71 Costs of Liability in Policing ?71 Avenues of Liability ?73 Civil Liability in State Courts ?74 Civil Liability in Federal Courts ?75 Emerging Liability Issues for the Twenty-First Century ?79 Use of Force ?80 Impact on Officers ?81 Summary ?84
CHAPTER 4: Police Strategies Evolving Strategies of Policing Landmark Studies of Police Effectiveness Patrol Studies Response Time Studies Criminal Investigation Studies Strategic Developments Improving Crime-Control Effectiveness Improving Police-Community Relations Improving Professionalism Developing Evidence-Based Practices Strategic Alternatives Community Policing Problem-Oriented Policing Intelligence-Led Policing Predictive Policing What Works in Policing Summary?118
CHAPTER 5 Police Management?124 The Managerial Process?125 The Development of Police Management?127 Classical Police Management?128 Behavioral Police Management?128 Contemporary Police Management?129 Organizational Design?131 Criticisms of the Paramilitary Design?133 Increasing Influence of Police Paramilitary Units?134 Broken Windows and Zero-Tolerance Policing?135 Compstat Process Police Legitimacy and Procedural Justice Police Goals and Organizational Performance?140 Supervisory Styles and Officer Behavior?140 Measuring Police Performance?141 Changing Performance Masures?144 Managing Group Behavior?145 Police Subcultures?145 Employee Organizations?148 Police Unions?148 Media Relations?150 Summary?151
CHAPTER 6 Organization and Change?156 The Change Process?157 Resistance to Change?158 Overcoming Resistance to Change?159 The Madison Experience?161 Laying the Foundation?162 Key Elements to Change?162 Results From Madison?163 The Chicago Experience?165 Laying the Foundation?165 Key Elements to Change?165 Results From Chicago?168 Lessons Learned from Madison and Chicago?170 A Final Lesson: Surviving Leadership Change?171 Changing Officer Performance Measures?173 Innovation?174 Compstat as a Change Process?176 Learning Organizations and R&D?178 Police-Researcher Partnerships?180 Utilize Middle Managers?180 Summary?181 NOTE: Next Entry Should BE: Critical Thinking Questions NOT Discussion Questions
CHAPTER 7 Selection and Development?184 Recruitment?186 Recruitment Methods?186 Targeting Females and Minorities?187 Targeting the Service Oriented?188 Selection?190 Preemployment Standards?191 General Suitability?193 Preemployment Testing?196 Recruit Screening Methods Americans with Disability Act Development?201 Recruit Training?201 Program Orientation Philosophy and Instructional Methods Curriculum Development and Content Curriculum Updates Effectiveness of Recruit Training Field Training?212 Career Growth?216 Summary?220
CHAPTER 8 Field Operations?226 The Patrol Function?228 Historical Development?228 Patrol Methods?231 Use of Patrol Methods?234 Focused Interventions?241 Proactive Arrests and Crackdowns?241 Guns and Gang Violence?242 Focused Deterrence Initiatiaves Policing Disorder: Zero-Tolerance and Quality-of-Life Policing?245 Problem-Oriented Policing Focused on Disorder?246 Reactive Arrests and Intimate Partner Violence?249 Police Pursuits?250 The Investigative Function?252 Historical Development?253 Selected Research on Investigative Operations?255 Advances in Physical Evidence: AFIS and DNACareer Criminal Programs?259 Bias Crime Programs?260 Detective-Patrol Relationships?260 Enticement and Entrapment?261 Summary?262
CHAPTER 9 Behavior and Misconduct?270 Perspectives of Police Behavior?271 Universalistic Perspectives?271 Particularistic Perspectives?273 Socialization Versus Predisposition?273 Classic Studies of Police Behavior?276 Violence and the Police?276 Justice Without Trial?277 Varieties of Police Behavior?277 City Police?278 Working the Street: Police Discretion?278 Decision Making and Police Discretion?280 Organizational Variables?281 Neighborhood Variables?282 Situational Variables?283 Individual (Officer) Variables?288 Career Orientation?290 Police Deviance?290 Types of Deviance and Misconduct?291 The Prevalence of Police Deviance?292 The Trouble With Gratuities?294 Deviant Officers?295 The Persistence of Corruption?297 Police Sexual Misconduct?299 The Drug War and Police Deviance?301 Summary?303
CHAPTER 10 Force and Coercion?310 Police-Citizen Interactions?312 Context of Force?312 National Estimates on Police Use of Force?315 Learning to Use Force?317 Training?317 Areas of Training?321 Police Culture and the Use of Force?323 Controversy and the Use of Force?324 Inappropriate Force?327 Brutality and Excessive Force?327 Physical and Psychological Force in Police History?329 Frequency of Excessive Force and Brutality?331 Brutality in the Twenty-First Century?332 Deadly Force?338 Individual and Situational Factors?340 Environmental and Departmental Variations?341 Racial Considerations?342 Legal and Policy Changes?343 Summary?344
CHAPTER 11 Accountability and Ethics?350 Internal Accountability Mechanisms?352 Bureaucratic Organization and Management?352 Internal Investigation?354 Issues in Internal Investigations?358 Early Warning/Early Identification Systems?360 Effectiveness of Internal Investigations?362 External Accountability Mechanisms?362 Civilian Review?362 Police Auditor Systems?365 The Limits of Oversight Mechanisms?368 Professional Standards?369 The Police Professionalization Movement?369 Criteria of Police Professionalization?370 Ethical Standards?374 Ethical Perspectives?375 Ethical Dilemmas?377 The Limits of Professional and Ethical Standards?378 Summary?380
CHAPTER 12 Diversity?386 Racial Minorities in Policing?389 Unequal Treatment?389 Performance of African American Police?390 Women in Policing?393 Unequal Treatment?393 Performance of Women Officers?394 Affirmative Action?396 Equal Employment Opportunity?397 Reverse Discrimination?398
Increasing Diversity in Police Departments?400 Promotional Opportunities?404 Integration of Minorities and Women Into Policing?406 Police Culture?407 Structural Characteristics?408 Pregnancy and Maternity?409 Sexual Harassment?410 Future Prospects?412 Summary?413
CHAPTER 13 Stress and Officer Safety?418 The Concept of Stress?419 Occupational Stress?420 Overview of Stressors?421 Police Stressors?421 Emerging Sources of Stress?424 Line-of-Duty and Crisis Situations?425 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder?426 Shift Work?428 Social Supports and Police Stress?429 Consequences of Stress?431 Alcohol Abuse?431 Drug Abuse?433 Suicide?433 Marital and Family Problems?435 Policies and Programs?436 Officer Safety?438 Danger and Police Work?440 Safety and the Mentally Ill?444 Improving Safety and Reducing Fatalities?445 Summary?447
CHAPTER 14 Higher Education?454 The Development of Higher Education Programs for Police?456 Federal Programs and Support for Higher Education?457 Quality of Higher Education Programs?458 Higher Education Requirements for Police?461 The Impact of Higher Education on Policing?463 Higher Education and Attitudes?463 Higher Education and Performance?465 Use of Force and Liability?466 Leadership and Promotion?467 Higher Education and Job Satisfaction?470 Higher Education and Terrorism?470 Higher Education and Chief's Scholar Program?472 Validating Higher Education for Police?473 Higher Education as a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification?473 Higher Education and Discrimination?474 Higher Education Incentive Programs?475 Higher Education Requirements and Policy Implications?477 Summary?480
CHAPTER 15 Emerging Issues?484 Changes in American Society?486 Aging Population?486 Cultural Diversity?488 Shifting Economics?489 Immigration and Migration?491 Modern Problems?494 Crime Trends Cyber Crime Eyewitness Identification?496 Shrinking Budgets Modern Technology?499 Crime Detention and Crime Solving?501 Surveillance and Privacy Communications and Interoperability?504 Social Media?504 Long-Term Trends?505 Collaboration?505 Privatization?506 Federalization?507 Militarization?508 Terrorism and Homeland Security Summary?516
Glossary of Key Terms?523 Name Index?540 Subject Index?546