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Practical Research : Planning and Design,9780139603600

Practical Research : Planning and Design

by ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780139603600

ISBN10:
0139603603
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $60.00
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Summary

Written in uncommonly engaging, lucid, and elegant prose, this book is an "understand-it-yourself, do-it-yourself" manual designed to help readers understand the fundamental structure of quality research and the methodical process that leads to genuinely significant results. & It guides the reader, step-by-step, from the selection of a problem to study, through the process of conducting authentic research, to the preparation of a completed report, with practical suggestions based on a solid theoretical framework and sound pedagogy. This book will show readers two things: 1) that quality research demands planning and design; and, 2) how their own research projects can be executed effectively and professionally. For researchers and research analysts in any discipline.

Table of Contents

Introduction xvii
PART I THE FUNDAMENTALS 1(46)
What Is Research?
3(11)
What Research Is Not
3(1)
What Research Is
4(5)
Discovering the Discipline of Research
9(1)
Browsing the Periodicals Section of the Library
10(1)
Computer Prompt: Finding Journals on the Internet
10(1)
Practical Application: Evaluating the Research of Others
11(1)
Checklist: Reflective questions to consider when evaluating research
11(1)
Guidelines: Benefiting from Others' Research
12(1)
For Further Reading
13(1)
Tools of Research
14(33)
General Tools of Research
14(1)
The Library and Its Resources as a Tool of Research
15(4)
The Library of the Quiet Past
15(1)
The Library of the Stormy Present
16(1)
How to Access Knowledge Quickly and Efficiently
16(3)
Computer Prompt: The Computer and Its Software as a Tool of Research
19(3)
Taking Advantage of the Internet
19(3)
Accessing the Internet
22(1)
Learning More About the Internet
22(1)
Practical Application: Using the Internet to Facilitate Communication
22(1)
Practical Application: Using E-Mail
23(1)
Guidelines: Getting Started on E-Mail
23(1)
Measurement as a Tool of Research
24(8)
Measuring Insubstantial Phenomena: An Example
24(3)
Interpretation of the Data
27(1)
Four Scales of Measurement
28(3)
Validity and Reliability of Measurement
31(1)
Statistics as a Tool of Research
32(1)
The Lure of Statistics
32(1)
Primary Functions of Statistics
33(1)
The Human Mind as a Tool of Research
33(4)
Deductive Logic
34(1)
Inductive Reasoning
35(1)
The Scientific Method
36(1)
Critical Thinking
36(1)
Facility with Language as a Tool of Research
37(2)
The Value of Knowing Two or More Languages
38(1)
The Importance of Writing
38(1)
Practical Application: Communicating Effectively Through Writing
39(1)
Guidelines: Writing to Communicate
39(2)
Computer Prompt: Using a Word Processor
41(1)
Practical Application: Identifying Important Tools in Your Discipline
42(1)
Checklist: Interviewing an Expert Researcher
43(1)
Reflections on Significant Research
43(1)
For Further Reading
44(3)
PART II FOCUSING YOUR RESEARCH EFFORTS 47(98)
The Problem: The Heart of the Research Process
49(21)
Finding Research Projects
49(2)
Practical Application: Identifying and Describing the Research Problem
51(1)
Guidelines: Finding a Legitimate Problem
51(1)
Guidelines: Stating the Research Problem
51(5)
Checklist: Stating the research problem
56(1)
Dividing the Research Problem into Subproblems
56(3)
Subproblems Versus Pseudosubproblems
57(1)
Characteristics of Subproblems
57(1)
Identifying Subproblems
58(1)
Computer Prompt: Using Brainstorming Software
59(1)
Every Problem Needs Further Delineation
60(3)
Stating the Hypotheses and/or Research Questions
60(1)
Delimiting the Research
61(1)
Defining the Terms
61(1)
Stating the Assumptions
62(1)
Importance of the Study
63(1)
Ordering the Topics in a Research Proposal
63(1)
A Sample Research Proposal
63(1)
Dissertation Analysis 1
64(2)
Practical Application: Writing and Evaluating a Proposal
66(1)
Checklist: Evaluating your research plan
66(1)
Practical Application: Reappraising a Proposed Research Problem
67(1)
Guidelines: Fine-Tuning Your Research Problem
68(1)
For Further Reading
68(2)
The Review of the Related Literature
70(21)
Understanding the Role of the Review
70(1)
Beginning Your Search for Related Literature
71(1)
The Library's Book Collection
71(1)
Computer Prompt: Accessing a Library Catalog from Home
71(2)
Indexes, Abstracts, and Other General References
71(2)
Computer Prompt: Using CD-ROM Technology
73(1)
Online Searches
74(1)
Additional Resources for Your Literature Review
74(1)
Government Publications
74(1)
The World Wide Web
75(1)
Computer Prompt: Searching the Web
75(1)
Using the Citations and References Lists of Those Who Have Gone Before
76(1)
Practical Application: Conducting a Literature Search
76(2)
Guidelines: Using Your Library Time Efficiently
78(2)
Organizing the Information You Have Collected
80(1)
Computer Prompt: Creating Computer Databases
81(1)
Knowing When to Quit
81(3)
Practical Application: Beginning Your Review of the Related Literature
84(1)
Evaluating, Organizing, and Synthesizing the Literature
84(1)
Practical Application: Writing the Section on the Related Literature
84(1)
Guidelines: Writing a Clear and Cohesive Review
84(2)
A Sample Research Proposal
86(1)
Dissertation Analysis 2
87(2)
For Further Reading
89(2)
Planning Your Research Design
91(31)
Planning Your Research
91(3)
The Basic Format of All Research
91(2)
Research Planning Versus Research Methodology
93(1)
General Criteria for a Research Project
94(1)
The Data: Their Nature and Role in Research
94(4)
What Are Data?
94(1)
Data Are Transient and Ever-Changing
95(1)
Primary Data Versus Secondary Data
95(2)
Criteria for the Admissibility of Data
97(1)
Identifying Appropriate Measurement Instruments
98(2)
Determining the Validity of Measurement Instruments
98(1)
Determining the Reliability of Measurement Instruments
99(1)
Linking Data and Research Methodology
100(3)
Comparing Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches
101(2)
Considering the Validity of Your Method
103(4)
Internal Validity
103(2)
External Validity
105(1)
Validity in Qualitative Research
106(1)
Ethical Issues in Research
107(4)
Protection from Harm
107(1)
Informed Consent
107(1)
Right to Privacy
108(1)
Honesty with Professional Colleagues
108(2)
Internal Review Boards
110(1)
Professional Codes of Ethics
111(1)
Planning for Data Collection
111(1)
Practical Application: Choosing a Research Approach
112(1)
Guidelines: Deciding Whether to Use a Quantitative or Qualitative Approach
112(1)
Practical Application: Judging the Feasibility of the Research Project
113(1)
Checklist: Estimation sheet to determine the feasibility of the research project
114(2)
When You Can't Anticipate Everything in Advance: The Value of a Pilot Study
116(1)
Practical Application: Establishing Research Criteria
117(1)
Justifying the Research Methodology
117(1)
Practical Application: Developing a Plan of Attack
118(1)
Computer Prompt: Using Project Management Software and Electronic Planners
118(1)
Keeping an Optimistic and Task-Oriented Outlook
118(2)
For Further Reading
120(2)
Writing the Research Proposal
122(23)
Researcher and Architect: Planners in Common
122(1)
Characteristics of a Proposal
123(3)
A Proposal Is a Straightforward Document
124(1)
A Proposal Is Not a Literary Production
124(1)
A Proposal Is Clearly Organized
124(2)
Formatting a Research Proposal
126(2)
Formatting Headings and Subheadings
127(1)
Practical Application: Writing Your Proposal
128(1)
Guidelines: Writing the First Draft
128(1)
Guidelines: Revising Your Proposal
129(1)
Computer Prompt: Using Word Processing to Write Your Proposal
130(3)
The Importance of Interpreting the Data
133(1)
Practical Application: Planning Your Interpretation of the Data
133(1)
Guidelines: Describing Your Treatment of the Data
133(2)
Using a Summary Graphic
135(1)
Common Weaknesses in Research Proposals
135(2)
Practical Application: Strengthening Your Proposal
137(1)
Checklist: Features detracting from proposal effectiveness
137(1)
Final Thoughts About Proposal Writing
138(1)
A Sample Research Proposal
139(1)
Dissertation Analysis 3
139(3)
For Further Reading
142(3)
PART III QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES 145(44)
Qualitative Research
147(25)
The Nature of the Research Problem and Planning in Qualitative Research
148(1)
When to Choose a Qualitative Approach
148(1)
Qualitative Research Designs
149(9)
Case Study
149(2)
Ethnography
151(2)
Phenomenological Study
153(1)
Grounded Theory Study
154(1)
Content Analysis
155(3)
Collecting Data in Qualitative Research
158(1)
Observations
158(1)
Interviews
159(1)
Practical Application: Conducting Interviews in a Qualitative Study
159(1)
Guidelines: Conducting a Productive Interview
159(1)
Computer Prompt: Using Technology to Facilitate Data Collection and Transcription
160(1)
Organizing and Analyzing the Data from Qualitative Studies
160(2)
Computer Prompt: Using Computer Databases to Facilitate Data Organization and Interpretation
162(1)
Practical Application: Planning a Qualitative Study
162(1)
Checklist: Planning a qualitative study
163(1)
Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Research
164(1)
Practical Application: Evaluating a Qualitative Study
165(1)
Checklist: Evaluating qualitative research studies
165(1)
A Sample Dissertation
166(1)
Dissertation Analysis 4
166(4)
For Further Reading
170(2)
Historical Research
172(17)
Historical Research: The Meaning of Events
172(1)
Data Sources in Historical Research
173(1)
Computer Prompt: Electronic Databases and Historical Data
173(1)
Evaluating and Interpreting Historical Data
174(1)
External Evidence
174(1)
Internal Evidence
174(1)
Considering Historical Time and Historical Space
175(4)
Historical Time
176(2)
Historical Space
178(1)
Practical Application: Handling Historical Data Systematically
179(2)
A Paper-Pencil Approach: Making Note Cards and Bibliography Cards
180(1)
Computer Prompt: A Computerized Approach to Collecting and Organizing Your Data
181(1)
Psychological or Conceptual Historical Research
181(1)
The Fascination of Searching for Roots
182(1)
Practical Application: Historical Research Writing
182(1)
Checklist: Comparing two records of a significant event in history
182(1)
Guidelines: Writing the Historical Research Report
183(1)
A Sample Dissertation
184(1)
Dissertation Analysis 5
184(3)
For Further Reading
187(2)
PART IV QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES 189(94)
Descriptive Research
187(42)
Descriptive Research Designs
191(6)
Correlational Research
191(3)
Developmental Designs
194(1)
Observation Studies
195(1)
Survey Research
196(1)
Using Checklists and Rating Scales
197(2)
Practical Application: Planning and Conducting Interviews
199(1)
Guidelines: Conducting Interviews in a Quantitative Study
200(2)
An Example in International Relations
200(2)
Practical Application: Constructing and Administering a Questionnaire
202(1)
Guidelines: Constructing a Questionnaire
202(2)
Guidelines: Maximizing Your Return Rate for a Mailed Questionnaire
204(5)
Computer Prompt: Using Databases, Word Processing, and Mail Merge to Facilitate Questionnaire Mailing
209(1)
Computer Prompt: Using Scanners to Facilitate Questionnaire Data
210(1)
Choosing a Sample in a Descriptive Study
210(14)
Sampling Designs
211(9)
Sampling in Survey Research
220(2)
Identifying a Sufficient Sample Size
222(1)
Bias in Research Sampling
222(2)
Practical Application: Population Analysis for a Descriptive Survey
224(1)
Checklist: Analyzing a population
224(1)
Computer Prompt: Computerizing Data Collection in Descriptive Research
225(1)
Interpreting Data in Descriptive Research
226(1)
Some Final Suggestions
227(1)
For Further Reading
227(2)
Experimental and Causal-Comparative Designs
229(23)
The Importance of Control
230(3)
Independent and Dependent Variables
233(1)
Examples of Experimental Research Designs
234(5)
Pre-Experimental Designs
234(2)
True Experimental Designs
236(1)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
237(2)
Causal-Comparative Designs
239(3)
Factorial Designs
242(3)
Testing Your Hypotheses, and Beyond
245(1)
Practical Application: Identifying a Research Design
245(1)
A Sample Dissertation
246(1)
Dissertation Analysis 6
247(3)
For Further Reading
250(2)
Statistical Techniques for Analyzing Quantitative Data
252(31)
Exploring the Data
252(3)
Drawing Conclusions from the Data
255(1)
Computer Prompt: Spreadsheets and the Description and Analysis of Data
255(2)
The Role of Statistics in Making Data More Meaningful
257(2)
Functions of Statistics
259(1)
Statistics as Estimates of Population Parameters
260(1)
Considering the Nature of the Data
260(4)
Parametric versus Nonparametric Statistics
263(1)
Descriptive Statistics
264(8)
Points of Central Tendency
264(4)
Measures of Variation: Dispersion or Deviation
268(3)
Measures of Relationship: Correlation
271(1)
Inferential Statistics
272(6)
Estimation
273(2)
Hypothesis Testing
275(3)
Practical Application: Analyzing Data in a Quantitative Study
278(1)
Checklist: Questions to consider when choosing a statistical procedure
278(1)
Computer Prompt: Using Statistical Software Packages
279(1)
For Further Reading
280(3)
PART V PREPARING THE RESEARCH REPORT 283(24)
Technical Details: Style, Format, and Organization of the Research Report
285(22)
Getting Started
285(1)
Computer Prompt: ``Surfing'' the Internet for Writing Assistance
286(1)
Practical Application: Critiquing a Research Report
287(1)
Checklist: Criteria for critiquing a research report
287(1)
Planning a Research Report
288(4)
Description of the Research Problem
289(1)
Description of the Method
289(1)
Presentation of the Data
290(1)
Interpretation of the Data
290(1)
Concluding the Report
291(1)
A Graphic Organizer for the Research Report
292(1)
Front Matter and End Matter
293(4)
Preliminary Pages
293(1)
Citations and Reference Lists
294(2)
Endnotes and Footnotes
296(1)
Appendix Content
297(1)
Computer Prompt: Style Manual Assistance on the Internet
297(1)
Organizing the Research Report
297(2)
Preparing the Report
299(2)
Style of Prose
300(1)
Principles of Writing
300(1)
Practical Application: Developing a Writing Schedule
301(1)
Guidelines: Developing a Workable Schedule
302(1)
Beyond the Unpublished Research Report: Presenting and Publishing
303(1)
Paper Presentations
303(1)
Journal Articles
303(1)
Sharing Authorship
304(1)
A Closing Thought
304(1)
For Further Reading
305(2)
References 307(4)
Index 311


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