Preface | p. ix |
What Is an Argument? (And What Is Not?) | p. 1 |
Argument and Opinion | p. 1 |
What Is an Argument? | p. 3 |
Where and How Do You Find Arguments? | p. 7 |
Why Are Arguments Important? | p. 10 |
What Isn't an Argument? | p. 12 |
Argument and Explanation: What's the Difference? | p. 18 |
Chapter Summary | p. 27 |
Review of Terms Introduced | p. 27 |
Notes | p. 28 |
Pinning Down Argument Structure | p. 29 |
Standardizing an Argument | p. 29 |
From Colloquial Writing to Standardized Form | p. 34 |
General Strategies for Standardizing Arguments | p. 38 |
Important Details about Conclusions | p. 43 |
Important Details about Premises | p. 51 |
The Principle of Charity in Argument Interpretation | p. 60 |
Chapter Summary | p. 64 |
Review of Terms Introduced | p. 65 |
Notes | p. 66 |
When Is an Argument a Good One? | p. 68 |
The ARG Conditions | p. 68 |
More on the (R) and (G) Conditions: Reasoning from Premises to Conclusions | p. 71 |
Using the ARG Conditions to Evaluate Arguments | p. 75 |
The Significance of Argument Evaluation | p. 81 |
The Challenge of Argument | p. 85 |
Evaluating Arguments and Constructing Your Own Arguments | p. 92 |
The Dialectical Context | p. 94 |
Chapter Summary | p. 96 |
Review of Terms Introduced | p. 97 |
Notes | p. 99 |
Looking at Language | p. 100 |
Definitions | p. 103 |
Further Features of Language | p. 116 |
Clarity and Audience: The Problem of Jargon | p. 126 |
Chapter Summary | p. 133 |
Review of Terms Introduced | p. 134 |
Notes | p. 136 |
Premises: What to Accept and Why | p. 138 |
The Dilemma of Premises | p. 138 |
When Premises Are Acceptable | p. 140 |
Summary of Acceptability Conditions | p. 154 |
When Premises Are Unacceptable | p. 156 |
Summary of Unacceptability Conditions | p. 165 |
Chapter Summary | p. 169 |
Review of Terms Introduced | p. 170 |
Notes | p. 172 |
Working on Relevance | p. 174 |
Characteristics of Relevance | p. 174 |
Some Ways of Being Relevant | p. 177 |
Irrelevance: Some General Comments | p. 181 |
Fallacies Involving Irrelevance | p. 187 |
Irrelevance, Missing Premises, and Argument Criticism | p. 203 |
Emotional Appeals, Irrelevance, and Distraction | p. 208 |
Chapter Summary | p. 211 |
Review of Terms Introduced | p. 211 |
Notes | p. 213 |
Deductions: Categorical Logic | p. 215 |
Deductive Relations | p. 215 |
Four Categorical Forms | p. 218 |
Natural Language and Categorical Form | p. 220 |
Venn Diagrams | p. 225 |
Rules of Immediate Inference | p. 227 |
Contrary and Contradictory Predicates and False Dichotomies | p. 233 |
Categorical Logic: Some Philosophical Background | p. 235 |
The Categorical Syllogism | p. 238 |
The Rules of the Categorical Syllogism | p. 244 |
Applying Categorical Logic | p. 246 |
Chapter Summary | p. 249 |
Review of Terms Introduced | p. 250 |
Notes | p. 252 |
Deductively Valid Arguments: Propositional Logic | p. 253 |
Definition of the Basic Symbols Used in Propositional Logic | p. 254 |
Testing for Validity by the Truth Table Technique | p. 259 |
The Shorter Truth Table Technique | p. 262 |
Translating from English into Propositional Logic | p. 266 |
Further Points about Translation | p. 276 |
Simple Proofs in Propositional Logic | p. 285 |
Propositional Logic and Cogent Arguments | p. 292 |
Chapter Summary | p. 294 |
Review of Terms Introduced | p. 295 |
Notes | p. 297 |
An Introduction to Inductive Arguments | p. 298 |
Philosophical Background | p. 298 |
Inductive Generalizations | p. 301 |
Causal Inductive Arguments | p. 313 |
Correlations | p. 318 |
Problems with Premises | p. 324 |
Common Fallacies in Inductive Arguments | p. 334 |
Different Senses of Inductive | p. 344 |
Chapter Summary | p. 345 |
Review of Terms Introduced | p. 346 |
Notes | p. 348 |
Analogies: Reasoning from Case to Case | p. 350 |
The Nature and Functions of Analogy | p. 350 |
Analogy and Consistency | p. 352 |
Inductive Analogies | p. 367 |
Further Critical Strategies | p. 375 |
Loose and Misleading Analogies | p. 378 |
Chapter Summary | p. 389 |
Review of Terms Introduced | p. 389 |
Notes | p. 390 |
Conductive Arguments and Counterconsiderations | p. 392 |
Counterconsiderations | p. 395 |
Chapter Summary | p. 410 |
Review of Terms Introduced | p. 410 |
Notes | p. 411 |
Reflective Analysis of Longer Works | p. 413 |
Introduction | p. 413 |
Reading for Understanding | p. 414 |
Reading for Appraisal | p. 418 |
Developing an Outline for Your Essay | p. 420 |
A Sample Essay | p. 425 |
Working through an Example | p. 430 |
Chapter Summary | p. 434 |
Review of Terms Introduced | p. 435 |
Note | p. 436 |
A Summary of Fallacies | p. 437 |
Selected Essays for Analysis | p. 446 |
"How Patriarchy Becomes Santa Claus: Why a Myth Is as Good as Its Smile," | p. 446 |
"Abortion and Violence," | p. 448 |
"Believing in the Goddess?" | p. 449 |
"Clash Over Climate Change: Singer Article Clouds the Picture," | p. 453 |
"Global Warming Proof Still Suspect," | p. 455 |
Answers to Selected Exercises | p. 458 |
Index | p. 484 |
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