Preface | p. ix |

What Is an Argument? (And What Is Not?) | p. 1 |

Argument and Opinion | p. 1 |

What Is an Argument? | p. 3 |

Where and How Do You Find Arguments? | p. 7 |

Why Are Arguments Important? | p. 10 |

What Isn't an Argument? | p. 12 |

Argument and Explanation: What's the Difference? | p. 18 |

Chapter Summary | p. 27 |

Review of Terms Introduced | p. 27 |

Notes | p. 28 |

Pinning Down Argument Structure | p. 29 |

Standardizing an Argument | p. 29 |

From Colloquial Writing to Standardized Form | p. 34 |

General Strategies for Standardizing Arguments | p. 38 |

Important Details about Conclusions | p. 43 |

Important Details about Premises | p. 51 |

The Principle of Charity in Argument Interpretation | p. 60 |

Chapter Summary | p. 64 |

Review of Terms Introduced | p. 65 |

Notes | p. 66 |

When Is an Argument a Good One? | p. 68 |

The ARG Conditions | p. 68 |

More on the (R) and (G) Conditions: Reasoning from Premises to Conclusions | p. 71 |

Using the ARG Conditions to Evaluate Arguments | p. 75 |

The Significance of Argument Evaluation | p. 81 |

The Challenge of Argument | p. 85 |

Evaluating Arguments and Constructing Your Own Arguments | p. 92 |

The Dialectical Context | p. 94 |

Chapter Summary | p. 96 |

Review of Terms Introduced | p. 97 |

Notes | p. 99 |

Looking at Language | p. 100 |

Definitions | p. 103 |

Further Features of Language | p. 116 |

Clarity and Audience: The Problem of Jargon | p. 126 |

Chapter Summary | p. 133 |

Review of Terms Introduced | p. 134 |

Notes | p. 136 |

Premises: What to Accept and Why | p. 138 |

The Dilemma of Premises | p. 138 |

When Premises Are Acceptable | p. 140 |

Summary of Acceptability Conditions | p. 154 |

When Premises Are Unacceptable | p. 156 |

Summary of Unacceptability Conditions | p. 165 |

Chapter Summary | p. 169 |

Review of Terms Introduced | p. 170 |

Notes | p. 172 |

Working on Relevance | p. 174 |

Characteristics of Relevance | p. 174 |

Some Ways of Being Relevant | p. 177 |

Irrelevance: Some General Comments | p. 181 |

Fallacies Involving Irrelevance | p. 187 |

Irrelevance, Missing Premises, and Argument Criticism | p. 203 |

Emotional Appeals, Irrelevance, and Distraction | p. 208 |

Chapter Summary | p. 211 |

Review of Terms Introduced | p. 211 |

Notes | p. 213 |

Deductions: Categorical Logic | p. 215 |

Deductive Relations | p. 215 |

Four Categorical Forms | p. 218 |

Natural Language and Categorical Form | p. 220 |

Venn Diagrams | p. 225 |

Rules of Immediate Inference | p. 227 |

Contrary and Contradictory Predicates and False Dichotomies | p. 233 |

Categorical Logic: Some Philosophical Background | p. 235 |

The Categorical Syllogism | p. 238 |

The Rules of the Categorical Syllogism | p. 244 |

Applying Categorical Logic | p. 246 |

Chapter Summary | p. 249 |

Review of Terms Introduced | p. 250 |

Notes | p. 252 |

Deductively Valid Arguments: Propositional Logic | p. 253 |

Definition of the Basic Symbols Used in Propositional Logic | p. 254 |

Testing for Validity by the Truth Table Technique | p. 259 |

The Shorter Truth Table Technique | p. 262 |

Translating from English into Propositional Logic | p. 266 |

Further Points about Translation | p. 276 |

Simple Proofs in Propositional Logic | p. 285 |

Propositional Logic and Cogent Arguments | p. 292 |

Chapter Summary | p. 294 |

Review of Terms Introduced | p. 295 |

Notes | p. 297 |

An Introduction to Inductive Arguments | p. 298 |

Philosophical Background | p. 298 |

Inductive Generalizations | p. 301 |

Causal Inductive Arguments | p. 313 |

Correlations | p. 318 |

Problems with Premises | p. 324 |

Common Fallacies in Inductive Arguments | p. 334 |

Different Senses of Inductive | p. 344 |

Chapter Summary | p. 345 |

Review of Terms Introduced | p. 346 |

Notes | p. 348 |

Analogies: Reasoning from Case to Case | p. 350 |

The Nature and Functions of Analogy | p. 350 |

Analogy and Consistency | p. 352 |

Inductive Analogies | p. 367 |

Further Critical Strategies | p. 375 |

Loose and Misleading Analogies | p. 378 |

Chapter Summary | p. 389 |

Review of Terms Introduced | p. 389 |

Notes | p. 390 |

Conductive Arguments and Counterconsiderations | p. 392 |

Counterconsiderations | p. 395 |

Chapter Summary | p. 410 |

Review of Terms Introduced | p. 410 |

Notes | p. 411 |

Reflective Analysis of Longer Works | p. 413 |

Introduction | p. 413 |

Reading for Understanding | p. 414 |

Reading for Appraisal | p. 418 |

Developing an Outline for Your Essay | p. 420 |

A Sample Essay | p. 425 |

Working through an Example | p. 430 |

Chapter Summary | p. 434 |

Review of Terms Introduced | p. 435 |

Note | p. 436 |

A Summary of Fallacies | p. 437 |

Selected Essays for Analysis | p. 446 |

"How Patriarchy Becomes Santa Claus: Why a Myth Is as Good as Its Smile," | p. 446 |

"Abortion and Violence," | p. 448 |

"Believing in the Goddess?" | p. 449 |

"Clash Over Climate Change: Singer Article Clouds the Picture," | p. 453 |

"Global Warming Proof Still Suspect," | p. 455 |

Answers to Selected Exercises | p. 458 |

Index | p. 484 |

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