9781879442702

Prehistoric Sites: Archaeology of the Transition Zone, the State Route 87-Sycamore Creek Project

  • ISBN13:

    9781879442702

  • ISBN10:

    1879442701

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1999-06-01
  • Publisher: Univ of Arizona Pr
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Summary

The first of a four-volume series, From the Desert to the Mountainsdescribes and synthesizes the prehistory and history of the Sycamore Creek Valley and Mazatzal Mountains of central Arizona. The area transects the desert valleys and hill country northeast of Phoenix to the mountains below the Mogollon Rim, presenting a microcosm of the rich environmental diversity of central Arizona. This ecological mosaic is mirrored by the rich history and cultural diversity of the region, spanning thousands of years and ranging from mobile hunters and gatherers to sedentary farmers. Two important historical-period roads, the Reno Road and the Bush Highway, also traverse the region, generally following Sycamore Creek, one of the few natural transportation corridors between Phoenix and the mountains of central Arizona. This first volume describes the results of the archaeological excavations at 29 prehistoric sites, including small resource-procurement and plant-processing locales, temporary base camps, field houses, farmsteads, and small hamlets. In age, they include the Middle and Late Archaic periods, and the Colonial, Sedentary, and early Classic periods, with several sites containing minor protohistoric and historical-period components. Evidence of Archaic period occupation is scattered widely throughout the region, but the most intensive occupation occurred during the pre-Classic and Classic periods.

Table of Contents

List of Figuresp. ix
List of Tablesp. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
Abstractp. xvii
Introductionp. 1
Project Historyp. 4
Previous Investigationsp. 7
Site Inventoryp. 7
Data Recoveryp. 7
Field Methodsp. 8
Analysesp. 8
Volume Organizationp. 8
A Note on Site Designationsp. 10
The Rollp. 11
Physiographic Settingp. 11
Previous Archaeological Investigationsp. 11
The Rolls Site (AZ U:6:241/10)p. 12
Thermal Featuresp. 13
The Lithic Collectionp. 14
Summaryp. 16
The Mesquite Wash Areap. 17
Physiographic Settingp. 17
Previous Archaeological Investigationsp. 17
AZ U:6:244/175p. 20
Summary of Phase 1 Investigationsp. 21
Phase 2 Goals and Field Methodsp. 21
Phase 2 Resultsp. 22
Site Summaryp. 31
Sites Completed during Phase 1p. 31
AZ U:6:240/560p. 31
AZ U:6:245/167p. 33
AZ U:6:246/453p. 33
Summaryp. 36
The Camp Creek Areap. 37
Physiographic Settingp. 37
Previous Archaeological Investigationsp. 37
The Roundup Site (AZ U:3:337/456)p. 40
Summary of Phase 1 Investigationsp. 40
Phase 2 Goals and Field Methodsp. 42
Phase 2 Resultsp. 42
Site Summaryp. 78
AZ U:3:338/457p. 79
Summary of Phase 1 Investigationsp. 80
Phase 2 Goals and Field Methodsp. 81
Phase 2 Resultsp. 81
Site Summaryp. 83
Sites Completed during Phase 1p. 83
AZ U:3:331/561p. 83
AZ U:3:339/458p. 84
Summaryp. 85
Round Valleyp. 87
Physiographic Settingp. 87
Previous Archaeological Investigationsp. 87
AZ U:3:332/562p. 90
Summary of Phase 1 Investigationsp. 90
Phase 2 Goals and Field Methodsp. 90
Phase 2 Resultsp. 90
The Ford Site (AZ U:3:340/459)p. 92
Summary of Phase 1 Investigationsp. 93
Phase 2 Goals and Field Methodsp. 94
Phase 2 Resultsp. 95
Site Summaryp. 100
The Round Valley Site (AZ U:3:341/461)p. 101
Loci Descriptions and Summary of Phase 1 Investigationsp. 103
Artifact Assemblage, Phase 1p. 106
Phase 2 Goals and Field Methodsp. 107
Phase 2 Resultsp. 108
Site Summaryp. 134
Summary and Conclusionsp. 134
The Screwtail Hill Areap. 137
Physiographic Settingp. 137
Previous Archaeological Investigations and Cultural Settingp. 138
The O'Neil Tank Site (AZ U:3:333/563)p. 138
Summary of Phase 1 Investigationsp. 139
Phase 2 Goals and Field Methodsp. 140
Phase 2 Resultsp. 141
Site Summaryp. 148
AZ U:3:347/462p. 149
Summary of Phase 1 Investigationsp. 149
Phase 2 Goals and Field Methodsp. 150
Phase 2 Resultsp. 151
Site Summaryp. 152
Rattler Green (AZ U:3:349/467)p. 152
Summary of Phase 1 Investigationsp. 154
Phase 2 Goals and Field Methodsp. 155
Phase 2 Resultsp. 156
Site Summaryp. 160
Boulder Tee (AZ U:3:350/468)p. 160
Summary of Phase 1 Investigationsp. 160
Phase 2 Goals and Field Methodsp. 163
Phase 2 Resultsp. 163
Site Summaryp. 171
Sites Completed during Phase 1p. 171
AZ U:3:343/465p. 171
AZ U:3:351/469p. 174
AZ U:3:334/564p. 176
Screwtail Fort (AZ U:3:367/652)p. 176
Screwtail Hill Area Summaryp. 179
Sunflower Valleyp. 181
Physiographic Settingp. 181
Previous Archaeological Investigationsp. 181
The Sunflower Valley Site (AZ U:3:304/567)p. 184
Site Settingp. 184
Site Stratigraphyp. 187
Summary of Phase 1 Investigationsp. 187
Phase 2 Goals and Field Methodsp. 187
Phase 2 Resultsp. 188
Site Summaryp. 206
AZ U:3:335/565p. 207
Summary of Phase 1 Investigationsp. 207
Phase 2 Investigationsp. 209
Site Summaryp. 209
Site Completed during Phase 1p. 209
AZ U:3:336/566p. 209
Sunflower Valley Summaryp. 209
Kitty Joe Canyonp. 211
Physiographic Settingp. 211
Previous Archaeological Investigationsp. 211
AZ U:3:306/569p. 214
Phase 1 Investigationsp. 214
Phase 2 Investigationsp. 214
Site Summaryp. 218
Sites Completed during Phase 1p. 218
AZ U:3:308/571p. 218
AZ U:3:310/573p. 221
AZ U:3:313/493p. 221
AZ U:3:282/558p. 224
Kitty Joe Canyon Summaryp. 227
Cottonwood Basinp. 229
Physiographic Settingp. 229
Previous Archaeological Investigationsp. 229
AZ U:3:323/478p. 232
Summary of Phase 1 Investigationsp. 233
Phase 2 Goals and Field Methodsp. 233
Phase 2 Resultsp. 234
Site Summaryp. 236
AZ U:3:324/583p. 236
Cottonwood Basin Summaryp. 238
Prelude to Synthesisp. 239
The Southern Areasp. 240
The Northern Areasp. 241
Synthesis: A Previewp. 243
Subsistencep. 243
Settlement, Demography, and Social Organizationp. 244
Interaction, Exchange, and Cultural Boundariesp. 245
The Regional Contextp. 245
Appendixes
Preliminary Report on the Archaeomagnetic Sampling, Analysis, and Dating at Sites along State Route 87p. 249
Radiocarbon Analysisp. 263
References Citedp. 273
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