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This is the first book on the pricing of gas in international trade. Gas accounts for around 25% of global energy demand and international gas trade is growing rapidly. The volume examines the theory of energy pricing and looks at the contribution that theory can make to the study of international gas pricing. It traces the historical origins and development of international gas pricing in North America, Europe, Asia, and the former Soviet Union since the 1970s, and other regions up to the early 2000s. The majority of the contributions focus on developments in the 2000s, with a view to how gas pricing is likely to develop during the 2010s and beyond. In addition to the traditional gas trading regions, the book also covers the Middle East, North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, South East Asia, India, China, and Pacific Basin LNG. These national and regional studies are followed by chapters on the globalisation of gas markets and prices, and the potential development of a "gas-OPEC." The concluding chapter considers the extent to which international gas pricing is likely to remain regional, whether gas could become a "global market" with a global price--akin to the crude oil market. It also considers whether international pricing is likely to come under the control of a small group of countries--a possible "gas OPEC"--similar to the influence of OPEC in the crude oil market.
Table of Contents
Introduction, Jonathan Stern 1. The Future of Gas in Global Energy Balances, Christopher Allsopp 2. Pricing of Gas in International Trade: A Historical Survey, Jonathan Stern 3. Natural gas pricing in North America, Michelle Michot Foss 4. The Transition to Hub-Based Gas Pricing in Continental Europe, Jonathan Stern and Howard Rogers 5. CIS Pricing: Towards European Netback?, Simon Pirani, James Henderson, and Katja Yafimava 6. The Political Economy of Pricing in Gas-Rich Countries in the Middle East, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa, Hakim Darbouche 7. Pricing of Pipeline Gas and LNG in Latin America and the Caribbean, David Ledesma and Anouk Honore 8. Pricing of Pipeline Gas and LNG in South East Asia, David Ledesma 9. Gas Pricing in India, Anupama Sen 10. Gas Pricing in China, Michael-Xiaobao Chen 11. LNG Pricing in Asia: JCC Forever?, Jane Liao and Andy Flower 12. Interaction of LNG and Pipeline Gas Pricing: Does Greater Connectivity Equal Globalisation?, Howard Rogers 13. The Gas Exporting Countries Forum: Global or Regional Cartelisation?, Anouk Honore and Laura El-Katiri 14. Conclusions: Globalisation, Cartelisation, or a Continuation of Regional Pricing?, Jonathan Stern